Publications by authors named "Vijay Kumar"

1,495 Publications

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Therapeutic Potential of Quercetin and its Derivatives in Epilepsy: Evidence from Preclinical Studies.

Neuromolecular Med 2022 Aug 11. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

Neurobiology Laboratory, School of Life Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, 110067, India.

Quercetin is a polyphenolic bioactive compound highly enriched in dietary fruits, vegetables, nuts, and berries. Quercetin and its derivatives like rutin and hyperoside are known for their beneficial effects in various neurological conditions including epilepsy. The clinical studies of quercetin and its derivatives in relation to epilepsy are limited. This review provides the evidence of most recent knowledge of anticonvulsant properties of quercetin and its derivatives on preclinical studies. Additionally, the studies demonstrating antiseizure potential of various plants extracts enriched with quercetin and its derivatives has been included in this review. Herein, we have also discussed neuroprotective effect of these bioactive compound and presented underlying mechanisms responsible for anticonvulsant properties in brief. Finally, limitations of quercetin and its derivatives as antiseizure compounds as well as possible strategies to enhance efficacy have also been discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12017-022-08724-zDOI Listing
August 2022

Selective IgA Deficiency in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats With Gut Dysbiosis.

Hypertension 2022 Aug 11:101161HYPERTENSIONAHA12219307. Epub 2022 Aug 11.

UT Microbiome Consortium, Center for Hypertension and Precision Medicine, Department of Physiology & Pharmacology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH (P.S., B.M., R.M.G., V.R.B., A.A.A., X.M., B.S.Y., B.J., M.V.-K.).

Background: The spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is extensively used to study hypertension. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is a notable feature in SHR for reasons unknown. IgA is a major host factor required for gut microbiota homeostasis. We hypothesized that inadequate IgA contributes to gut microbiota dysbiosis in SHR.

Methods: IgA was measured in feces, cecum, serum, liver, gut-associated lymphoid tissue, and milk from SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats. IgA regulatory factors like IgM, IgG, and pIgR (polymeric immunoglobulin receptor) were analyzed. IgA and IgG antibodies and blood pressure (BP) were measured before and after administrating a bacterial antigen (ie, flagellin).

Results: Compared with Wistar Kyoto rats, SHR displayed remarkably near-deficient IgA levels accompanied by compensatory increases in serum IgM and IgG and gut-liver expression. Inadequate milk IgA in SHR emphasized this immune defect stemmed from the neonatal stage. Reduced IgA B cells in circulation and Peyer patches indicated a possible reason for the lower IgA in SHR. Noteworthy, a genetic insufficiency was unlikely because administering flagellin to SHR induced antiflagellin IgA antibodies. This immune response surprisingly accelerated hypertension development in SHR, suggesting IgA quiescence may help maintain lower BP.

Conclusions: This study is the first to reveal IgA deficiency in SHR as one host factor associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis and invigorates future research to determine the pathophysiological role of IgA in hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.122.19307DOI Listing
August 2022

Microbial pigments: Learning from Himalayan perspective to industrial applications.

J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol 2022 Aug 6. Epub 2022 Aug 6.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, INDIA-176 061.

Pigments are an essential part of life on earth, ranging from microbes to plants and humans. The physiological and environmental cues induce microbes to produce a broad spectrum of pigments, giving them adaptation and survival advantages. Microbial pigments are of great interest due to their natural origin, diverse biological activities, and wide applications in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetics, and textile industries. Despite noticeable research on pigment-producing microbes, commercial successes are scarce, primarily from higher, remote, and inaccessible Himalayan niches. Therefore, substantial bioprospection integrated with advanced biotechnological strategies is required to commercialize microbial pigments successfully. The current review elaborates on pigment-producing microbes from a Himalayan perspective, offering tremendous opportunities for industrial applications. Additionally, it illustrates the ecological significance of microbial pigments and emphasizes the current status and prospects of microbial pigments production above the test tube scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jimb/kuac017DOI Listing
August 2022

COVID-19 associated multisystemic mucormycosis from India: a multicentric retrospective study on clinical profile, predisposing factors, cumulative mortality and factors affecting outcome.

Infection 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Pulmonology, Yashoda Hospital, Secunderabad, Hyderabad, 500003, India.

Purpose: The clinical course of COVID-19 has been complicated by secondary infections, including bacterial and fungal infections. The rapid rise in the incidence of invasive mucormycosis in these patients is very much concerning. COVID-19-associated mucormycosis was detected in huge numbers during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in India, with several predisposing factors indicated in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiology, predisposing factor, cumulative mortality and factors affecting outcomes among the coronavirus disease COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM).

Methods: A multicenter retrospective study across three tertiary health care centers in Southern part of India was conducted during April-June 2021.

Results: Among the 217 cases of CAM, mucormycosis affecting the nasal sinuses was the commonest, affecting 95 (44%) of the patients, orbital extension seen in 84 (38%), pulmonary (n = 25, 12%), gastrointestinal (n = 6, 3%), isolated cerebral (n = 2) and disseminated mucormycosis (n = 2). Diabetes mellitus, high-dose systemic steroids were the most common underlying disease among CAM patients. The mucormycosis-associated case-fatality at 6 weeks was 14%, cerebral or GI or disseminated mucormycosis had 9 times higher risk of death compared to other locations. Extensive surgical debridement along with sequential antifungal drug treatment improved the survival in mucormycosis patients.

Conclusion: Judicious and appropriate management of the predisposing factor and factors affecting mortality associated with CAM with multi-disciplinary approach and timely surgical and medical management can be much helpful in achieving a successful outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s15010-022-01891-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9362592PMC
August 2022

Expression pattern and clinical significance of beta 2-adrenergic receptor in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an emerging prognostic indicator and future therapeutic target.

Clin Transl Oncol 2022 Aug 2. Epub 2022 Aug 2.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, UP, India.

Purpose: Beta 2-Adrenergic Receptor (β2-AR) is significantly overexpressed in various types of malignancies, which is associated with the worst prognosis. However, the role of β2-AR in oral cancer is not well identified. The present study aimed at investigating the β2-AR gene expression and its significance in relation with the clinicopathological features and overall survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients.

Methods: Immunohistochemistry, western blot and quantitative real-time PCR techniques were used to analyze β2-AR protein and mRNA levels in a total of 65 histopathologically confirmed OSCC tissues (case group) and 65 normal tissues (control group) from the oral cavity.

Results: Out of the total of 65 OSCC tissues, 41 tissues (63.1%) exhibited  high expression  for β2-AR protein. Percent positivity and relative density (mean ± SD) of protein were higher in the case group as compared to the control group (positivity 40.31 ± 3.01 vs. 20.46 ± 1.93, p < 0.001; density 2.77 ± 1.17 vs. 1.28 ± 0.37, p < 0.001). In addition, β2-AR mRNA level was also upregulated in patients compared to the controls (2.36 ± 1.30 vs. 1.09 ± 0.42, p < 0.001) and showed a positive correlation with immunostaining of protein in OSCC (r = 0.48, p = 0.011). High β2-AR protein expression was significantly associated with multiple risk habits (p = 0.045), histological differentiation (p = 0.013), clinical TNM stages (p = 0.014), and poor survival (p = 0.006) of patients. In the Cox proportional hazards model, β2-AR was identified as a prognostic biomarker of OSCC (p = 0.047).

Conclusion: β2-AR protein level is identified as an independent significant prognostic factor in patients with oral carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-022-02879-8DOI Listing
August 2022

The SARS-CoV-2 targeted human RNA binding proteins network biology to investigate COVID-19 associated manifestations.

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 Jul 28;217:853-863. Epub 2022 Jul 28.

Amity Institute of Neuropsychology & Neurosciences, Amity University, Noida, UP 201303, India. Electronic address:

The global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has had unprecedented social and economic ramifications. Identifying targets for drug repurposing could be an effective means to present new and fast treatments. Furthermore, the risk of morbidity and mortality from COVID-19 goes up when there are coexisting medical conditions, however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the current study, we have adopted a network-based systems biology approach to investigate the RNA binding proteins (RBPs)-based molecular interplay between COVID-19, various human cancers, and neurological disorders. The network based on RBPs commonly involved in the three disease conditions consisted of nine RBPs connecting 10 different cancer types, 22 brain disorders, and COVID-19 infection, ultimately hinting at the comorbidities and complexity of COVID-19. Further, we underscored five miRNAs with reported antiviral properties that target all of the nine shared RBPs and are thus therapeutically valuable. As a strategy to improve the clinical conditions in comorbidities associated with COVID-19, we propose perturbing the shared RBPs by drug repurposing. The network-based analysis presented hereby contributes to a better knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of the comorbidities associated with COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.07.200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9328843PMC
July 2022

Relation between frontal pole volumes and cognitive insight in Schizophrenia.

Asian J Psychiatr 2022 Jul 14;76:103204. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Electronic address:

Objective: Cognitive insight comprising self-reflection and self-certainty is an important determinant of functional outcomes in Schizophrenia. The neural correlates of cognitive insight in Schizophrenia are underexamined. The frontal pole (FP) is implicated in metacognitive function in healthy individuals, but its role is not well examined in Schizophrenia. We had earlier reported the relationship between Frontal pole volumes and cognitive insight in a small sample of only male patients. Hence, we studied this relationship in an independent sample of schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.

Methods: We examined 41 healthy volunteers (HV) and 57 patients with Schizophrenia (SCZ). We used a previously validated manual morphometric method to perform FP parcellation on images obtained from a 3 T scanner and calculated the volumes. Cognitive insight was measured using Beck's Cognitive insight scale (BCIS). To assess the relationship between FP volumes and BCIS scores, multiple linear regression analyses were performed.

Results: In the overall sample, age, years of education, and intracranial volume were significant predictors of BCIS scores. Within the SCZ group, age and left FP volume were significant predictors of BCIS composite scores and age, ICV for BCIS-self certainty. There was no significant relationship between age and FP volumes in either SCZ or HV group.

Discussion: The current study in an independent sample further supports the critical role of the frontal pole in cognitive insight, earlier reported by us. As cognitive insight has a vital role in functional outcome, our findings have potential clinical implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2022.103204DOI Listing
July 2022

A Broad-Based Characterization of a Cell-Penetrating, Single Domain Camelid Bi-Specific Antibody Monomer That Targets STAT3 and KRAS Dependent Cancers.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 8;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Singh Biotechnology, 1547 Fox Grape Loop, Lutz, FL 33558, USA.

STAT3 and KRAS regulate cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, cell migration, and angiogenesis. Aberrant expression of STAT3 and mutant active forms of KRAS have been well-established in the induction and maintenance of multiple cancers. STAT3 and KRAS mutant proteins have been considered anti-cancer targets; however, they are also considered to be clinically "undruggable" intracellular molecules, except for KRAS(G12C). Here we report a first-in-class molecule, a novel, single domain camelid VHH antibody (15 kDa), SBT-100, that binds to both STAT3 and KRAS and can penetrate the tumor cell membrane, and significantly inhibit cancer cell growth. Additionally, SBT-100 inhibits KRAS GTPase activity and downstream phosphorylation of ERK in vitro. In addition, SBT-100 inhibits the growth of multiple human cancers in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate the feasibility of targeting hard-to-reach aberrant intracellular transcription factors and signaling proteins simultaneously with one VHH to improve cancer therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9323098PMC
July 2022

Agro-waste as a substrate for the production of pullulanase by Penicillium viridicatum under solid-state fermentation.

Sci Rep 2022 Jul 25;12(1):12661. Epub 2022 Jul 25.

Himalayan School of Biosciences, Swami Rama Himalayan University, Swami Rama Nagar, Jolly Grant, Dehradun, Uttarakhand, 248016, India.

One of the key enzymes utilized in the food industry is pullulanase. But its major drawbacks are its low yield and high production costs. In this regard, the current research aims to screen agro-waste substrates for optimal pullulanase production in solid-state fermentation. Of various agro-wastes used as a substrate, the maximum enzymic activity (9.74 U/gds) was observed in a medium based on 5 g of green gram husk and incubated for 3 days at 30 °C. The effects of 16 different nutrients on the yield of pullulanase production were studied using the Plackett-Burman experimental design. The incorporation of FeSO, MnSO, and MgSO into the pullulanase production medium significantly increased the yield and showed a 5.7-fold increase (56.25 U/gds) in comparison with the unoptimized media. The Box-Behnken experimental design was used to study the effect of interactions between Fe, Mg, and Mn on the production of pullulanase. Box-Behnken showed a 1.1-fold increase (62.1 U/gds) in pullulanase production. The total increase in yield after all optimization was 6.37-fold. The present study reports for the first time the applicability of green gram husk as a potent substrate for pullulanase production by Penicillium viridicatum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16854-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9314376PMC
July 2022

Multiple Adaptive Strategies of Himalayan sp. PCH194 to High-Altitude Stresses.

Front Microbiol 2022 6;13:881873. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, India.

Bacterial adaption to the multiple stressed environments of high-altitude niches in the Himalayas is intriguing and is of considerable interest to biotechnologists. Previously, we studied the culturable and unculturable metagenome microbial diversity from glacial and kettle lakes in the Western Himalayas. In this study, we explored the adaptive strategies of a unique Himalayan eurypsychrophile sp. PCH194, which can synthesize polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and violacein pigment. Whole-genome sequencing and analysis of sp. PCH194 (4.58 Mb chromosome and three plasmids) revealed genetic traits associated with adaptive strategies for cold/freeze, nutritional fluctuation, defense against UV, acidic pH, and the kettle lake's competitive environment. Differential proteome analysis suggested the adaptive role of chaperones, ribonucleases, secretion systems, and antifreeze proteins under cold stress. Antifreeze activity inhibiting the ice recrystallization at -9°C demonstrated the bacterium's survival at subzero temperature. The bacterium stores carbon in the form of PHB under stress conditions responding to nutritional fluctuations. However, violacein pigment protects the cells from UV radiation. Concisely, genomic, proteomic, and physiological studies revealed the multiple adaptive strategies of Himalayan to survive the high-altitude stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2022.881873DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298515PMC
July 2022

Comparative Study of the Fractional-Order Crime System as a Social Epidemic of the USA Scenario.

Int J Appl Comput Math 2022 17;8(4):190. Epub 2022 Jul 17.

Art and Science Faculty, Department of Mathematics, Siirt University, TR-56100 Siirt, Turkey.

Fractional derivatives are considered significant mathematical tools to design the fractional-order models of real phenomena. In this investigation, we are going to design and compare the non-integer models of the crime system by using three fractional-order operators called Atangana-Baleanu-Caputo, Caputo, and Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives for the first time. We use the real initial conditions for the subgroups of USA. To get the approximate solutions of the suggested models some numerical methods are derived. To see the performance of the numerical methods different values of the fractional orders are considered. The differences between the solutions under the used operators for each state variable are provided through some figures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40819-022-01399-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9288354PMC
July 2022

Development of the India COVID-19 vaccine tracker.

Indian J Med Res 2022 Jul 21. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Indian Council of Medical Research, New Delhi, India.

COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) on March 11, 2020. Since then, efforts were initiated to develop safe and effective vaccines. Till date, 11 vaccines have been included in the WHO's emergency use list. The emergence and spread of variant strains of SARS-CoV-2 has altered the disease transmission dynamics, thus creating a need for continuously monitoring the real-world effectiveness of various vaccines and assessing their overall impact on disease control. To achieve this goal, the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) along with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, took the lead to develop the India COVID-19 Vaccination Tracker by synergizing three different public health databases: National COVID-19 testing database, CoWIN vaccination database and the COVID-19 India portal. A Vaccine Data Analytics Committee (VDAC) was constituted to advise on various modalities of the proposed tracker. The VDAC reviewed the data related to COVID-19 testing, vaccination and patient outcomes available in the three databases and selected relevant data points for inclusion in the tracker, following which databases were integrated, using common identifiers, wherever feasible. Multiple data filters were applied to retrieve information of all individuals ≥18 yr who died after the acquisition of COVID-19 infection with or without vaccination, irrespective of the time between vaccination and test positivity. Vaccine effectiveness (VE) against the reduction of mortality and hospitalizations was initially assessed. As compared to the hospitalization data, mortality reporting was found to be much better in terms of correctness and completeness. Therefore, hospitalization data were not considered for analysis and presentation in the vaccine tracker. The vaccine tracker thus depicts VE against mortality, calculated by a cohort approach using person-time analysis. Incidence of COVID-19 deaths among one- and two-dose vaccine recipients was compared with that among unvaccinated groups, to estimate the rate ratios (RRs). VE was estimated as 96.6 and 97.5 per cent, with one and two doses of the vaccines, respectively, during the period of reporting. The India COVID-19 Vaccination Tracker was officially launched on September 9, 2021. The high VE against mortality, as demonstrated by the tracker, has helped aid in allaying vaccine hesitancy, augmenting and maintaining the momentum of India's COVID-19 vaccination drive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmr.ijmr_3500_21DOI Listing
July 2022

Development and validation of a neonatal physical maturity score for low- and middle- income countries.

Am J Perinatol 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Currently available gestational age scoring systems are complex and inaccurate for wider use in low and middle-income countries(LMIC), particularly in infants with neonatal encephalopathy. Here we developed a scoring system based on physical characteristics for identifying late preterm infants from term infants. In the first phase, we examined the accuracy of 10 objective physical characteristics in a prospective cohort of 1006 babies recruited from three hospitals in South India. A weighted scoring system and a photo card were then developed based on the six best performing characteristics, which was validated in another prospective cohort of 1004 babies. The final score had a sensitivity of 66.0%, (95% Confidence intervals (CI), 58.4%-73.8%), specificity of 80.0%, (95% CI, 77.2%-82.7%) and a negative predictive value of 93.0%, (95%CI, 90.5%-94.5%). This scoring system may have wider applications in low and middle-income countries, particularly in community settings and in infants with neonatal encephalopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1905-5334DOI Listing
July 2022

Ocular Surface Immune Cell Profiles in Contact Lens-Induced Discomfort.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022 Jul;11(7):16

Johnson & Johnson Vision, Jacksonville, FL, USA.

Purpose: Contact lens-induced discomfort (CLD) remains a primary factor in discontinuation or prevention of contact lens wear. Thus, we investigated the role of ocular surface immune cells in subjects with CLD.

Methods: Habitual contact lens (CL) wearers with CLD (n = 19; 38 eyes) and without CLD (n = 21; 42 eyes) as determined by the Contact Lens Dry Eye Questionnaire-8 was included in a trial. Enrolled subjects used either of the two types of CL (designated as CL-A or CL-D). Ocular surface cells from the bulbar conjunctiva were obtained by impression cytology. The collected cells were phenotyped using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies specific for leukocytes (CD45+), neutrophils (CD66b+,High,Low), macrophages (CD163+), T cells (CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+), natural killer (NK) cells (CD56+, High, Low), natural killer T (NKT) cells (CD3+CD56+), and gamma delta T (γδT) cells (CD3+γδTCR+) by flow cytometry. Further, corneal dendritic cell density (cDCD) was also determined using in vivo confocal microscopy.

Results: Significantly higher proportions of CD45+ cells were observed in subjects with CLD compared to those without CLD. The percentages of CD66bTotal,Low, CD163+, pan T cells, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, CD56Total,High,Low (NK) cells, and NKT cells, as well as the CD4/CD8 ratio, were significantly higher in CLD subjects. The proportion of T cells (CD4, CD8, CD4/CD8 ratio, NKT cells) and macrophages exhibited a direct association with discomfort score. The percentages of CD45+, CD66bTotal,Low, CD163+, CD3+, CD56Total,High,Low, and NKT cells and cDCD were significantly higher in CLD subjects wearing CL-D. The percentages of CD66bHigh, CD4+T cells, CD8+T cells, NKT cells, and CD4/CD8 ratio were significantly higher in CLD subjects wearing CL-A.

Conclusions: Increased proportions of ocular surface immune cells are observed in CLD, and the lens type could impact the immune cells associated with CLD.

Translational Relevance: The association between the proportion of altered ocular surface immune cell subsets and contact lens-induced discomfort underpins the importance of considering immune-related aspects during contact lens development and in the clinical management of ocular surface pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.11.7.16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9315072PMC
July 2022

Cone Beam Computed Tomographic Cone beam computed tomographic characterization of short root anomaly in chloroquine-induced Stevens-Johnson Syndrome - a case report.

Folia Med (Plovdiv) 2022 Feb;64(1):169-175

All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is a rare medical condition with severe mucocutaneous reaction due to infection or adverse drug reaction. The present case reports the impact of chloroquine-induced SJS on the tooth root development. A 20-year-old Indian male reported to conservative dentistry and endodontics speciality clinic with the chief complaint of food lodgement and sensitivity in maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth. He had a past medical history of severe cutaneous reaction after taking Tab. Lariago (chloroquine) for treatment of malarial fever at the age of 8 years. The acute inflammatory immune response was managed by hospitalization and administration of steroids and anti-inflammatory drugs. Clinical examination revealed dry mucosa, carious teeth with adequate oral hygiene. Panoramic X-ray showed multiple teeth with short roots. A detailed cone beam computed tomographic scan (CBCT) demonstrated a healthy bone trabecular pattern with the absence of any periapical radiolucency. Short, blunt roots with immature apex were seen in many teeth. Based upon the measurement of root to the crown ratio on the CBCT scan and correlating the development status of teeth with the medical history, a diagnosis of short root anomaly (SRA) after chloroquine-induced SJS was made. This is the first report to describe the three-dimensional features of teeth with SRA in a patient with SJS. Diagnostic, restorative, and endodontic implications of SJS are highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/folmed.64.e58178DOI Listing
February 2022

Frustration analysis of TBK1 missense mutations reported in ALS/FTD and cancer patients.

3 Biotech 2022 Aug 14;12(8):174. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

Centre for Interdisciplinary Research in Basic Sciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, 110025 India.

Tank-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is a multifunctional kinase having essential roles in cellular processes, autophagy/mitophagy, and selective clearance of damaged proteins. More than 90 mutations in the gene are linked with multiple cancer types, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Some of these missense mutations disrupt the abilities of TBK1 to dimerize, associate with the mitophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN), autoactivate, or catalyze phosphorylation. Some mutations may cause severe dysregulation of the pathway, while others induce a limited disruption. Here, we have studied those mutations reported in cancer, ALS and FTD, and subsequently investigated the effect of missense mutations on the structure and function of TBK1 for localized residual frustration change. Out of 33 ALS/FTD causing mutations and 28 oncogenic mutations, 10 mutations and 12 oncogenic mutations showed significant change in the residual frustration. The local frustration plays an important role in the conformation of protein structure in active and inactive kinases. Our analysis reports the change in residual frustration state, conformational change and effect on active and inactive TBK1 function due to ALS/FTD causing and oncogenic missense mutations.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03240-0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03240-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283588PMC
August 2022

South Asian Working Action Group on SARCOpenia (SWAG-SARCO) - A consensus document.

Osteoporos Sarcopenia 2022 Jun 25;8(2):35-57. Epub 2022 May 25.

Department of Endocrinology, Bharti Hospital, Karnal, Haryana, India.

The South Asian population is rapidly ageing and sarcopenia is likely to become a huge burden in this region if proper action is not taken in time. Several sarcopenia guidelines are available, from the western world and from East Asia. However, these guidelines are not fully relevant for the South Asian healthcare ecosystem. South Asia is ethnically, culturally, and phenotypically unique. Additionally, the region is seeing an increase in non-communicable lifestyle disease and obesity. Both these conditions can lead to sarcopenia. However, secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are either not dealt with in detail or are missing in other guidelines. Hence, we present a consensus on the screening, diagnosis and management of sarcopenia, which addresses the gaps in the current guidelines. This South Asian consensus gives equal importance to muscle function, muscle strength, and muscle mass; provides cost-effective clinical and easy to implement solutions; highlights secondary sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity; lists commonly used biomarkers; reminds us that osteo-arthro-muscular triad should be seen as a single entity to address sarcopenia; stresses on prevention over treatment; and prioritizes non-pharmacological over pharmacological management. As literature is scarce from this region, the authors call for more South Asian research guided interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afos.2022.04.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9263178PMC
June 2022

Molecular cloning, characterization, and in-silico analysis of l-asparaginase from Himalayan sp. PCH44.

3 Biotech 2022 Aug 9;12(8):162. Epub 2022 Jul 9.

Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh 176 061 India.

l-Asparaginase (l-ASNase) is a key enzyme used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a childhood blood cancer. Here, we report on the characterization of a recombinant l-ASNase (44- II) from sp. PCH44. The gene was identified from its genome, cloned, and overexpressed in the host (). The recombinant l-ASNase (44-ASNase II) was purified with a monomer size of 37.0 kDa and a homotetrameric size of 148.0 kDa. The purified 44-ASNase II exhibited optimum activity of 40.84 U/mg in Tris-HCl buffer (50 mM, pH 8.5) at 45 °C for 15 min. It retained 76.53% of enzyme activity at 45 °C after 120 min of incubation. The half-life and values were 600 min and 1.10 × 10 min, respectively, at 45 °C. The kinetic constants values and were 0.56, 0.728 mM, and 29.41, 50.12 U/mg for l-asparagine and l-glutamine, respectively. However, for l-glutamine is more (30.91 s) than l-asparagine (18.06 s), suggesting that enzymes act more efficiently on l-glutamine than l-asparagine. The docking analysis of l-asparagine and l-glutamine with active site residues of the enzyme revealed a molecular basis for high l-glutaminase (L-GLNase) activity and provided insights into the role of key amino acid residues in the preferential enzymatic activities.

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s13205-022-03224-0.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-022-03224-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9271149PMC
August 2022

Awareness regarding foot self-care practices among diabetic patients in Northeast part of India. Can primary care physician make a difference? A hospital based cross-sectional study.

J Family Med Prim Care 2022 May 14;11(5):1834-1841. Epub 2022 May 14.

Department of Pathology, 151 Base Hospital, Guwahati, Assam, India.

Background: About 10% of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the time of diagnosis have more than one risk factor for developing foot ulceration, and it increases to 15% in a lifetime. The risk of development of Diabetic foot ulcers/gangrene can be prevented by the patient's self-foot care practice at home. The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of awareness of self-foot care practice among diabetic patients in a rural setting. The study also aimed to identify the factors preventing dry or wet diabetic gangrene development and subsequent amputation.

Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out among 1687 people with diabetes mellitus (DM) who attended orthopedic and diabetic OPD in a tertiary care hospital in Kamrup, Assam, India. An appropriate self-explanatory questionnaire about knowledge of self-foot care practice was given to all study participants. Foot examination was performed by authors participated in the study on all patients. The observations and results were categorized according to the International Diabetes Federation foot risk categories.

Results: Of 1687 patients included in this study, 298 (17.7%) had foot ulcers of various grades, 164 (9.76%) had peripheral vascular disease, and 484 (28.7%), had peripheral neuropathy of different grades. After multivariate analysis, patients on insulin and combination therapy and peripheral neuropathy were significantly associated with the presence of foot ulcers. The mean knowledge score was as low as 9.7 ± 4.8 out of a total score of 23. Low awareness and knowledge were associated with low mean scores due to a lack of formal education (8.3 ± 6.1). Among the 1687 patients, only 381 (22.5%) are aware and have some knowledge about self-foot care, and 686 (40.6%) had their feet examined by a doctor only once since their initial diagnosis. The incidence of development of diabetic-related complications was significantly low in those who know about foot self-care as well as those whose feet had been inspected by a physician at least once.

Conclusion: The incidence of development of diabetic-related complications was significantly low in those who know about foot self-care as well as those whose feet had been examined by a physician of family doctors at least once. There is a need to educate all patients of diabetes about self-foot care. It is prudent to establish an integrated foot care services within primary care centers and in the diabetic clinic to identify feet at risk, institute early preventive measures, and provide continuous foot care education through images videos on WhatsApp to patients and primary health care givers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_1883_21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9254821PMC
May 2022

Design, Synthesis, and Pharmacological Evaluation of -Propargylated Diphenylpyrimidines as Multitarget Directed Ligands for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2022 07 7;13(14):2122-2139. Epub 2022 Jul 7.

Laboratory of Organic and Medicinal Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Central University of Punjab, Bathinda, Punjab 151401, India.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), a multifactorial complex neural disorder, is categorized with progressive memory loss and cognitive impairment as main clinical features. The multitarget directed ligand (MTDL) strategy is explored for the treatment of multifactorial diseases such as cancer and AD. Herein, we report the synthesis and screening of 24 -propargyl-substituted diphenylpyrimidine derivatives as MTDLs against acetylcholine/butyrylcholine esterases and monoamine oxidase enzymes. In this series, showed the most potent MAO-B inhibitory activity with an IC value of 0.04 ± 0.002 μM. with an IC value of 0.04 ± 0.003 μM and a selectivity index of 626 (over BuChE) displayed the most potent AChE inhibitory activity in this series. In the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibition studies, reduced intercellular ROS levels in SH-SY5Y cells by 36%. This series of compounds also exhibited potent neuroprotective potential against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced neuronal damage in SH-SY5Y cells with up to 90% recovery. In the studies in the rats, the hydrochloride salt of was orally administered and found to cross the blood-brain barrier and reach the target site. significantly attenuated the spatial memory impairment and improved the cognitive deficits in the mice. This series of compounds were found to be irreversible inhibitors and showed no cytotoxicity against neuronal cells. In studies, the compounds attained thermodynamically stable orientation with complete occupancy at the active site of the receptors. Thus, -propargyl-substituted diphenylpyrimidines displayed drug-like characteristics and have the potential to be developed as MTDLs for the effective treatment of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.2c00132DOI Listing
July 2022

Sex-dependent regulation of interferon-γ receptor expression in pulmonary tuberculosis.

Hum Immunol 2022 Jul 2. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India. Electronic address:

Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) is an essential pro-inflammatory cytokine against tuberculosis (TB). To initiate immune response, IFN-γ binds to its receptor complex which consists of two subunits IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) and IFN-γ receptor 2 (IFN-γR2). The deficiency in either receptor subunit can alter IFN-γ signalling thus influencing host susceptibility to TB. In the present study IFN-γ receptor expression at transcriptional and translational level was analysed in pulmonary TB patients from North India. A total of 46 pulmonary TB patients (at 0 day of anti-tuberculosis therapy) and 48 healthy controls (HCs) were recruited. It was found that the mRNA expression of IFN-γR1 was decreased in male TB patients (p = 0.003). The surface expression of IFN-γR1 (p = 0.0005) and IFN-γR2 (p = 0.024) was also found to be decreased in male TB patients. In conclusion, we found sex-dependent regulation of IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 expression in pulmonary TB patients of studied population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2022.06.004DOI Listing
July 2022

Towards Understanding the Relationship Between ER Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Front Aging Neurosci 2022 15;14:892518. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Amity Institute of Neuropsychology & Neurosciences (AINN), Amity University, Noida, India.

Biological stress due to the aberrant buildup of misfolded/unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is considered a key reason behind many human neurodegenerative diseases. Cells adapted to ER stress through the activation of an integrated signal transduction pathway known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the motor system. It has largely been known that ER stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALS through the dysregulation of proteostasis. Moreover, accumulating evidence indicates that ER stress and UPR are important players in TDP-43 pathology. In this mini-review, the complex interplay between ER stress and the UPR in ALS and TDP-43 pathology will be explored by taking into account the studies from and models of ALS. We also discuss therapeutic strategies to control levels of ER stress and UPR signaling components that have contrasting effects on ALS pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2022.892518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9248913PMC
June 2022

Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in semi-prone position utilising direct endobronchial intubation for oesophagus leiomyoma excision.

J Minim Access Surg 2022 May 17. Epub 2022 May 17.

Department of Anesthesia, King George's Medical University, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India.

Leiomyomas are the most common benign tumours of oesophageal smooth muscle origin. In this era of constantly evolving medical technology, video-assisted, robot-assisted and endoscopic approaches are the minimally invasive strategies for the excision of these lesions. Here, we report our modification of this surgery. The lesion was excised with uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery in a semi-prone position with single-lumen endobronchial intubation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jmas.jmas_43_22DOI Listing
May 2022

Artificial Intelligence-Based Cyber-Physical System for Severity Classification of Chikungunya Disease.

IEEE J Transl Eng Health Med 2022 28;10:3700109. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer ScienceGwangju Institute of Science and Technology Gwangju 61005 South Korea.

Background: Artificial intelligence techniques are widely used in solving medical problems. Recently, researchers have used various deep learning techniques for the severity classification of Chikungunya disease. But these techniques suffer from overfitting and hyper-parameters tuning problems.

Methods: In this paper, an artificial intelligence-based cyber-physical system (CPS) is proposed for the severity classification of Chikungunya disease. In CPS system, the physical components are integrated with computational algorithms to provide better results. Random forest (RF) is used to design the severity classification model for Chikungunya disease. However, RF suffers from overfitting and poor computational speed problems due to complex architectures and large amounts of connection weights. Therefore, an evolving RF model is proposed using the adaptive crossover-based genetic algorithm (ACGA).

Results: ACGA can efficiently optimize the architecture of RF to achieve better results with better computational speed. Extensive experiments are performed by utilizing the Chikungunya disease dataset.

Conclusion: Performance analysis demonstrates that ACGA-RF achieves higher performance as compared to the competitive models in terms of F-measure, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The proposed CPS system can prevent users from visiting hospitals and can render services to patients living far away from hospitals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/JTEHM.2022.3171078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9097962PMC
April 2022

A Mobile Education and Social Support Group Intervention for Improving Postpartum Health in Northern India: Development and Usability Study.

JMIR Form Res 2022 Jun 29;6(6):e34087. Epub 2022 Jun 29.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, United States.

Background: Structural and cultural barriers limit Indian women's access to adequate postnatal care and support despite their importance for maternal and neonatal health. Targeted postnatal education and support through a mobile health intervention may improve postnatal recovery, neonatal care practices, nutritional status, knowledge and care seeking, and mental health.

Objective: We sought to understand the feasibility and acceptability of our first pilot phase, a flexible 6-week postnatal mobile health intervention delivered to 3 groups of women in Punjab, India, and adapt our intervention for our next pilot phase, which will formally assess intervention feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy.

Methods: Our intervention prototype was designed to deliver culturally tailored educational programming via a provider-moderated, voice- and text-based group approach to connect new mothers with a social support group of other new mothers, increase their health-related communication with providers, and refer them to care needed. We targeted deployment using feature phones to include participants from diverse socioeconomic groups. We held moderated group calls weekly, disseminated educational audios, and created SMS text messaging groups. We varied content delivery, group discussion participation, and chat moderation. Three groups of postpartum women from Punjab were recruited for the pilot through community health workers. Sociodemographic data were collected at baseline. Intervention feasibility and acceptability were assessed through weekly participant check-ins (N=29), weekly moderator reports, structured end-line in-depth interviews among a subgroup of participants (15/29, 52%), and back-end technology data.

Results: The participants were aged 24 to 28 years and 1 to 3 months postpartum. Of the 29 participants, 17 (59%) had their own phones. Half of the participants (14/29, 48%) attended ≥3 of the 6 calls; the main barriers were childcare and household responsibilities and network or phone issues. Most participants were very satisfied with the intervention (16/19, 84%) and found the educational content (20/20, 100%) and group discussions (17/20, 85%) very useful. The participants used the SMS text messaging chat, particularly when facilitator-moderated. Sustaining participation and fostering group interactions was limited by technological and sociocultural challenges.

Conclusions: The intervention was considered generally feasible and acceptable, and protocol adjustments were identified to improve intervention delivery and engagement. To address technological issues, we engaged a cloud-based service provider for group calls and an interactive voice response service provider for educational recordings and developed a smartphone app for the participants. We seek to overcome sociocultural challenges through new strategies for increasing group engagement, including targeting midlevel female community health care providers as moderators. Our second pilot will assess intervention feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness at 6 months. Ultimately, we seek to support the health and well-being of postpartum women and their infants in South Asia and beyond through the development of efficient, acceptable, and effective intervention strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/34087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9280461PMC
June 2022

Effect of Intranasal Oxytocin on Resting-state Effective Connectivity in Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2022 Jun 27. Epub 2022 Jun 27.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka, India.

Objectives: Evidence from several lines of research suggests the critical role of neuropeptide oxytocin in social cognition and social behavior. Though a few studies have examined the effect of oxytocin on clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, the underlying neurobiological changes are underexamined. Hence, in this study, we examined the effect of oxytocin on the brain's effective connectivity in schizophrenia.

Methods: 31 male patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and 21 healthy male volunteers (HV) underwent resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scans with intra-nasal oxytocin (24 IU) and placebo administered in counterbalanced order. We conducted a whole-brain effective connectivity analysis using a multivariate vector autoregressive granger causality model. We performed a conjunction analysis to control for spurious changes and canonical correlation analysis between changes in connectivity and clinical and demographic variables.

Results: Three connections, sourced from the left caudate survived the FDR correction threshold with the conjunction analysis; connections to the left supplementary motor area, left precentral gyrus, and left frontal inferior triangular gyrus. At baseline, SCZ patients had significantly weaker connectivity from caudate to these three regions. Oxytocin, but not placebo, significantly increased the strength of connectivity in these connections. Better cognitive insight and lower negative symptoms were associated with a greater increase in connectivity with oxytocin.

Conclusions: These findings provide a preliminary mechanistic understanding of the effect of oxytocin on brain connectivity in schizophrenia. The study findings provide the rationale to examine the potential utility of oxytocin for social cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbac066DOI Listing
June 2022

Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of methanol extract of latex of Calotropis procera in rat model of colorectal cancer.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Oct 23;296:115503. Epub 2022 Jun 23.

Department of Pathology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Preparations derived from the plant Calotropis procera, have been used for medicinal purpose though the plant is known for its toxic effects. The aerial parts of the plant contain latex in plenty and have been found effective in treating disorders of gastrointestinal system and cancer.

Aim Of The Study: This study evaluated the efficacy of C. procera dried latex extract prepared in methanol (MeDL) against inflammation and oxidative stress in experimental model of colorectal carcinoma (CRC).

Materials And Methods: Two subcutaneous injections of chemical carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH; 150 mg/kg) were given at an interval of one week to induce CRC in rats. The MeDL (50 and 150 mg/kg) and aspirin (60 mg/kg) were given daily and their effect was evaluated on markers of oxidative stress and inflammation after completion of 8 weeks following second injection of carcinogen. A comparison was made with normal and experimental control groups. The colon tissue levels of glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), nitrite and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were determined. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to determine the levels of prostaglandin E (PGE) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and immunohistochemical analysis was performed for IL-1β.

Results: Induction of cancerous changes in the colon resulted in altered oxidative homeostasis as evident from a reduction in GSH level and SOD activity and rise in TBARS level when compared with normal rats. Elevated levels of nitrite, MPO, TNF-α, PGE and immunoreactivity of IL-1β were also observed in these rats. The levels of these markers were normalized when the rats were treated with MeDL or anti-inflammatory drug, aspirin.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that suppression of oxidative stress and inflammation contributes to the beneficial effect of MeDL in rat model of colon carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115503DOI Listing
October 2022

A survey on ethnoveterinary medicines used by the tribal migratory shepherds of Northwestern Himalaya.

J Ethnopharmacol 2022 Oct 20;296:115467. Epub 2022 Jun 20.

Chemical and Biochemical Processing Division, ICAR - Central Institute for Research on Cotton Technology, Mumbai, 400019, India. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Tribal migratory shepherds (Gaddi) living in the Northwestern Himalayan region are well known for their nomadic lifestyle in which tribal migratory shepherds along with their livestock which mainly include sheep and goat migrate seasonally in the Northwestern Himalayan region from high hills to low hills for the survival of their livestock from cold winters and hot summer. Due to harsh environmental conditions, heavy snowfall, heavy rainfall, wild animal attacks, no medical facilities, no transportation, and no electricity facilities tribal migratory shepherds mostly rely on plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary use to treat livestock disease.

Aim Of Study: The aim of our study is to conduct ethnoveterinary survey for the first time to document the contemporary oral ethnoveterinary knowledge of Gaddi shepherds living in Northwestern Himalayan region.

Methodology: The documentation of plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary use was executed through extensive field surveys from 2017 to 2019. Data were collected through direct interviews by administrating questionnaire among tribal migratory shepherds.

Results: A total of 181 plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary use belonging to the same or different families were documented during the seasonal migration of shepherds from Northwestern Himalayan region. Most frequently occurring family of plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary was Poaceae, leaves and roots were reported to be the most frequently used plant parts. Most frequently documented plant species for ethnoveterinary use were Cynodon dactylon, Chenopodium album, Zanthoxylum armatum, Aloe vera, Azadirachta indica and Cannabis sativa. Chrysopogon serrulatus, Cynodon dactylon, and Vitex negundo were reported with high use reports. Some of the endemic species of Northwestern Himalayan region such as Elymus himalayanus and Euphorbia pilosa and one endangered species Picrorhiza kurrooa were reported in current study.

Conclusion: It is observed that there is a need to raise awareness among the tribal migratory shepherds about the sustainable use and conservation of some of the plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary use. This study provided an inventory of plant species mentioned for ethnoveterinary use having significant ethnoveterinary potential, however there is need of scientific evaluations by in vitro, in vivo and clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115467DOI Listing
October 2022

Activation of CD81 skin ILC2s by cold-sensing TRPM8 neuron-derived signals maintains cutaneous thermal homeostasis.

Sci Immunol 2022 06 17;7(72):eabe0584. Epub 2022 Jun 17.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78229, USA.

As the outermost barrier tissue of the body, the skin harbors a large number of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) that help maintain local homeostasis in the face of changing environments. How skin-resident ILCs are regulated and function in local homeostatic maintenance is poorly understood. We here report the discovery of a cold-sensing neuron-initiated pathway that activates skin group 2 ILCs (ILC2s) to help maintain thermal homeostasis. In stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) knockout mice whose skin is defective in heat maintenance, chronic cold stress induced excessive activation of CCR10CD81ST2 skin ILC2s and associated inflammation. Mechanistically, stimulation of the cold-sensing receptor TRPM8 expressed in sensory neurons of the skin led to increased production of IL-18, which, in turn, activated skin ILC2s to promote thermogenesis. Our findings reveal a neuroimmune link that regulates activation of skin ILC2s to support thermal homeostasis and promotes skin inflammation after hyperactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abe0584DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9327500PMC
June 2022

Editorial: Opportunities and Challenges for Drug Discovery From Natural Products in Pharmacotherapy of Neurological Disorders.

Front Neurosci 2022 31;16:936981. Epub 2022 May 31.

Department of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Delhi Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research University, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2022.936981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9195183PMC
May 2022
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