Publications by authors named "Vijay Nirusimhan"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Murburn precepts for lactic-acidosis, Cori cycle, and Warburg effect: Interactive dynamics of dehydrogenases, protons, and oxygen.

J Cell Physiol 2021 Dec 20. Epub 2021 Dec 20.

Department of Biochemistry, Satyamjayatu: The Science & Ethics Foundation, Palakkad, Kerala, India.

It is unresolved why lactate is transported to the liver for further utilization within the physiological purview of Cori cycle, when muscles have more lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) than liver. We point out that the answer lies in thermodynamics/equilibriums. While the utilization of NADH for the reduction of pyruvate to lactate can be mediated via the classical mechanism, the oxidation of lactate (with/without the uphill reduction of NAD ) necessitates alternative physiological approaches. The latter pathway occurs via interactive equilibriums involving the enzyme, protons and oxygen or diffusible reactive oxygen species (DROS). Since liver has high DROS, the murburn activity at LDH would enable the cellular system to tide over the unfavorable energy barriers of the forward reaction (~476 kJ/mol; earlier miscalculated as ~26 kJ/mole). Further, the new mechanism does not necessitate any "smart decision-making" or sophisticated control by/of proteins. The DROS-based murburn theory explains the invariant active-site structure of LDH isozymes and their multimeric nature. The theoretical insights, in silico evidence and analyses of literature herein also enrich our understanding of the underpinnings of "lactic acidosis" (lowering of physiological pH accompanied by lactate production), Warburg effect (increased lactate production at high pO by cancer cells) and approach for cancer therapy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30661DOI Listing
December 2021

Validating the predictions of murburn model for oxygenic photosynthesis: Analyses of ligand-binding to protein complexes and cross-system comparisons.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jul 30:1-33. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

RedOx Lab, Department of Life Sciences, Satyamjayatu: The Science & Ethics Foundation, Palakkad District, Kerala, India.

In this second half of our treatise on oxygenic photosynthesis, we provide support for the murburn model of the light reaction of photosynthesis and ratify key predictions made in the first part. Molecular docking and visualization of various ligands of quinones/quinols (and their derivatives) with PS II/Cytochrome complexes did not support chartered 2e-transport role of quinols. A broad variety of herbicides did not show any affinity/binding-based rationales for inhibition of photosynthesis. We substantiate the proposal that disubstituted phenolics (perceived as protonophores/uncouplers or affinity-based inhibitors in the classical purview) serve as interfacial modulators of diffusible reactive (oxygen) species or DR(O)S. The DRS-based murburn model is evidenced by the identification of multiple ADP-binding sites on the extra-membraneous projection of protein complexes and structure/distribution of the photo/redox catalysts. With a panoramic comparison of the redox metabolic machinery across diverse organellar/cellular systems, we highlight the ubiquitous one-electron murburn facets (cofactors of porphyrin, flavin, FeS, other metal centers and photo/redox active pigments) that enable a facile harnessing of the utility of DRS. In the summative analyses, it is demonstrated that the murburn model of light reaction explains the structures of membrane supercomplexes recently observed in thylakoids and also accounts for several photodynamic experimental observations and evolutionary considerations. , the work provides a new orientation and impetus to photosynthesis research. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1953607DOI Listing
July 2021

Mechanism of electron transfers mediated by cytochromes and in mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum: classical and murburn perspectives.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 May 17:1-18. Epub 2021 May 17.

Satyamjayatu: The Science & Ethics Foundation, Palakkad District, Kerala State, India.

We explore the mechanism of electron transfers mediated by cytochrome , a soluble protein involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cytochrome , a microsomal membrane protein acting as a redox aide in xenobiotic metabolism. We found minimal conservation in the sequence and surface amino acid residues of cytochrome proteins among divergent species. Therefore, we question the evolutionary logic for electron transfer (ET) occurring through affinity binding via recognition of specific surface residues/topography. Also, analysis of putative protein-protein interactions in the crystal structures of these proteins and their redox partners did not point to any specific interaction logic. A comparison of the kinetic and thermodynamic constants of wildtype vs. mutants did not provide strong evidence to support the binding-based ET paradigm, but indicated support for diffusible reactive species (DRS)-mediated process. Topographically divergent cytochromes from one species have been substituted for reaction with proteins from other species, implying the involvement of non-specific interactions. We provide a viable alternative (murburn concept) to classical protein-protein binding-based long range ET mechanism. To account for the promiscuity of interactions and solvent-accessible hemes, we propose that the two proteins act as non- specific redox capacitors, mediating one-electron redox equilibriums involving DRS and unbound ions.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1925154DOI Listing
May 2021

evaluation of isatin-based derivatives with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Feb 22:1-16. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Chemistry, Bishop Heber College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, India.

Isatin (1H-indole-2,3-dione)-containing compounds have been shown to possess several remarkable biological activities. We had previously explored a few isatin-based imidazole derivatives for their predicted dual activity against both inflammation and cancer. We explored 47 different isatin-based derivatives (IBDs) for other potential biological activities using tools and found them to possess anti-viral activity. Using AutoDock tools, the binding site, binding energy, inhibitory constant/ and receptor-ligand interactions for each of the compounds were analyzed against SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The partition coefficient (logP) values were predicted using MedChem Designer tool. Based on the best , binding energy and the ideal range of logP (between 1.0 and 3.0), 10 out of total 47 compounds were deemed to be prospective RdRp inhibitors. Some of these compounds gave better , binding energy and logP values when compared to standard RdRp inhibitors, such as remdesivir (REM) ( = 15.61 μM, logP = 2.2; binding energy = -6.95), a clinically approved RdRp inhibitor and nine other RdRp inhibitors. The results showed that the 10 selected IBDs could be further explored. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDSs) showed that the selected RdRp-IBD complexes were highly stable compared to the native RdRp and RdRp-REM complex during 100 ns time periods. DFT studies were performed for the compounds 16a, 24a, 28a, 38a and 40a, to evaluate the charge transfer mechanism for the interactions between the IBDs and the RdRp residues. Among these, ADME profiling revealed that 28a is a possible lead compound which can be explored further for anti-RdRp activity . Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2021.1890223DOI Listing
February 2021

Are plastocyanin and ferredoxin specific electron carriers or generic redox capacitors? Classical and murburn perspectives on two photosynthetic proteins.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Oct 19:1-15. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Biochemistry, Satyamjayatu: The Science & Ethics Foundation, Palakkad, India.

In the light reaction of oxygenic photosynthesis, plastocyanin (PC) and ferredoxins (Fd) are small/diffusible redox-active proteins playing key roles in electron transfer/transport phenomena. In the Z-scheme mechanistic purview, they are considered as specific affinity binding-based electron-relay agents, linking the functions of Cytochrome (Cyt. ), Photosystem I (PS I) and Fd:NADPH oxidoreductase (FNR). The murburn explanation for photolytic photophosphorylation deems PC/Fd as generic 'redox capacitors', temporally accepting and releasing one-electron equivalents in reaction milieu. Herein, we explore the two theories with respect to structural, distributional and functional aspects of PC/Fd. Amino acid residues located on the surface loci of key patches of PC/Fd vary in electrostatic/contour (topography) signatures. Crystal structures of four different complexes each of Cyt.-PC and Fd-FNR show little conservation in the contact-surfaces, thereby discrediting 'affinity binding-based electron transfers (ET)' as an evolutionary logic. Further, thermodynamic and kinetic data of wildtype and mutant proteins interactions do not align with Z-scheme. Furthermore, micromolar physiological concentrations of PC and the non-conducive architecture of chloroplasts render the classical model untenable. In the murburn model, as PC is optional, the observation that plants lacking PC survive and grow is justified. Further, the low physiological concentration/distribution of PC in chloroplast lumen/stroma is supported by murburn equilibriums, as higher concentrations would limit electron transfers. Thus, structural evidence, interactive dynamics with redox partners and physiological distribution/role of PC/Fd support the murburn perspective that these proteins serve as generic redox-capacitors in chloroplasts.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1835715DOI Listing
October 2020
-->