Publications by authors named "Vijai Kumar Gupta"

119 Publications

Biochar production with amelioration of microwave-assisted pyrolysis: Current scenario, drawbacks and perspectives.

Bioresour Technol 2022 May 10;355:127303. Epub 2022 May 10.

Gujarat Pollution Control Board, Gandhinagar 382010, Gujarat, India; Gujarat University, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad 380009,Gujarat, India.

In recent years, biomass has been reported to obtain a wide range of value-added products. Biochar can be obtained by heating biomass, which aids in carbon sinks, soil amendments, resource recovery, and water retention. Microwave technology stands out among various biomass heating technologies not only for its effectiveness in biomass pyrolysis for the production of biochar and biofuel but also for its speed, volumetrics, selectivity, and efficiency. The features of microwave-assisted biomass pyrolysis and biochar are briefly reviewed in this paper. An informative comparison has been drawn between microwave-assisted pyrolysis and conventional pyrolysis. It focuses mainly on technological and economic scenario of biochar production and environmental impacts of using biochar. This source of knowledge would aid in the exploration of new possibilities and scope for employing microwave-assisted pyrolysis technology to produce biochar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127303DOI Listing
May 2022

Acid tolerant multicomponent bacterial enzymes production enhancement under the influence of corn cob waste substrate.

Int J Food Microbiol 2022 May 2;373:109698. Epub 2022 May 2.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Cellulase enzymes have wide range of industrial application, but high production cost and relatively low efficiency are the main issues, which are needed to resolve. Substrate is known as the main contributor which can bring down the production cost of these enzymes at large scale. Therefore, in the present study, corn cob (Cc) waste has been employed as a potential substrate to produce efficient and good amount of cellulase using the bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis. Under the influence of optimal parameters while using the optimum concentration of Cc (7.0 g), maximum 12 IU/gds FP, 97 IU/gds BGL and 129 IU/gds EG have been recorded. Additionally, crude enzyme showed maximum FP activity of 14 IU/gds using 1.0 g/L peptone employed as the optimum organic nitrogen source. The bacterial cellulase exhibits temperature tolerance ability at 55 °C, and retains its half-life activity for 5 h and pH tolerance at pH 7.0 up to 55% of the relative activity. The results recorded in the present study may have potential for the large-scale and low-cost bacterial cellulase production using cellulose rich substrate e.g. Cc waste that can be vital for numerous industrial applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2022.109698DOI Listing
May 2022

Functional microbiome strategies for the bioremediation of petroleum-hydrocarbon and heavy metal contaminated soils: A review.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Apr 11;833:155222. Epub 2022 Apr 11.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals are the two major soil contaminants that are released into the environment in the forms of industrial effluents. These contaminants exert serious impacts on human health and the sustainability of the environment. In this context, remediation of these pollutants via a biological approach can be effective, low-cost, and eco-friendly approach. The implementation of microorganisms and metagenomics are regarded as the advanced solution for remediating such pollutants. Further, microbiomes can overcome this issue via adopting specific structural, functional and metabolic pathways involved in the microbial community to degrade these pollutants. Genomic sequencing and library can effectively channelize the degradation of these pollutants via microbiomes. Nevertheless, more advanced technology and reliable strategies are required to develop. The present review provides insights into the role of microbiomes to effectively remediate/degrade petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in contaminated soil. The possible degradation mechanisms of these pollutants have also been discussed in detail along with their existing limitations. Finally, prospects of the bioremediation strategies using microbiomes are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.155222DOI Listing
April 2022

Special Issue 'Microbial glycobiotechnology'.

Microb Cell Fact 2022 Apr 7;21(1):54. Epub 2022 Apr 7.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12934-022-01784-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8991797PMC
April 2022

Sustainable production of algae-bacteria granular consortia based biological hydrogen: New insights.

Bioresour Technol 2022 May 22;352:127036. Epub 2022 Mar 22.

Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK; Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Microbes recycling nutrient and detoxifying ecosystems are capable to fulfil the future energy need by producing biohydrogen by due to the coupling of autotrophic and heterotrophic microbes. In granules microbes mutualy exchanging nutrients and electrons for hydrogen production. The consortial biohydrogen production depend upon constituent microbes, their interdependence, competition for resources, and other operating parameters while remediating a waste material in nature or bioreactor. The present review deals with development of granular algae-bacteria consortia, hydrogen yield in coculture, important enzymes and possible engineering for improved hydrogen production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.127036DOI Listing
May 2022

A comprehensive review on anaerobic fungi applications in biofuels production.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Mar 13;829:154521. Epub 2022 Mar 13.

Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries (AKUATROP), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia; Henan Province Engineering Research Center for Forest Biomass Value-added Products, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China; Biofuel Research Team (BRTeam), Terengganu, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Anaerobic fungi (Neocallimastigomycota) are promising lignocellulose-degrading microorganisms that can be exploited by the biofuel industry. While natural production of ethanol by these microorganisms is very low, there is a greater potential for their use in the biogas industry. More specifically, anaerobic fungi can contribute to biogas production by either releasing holocellulose or reducing sugars from lignocelluloses that can be used as a substrate by bacteria and methanogens involved in the anaerobic digestion (AD) process or by metabolizing acetate and formate that can be directly consumed by methanogens. Despite their great potential, the appropriate tools for engineering anaerobic fungi have not been established yet. The first section of this review justifies how the biofuel industry can benefit from using anaerobic fungi and is followed by their taxonomy. In the third section, the possibility of using anaerobic fungi for the consolidated production of bioethanol is briefly discussed. Nevertheless, the main focus of this review is on the upstream and mainstream effects of bioaugmentation with anaerobic fungi on the AD process. The present review also scrutinizes the constraints on the way of efficient engineering of anaerobic rumen fungi. By providing this knowledge, this review aims to help research in this field with identifying the challenges that must be addressed by future experiments to achieve the full potentials of these promising microorganisms. To sum up, the pretreatment of lignocelluloses by anaerobic fungi can prevent carbohydrate loss due to respiration (compared to white-rot fungi). Following fungal mixed acid fermentation, the obtained slurry containing sugars and more susceptible holocellulose can be directly consumed by AD microorganisms (bacteria, methanogens). The bioaugmentation of anaerobic fungi into the AD process can increase methane biosynthesis by >3.3 times. Despite this, for the commercial AD process, novel genetic engineering techniques and kits must be developed to efficiently improve anaerobic fungi viability throughout the AD process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.154521DOI Listing
March 2022

Immunity elicitors for induced resistance against the downy mildew pathogen in pearl millet.

Sci Rep 2022 03 8;12(1):4078. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Department of Studies in Biotechnology, University of Mysore, Manasagangotri, Mysuru, Karnataka, India.

Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.) is a globally important cereal whose production is severely constrained by downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.). In this study, immunity eliciting properties of 3,5-dichloroanthranilic acid (DCA), Cell Wall Glucan (CWG), Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and Glycinebetaine (GB) was deciphered through enzymatic and protein studies based on elicitor treatment activated defense mechanisms. Glycinebetaine, LPS, CWS and DCA elicited enzyme activities and gene expression of the defense enzymes, such as β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), peroxidase (POX), polyphenol oxidase (PPO), lipoxygenase (LOX) and defense protein hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs). However, the speed and the extent of elicitation differed. High levels of enzyme activities and gene expression in elicitor-treated P. glaucum positively correlated with the increased downy mildew resistance. A very rapid and large changes in elicitor-treated seedlings, in contrast to the delayed, smaller changes in the untreated susceptible control seedlings suggests that the rate and magnitude of defense gene expression are important for effective manifestation of defense against pathogen. As compared to other elicitors and control, GB promoted increase in enzyme activities and gene expression, implicating that GB is a promising elicitor of downy mildew resistance in P. glaucum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-07839-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8904771PMC
March 2022

Valorisation of algal biomass to value-added metabolites: emerging trends and opportunities.

Phytochem Rev 2022 Mar 2:1-26. Epub 2022 Mar 2.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, EH9 3JG Edinburgh, UK.

Algal biomass is a promising feedstock for sustainable production of a range of value-added compounds and products including food, feed, fuel. To further augment the commercial value of algal metabolites, efficient valorization methods and biorefining channels are essential. Algal extracts are ideal sources of biotechnologically viable compounds loaded with anti-microbial, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancerous and several therapeutic and restorative properties. Emerging technologies in biomass valorisation tend to reduce the significant cost burden in large scale operations precisely associated with the pre-treatment, downstream processing and waste management processes. In order to enhance the economic feasibility of algal products in the global market, comprehensive extraction of multi-algal product biorefinery is envisaged as an assuring strategy. Algal biorefinery has inspired the technologists with novel prospectives especially in waste recovery, carbon concentration/sequestration and complete utilisation of the value-added products in a sustainable closed-loop methodology. This review critically examines the latest trends in the algal biomass valorisation and the expansive feedstock potentials in a biorefinery perspective. The recent scope dynamics of algal biomass utilisation such as bio-surfactants, oleochemicals, bio-stimulants and carbon mitigation have also been discussed. The existing challenges in algal biomass valorisation, current knowledge gaps and bottlenecks towards commercialisation of algal technologies are discussed. This review is a comprehensive presentation of the road map of algal biomass valorisation techniques towards biorefinery technology. The global market view of the algal products, future research directions and emerging opportunities are reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11101-022-09805-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8889523PMC
March 2022

Ameliorations in dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic plaque by the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and antioxidant potential of phytoconstituents of an aqueous seed extract of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd in rabbits.

PLoS One 2022 3;17(3):e0264646. Epub 2022 Mar 3.

Centre for Systems biology and bioinformatics, Panjab University Chandigarh, Punjab, India.

The assigned work was aimed to examine the capability of phytoconstituents of an aqueous seed extract of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd to inhibit HMG-CoA reductase and regression of the atherosclerotic plaque. The chemical fingerprinting of the test extract was assessed by LC-MS/MS. Consequently, the analyses of in-vitro, in-vivo, and in-silico were executed by using the standard protocols. The in-vitro assessment of the test extract revealed 74.1% inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. In-vivo assessments of the test extract indicated that treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits exhibited a significant (P≤0.001) amelioration in the biomarker indices of the dyslipidaemia i.e., atherogenic index, Castelli risk index(I&II), atherogenic coefficient along with lipid profile. Subsequently, significant reductions were observed in the atherosclerotic plaque and antioxidant levels. The in-silico study of molecular docking shown interactions capabilities of the leading phytoconstituents of the test extract i.e., eicosanoic acid, linoleic acid, and flavan-3-ol with target protein of HMG-CoA reductase. The values of RSMF and potential energy of top docked complexes were show significant interactions. Accordingly, the free energy of solvation, interaction angle, radius of gyration and SASA were shown significant stabilities of top docked complex. The cumulative data of results indicate phytoconstituents of an aqueous seed extract of Acacia senegal have capabilities to inhibit the HMG-CoA reductase and improve the levels of antioxidants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0264646PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8893677PMC
April 2022

Exploring nano-enabled CRISPR-Cas-powered strategies for efficient diagnostics and treatment of infectious diseases.

J Nanostructure Chem 2022 Feb 14:1-32. Epub 2022 Feb 14.

NanoBioTech Laboratory, Health System Engineering, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL-33805 USA.

Biomedical researchers have subsequently been inspired the development of new approaches for precisely changing an organism's genomic DNA in order to investigate customized diagnostics and therapeutics utilizing genetic engineering techniques. Clustered Regulatory Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) is one such technique that has emerged as a safe, targeted, and effective pharmaceutical treatment against a wide range of disease-causing organisms, including bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses, as well as genetic abnormalities. The recent discovery of very flexible engineered nucleic acid binding proteins has changed the scientific area of genome editing in a revolutionary way. Since current genetic engineering technique relies on viral vectors, issues about immunogenicity, insertional oncogenesis, retention, and targeted delivery remain unanswered. The use of nanotechnology has the potential to improve the safety and efficacy of CRISPR/Cas9 component distribution by employing tailored polymeric nanoparticles. The combination of two (CRISPR/Cas9 and nanotechnology) offers the potential to open new therapeutic paths. Considering the benefits, demand, and constraints, the goal of this research is to acquire more about the biology of CRISPR technology, as well as aspects of selective and effective diagnostics and therapies for infectious illnesses and other metabolic disorders. This review advocated combining nanomedicine (nanomedicine) with a CRISPR/Cas enabled sensing system to perform early-stage diagnostics and selective therapy of specific infectious disorders. Such a Nano-CRISPR-powered nanomedicine and sensing system would allow for successful infectious illness control, even on a personal level. This comprehensive study also discusses the current obstacles and potential of the predicted technology.

Graphical Abstract:

Supplementary Information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s40097-022-00472-7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40097-022-00472-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8853211PMC
February 2022

Perspectives on nano-nutraceuticals to manage pre and post COVID-19 infections.

Biotechnol Rep (Amst) 2022 Mar 11;33:e00712. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

NanoBioTech Laboratory, Health Systems Engineering, Department of Natural Sciences, Florida Polytechnic University, Lakeland, FL, 33805, United States of America.

Optimized therapeutic bio-compounds supported by bio-acceptable nanosystems (i.e., precise nanomedicine) have ability to promote health via maintaining body structure, organ function, and controlling chronic and acute effects. Therefore, nano-nutraceuticals (designed to neutralize virus, inhibit virus bindings with receptors, and support immunity) utilization can manage COVID-19 pre/post-infection effects. To explore these approaches well, our mini-review explores optimized bio-active compounds, their ability to influence SARS-CoV-2 infection, improvement in performance supported by precise nanomedicine approach, and challenges along with prospects. Such optimized pharmacologically relevant therapeutic cargo not only affect SARS-CoV-2 but will support other organs which show functional alternation due to SARS-CoV-2 for example, neurological functions. Hence, coupling the nutraceuticals with the nano-pharmacology perspective of higher efficacy via targeted delivery action can pave a novel way for health experts to plan future research needed to manage post COVID-19 infection effect where a longer efficacy with no side-effects is a key requirement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2022.e00712DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8832856PMC
March 2022

Biofuel supply chain management in the circular economy transition: An inclusive knowledge map of the field.

Chemosphere 2022 Jun 15;296:133968. Epub 2022 Feb 15.

Henan Province Forest Resources Sustainable Development and High-value Utilization Engineering Research Center, School of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou, 450002, China; Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries (AKUATROP), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 21030, Kuala Nerus, Terengganu, Malaysia; Biofuel Research Team (BRTeam), Terengganu, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Investment in biofuels, as sustainable alternatives for fossil fuels, has gained momentum over the last decade due to the global environmental and health concerns regarding fossil fuel consumption. Hence, effective management of biofuel supply chain (BSC) components, including biomass feedstock production, biomass logistics, biofuel production in biorefineries, and biofuel distribution to consumers, is crucial in transitioning towards a low-carbon and circular economy (CE). The present study aims to render an inclusive knowledge map of the BSC-related scientific production. In this vein, a systematic review, supported by a keywords co-occurrence analysis and qualitative content analysis, was carried out on a total of 1,975 peer-reviewed journal articles in the target literature. The analysis revealed four major research hotspots in the BSC literature, namely (1) biomass-to-biofuel supply chain design and planning, (2) environmental impacts of biofuel production, (3) biomass to bioenergy, and (4) techno-economic analysis of biofuel production. Besides, the findings showed that the following subject areas of research in the BSC research community have recently attracted more attention: (i) global warming and climate change mitigation, (ii) development of the third-generation biofuels produced from algal biomass, which has recently gained momentum in the CE debate, and (iii) government incentives, pricing, and subsidizing policies. The provided insights shed light on the understanding of researchers, stakeholders, and policy-makers involved in the sustainable energy sector by outlining the main research backgrounds, developments, and tendencies within the BSC arena. Looking at the provided knowledge map, potential research directions in BSCs towards implementing the CE model, including (i) integrative policy convergence at macro, meso, and micro levels, and (ii) industrializing algae-based biofuel production towards the CE transition, were proposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2022.133968DOI Listing
June 2022

Waste biomass based potential bioadsorbent for lead removal from simulated wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Apr 11;349:126843. Epub 2022 Feb 11.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Present study deals with the lead removal from simulated wastewater using cost effective bio-adsorbent of mango seeds cover with kernel (M), and jamun seeds cover with kernel (JP). Lead removal optimization of adsorption parameters has been analyzed by using Response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum adsorption was attained at speed of 500 rpm, 60 mg, pH 6.5 and contact time of 120 min. The adsorption capacities are around 39.15 mg/g of M and 20.28 mg/g of JP bio-adsorbent, and also the maximum Pb removal were observed ̴ 94.85% and 92.78%, respectively. The regression coefficient was best fitted for both bio-adsorbents are Freundlich model and pseudo-first order reaction kinetic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.126843DOI Listing
April 2022

Tailored enzymes as next-generation food-packaging tools.

Trends Biotechnol 2022 Feb 7. Epub 2022 Feb 7.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Enzymes have the potential for biotransformation in the food industry. Engineering tools can be used to develop tailored enzymes for food-packaging systems that perform well and retain their activity under adverse conditions. Consequently, novel tailored enzymes have been produced to improve or include new and useful characteristics for intelligent food-packaging systems. This review discusses the protein-engineering tools applied to create new functionality in food-packaging enzymes. The challenges in applications and anticipated directions for future developments are also highlighted. The development and discovery of tailored enzymes for smart food packaging is a promising way to ensure safe and high-quality food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tibtech.2022.01.009DOI Listing
February 2022

Synthesis and characterisation of zinc oxide modified biorenewable polysaccharides based sustainable hydrogel nanocomposite for Hg ion removal: Towards a circular bioeconomy.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Mar 21;348:126708. Epub 2022 Jan 21.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; School of Engineering, University of Petroleum and Energy Studies (UPES), Dehradun 248007, India. Electronic address:

Industrial metal ion pollution has been considered the chief source of water contaminants all over the world. In the present research, we have prepared gum tragacanth cross-linked 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide (GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm)) hydrogel and gum tragacanth cross-linked 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-acrylamide/zinc oxide (GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm)/ZnO) hydrogel composite with better Hg adsorption capability. GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm)/ZnO hydrogel composite (154.8 mg g) exhibited higher Hg adsorption than GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm) hydrogel. To address the performance of GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm) hydrogel and GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm)/ZnO hydrogel composite, batch adsorption experiments were successfully conducted under different optimised conditions. At last, in-vitro antibacterial activities of Hg loaded GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm) and GT-cl-(HEMA-co-AAm)/ZnO were performed in two different well Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (gram-negative) bacteria. As a positive control, ampicillin was employed against both types of bacteria. This methodology for the reusability of material has a great ecofriendly impression for minimising secondary waste derived from adsorption and can help design upgraded antibacterial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2022.126708DOI Listing
March 2022

Valorisation of xylose to renewable fuels and chemicals, an essential step in augmenting the commercial viability of lignocellulosic biorefineries.

Sustain Energy Fuels 2021 Dec 26;6(1):29-65. Epub 2021 Oct 26.

School of Water, Energy and Environment, Cranfield University Cranfield MK43 0AL UK +44 (0)1234754786.

Biologists and engineers are making tremendous efforts in contributing to a sustainable and green society. To that end, there is growing interest in waste management and valorisation. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) is the most abundant material on the earth and an inevitable waste predominantly originating from agricultural residues, forest biomass and municipal solid waste streams. LCB serves as the renewable feedstock for clean and sustainable processes and products with low carbon emission. Cellulose and hemicellulose constitute the polymeric structure of LCB, which on depolymerisation liberates oligomeric or monomeric glucose and xylose, respectively. The preferential utilization of glucose and/or absence of the xylose metabolic pathway in microbial systems cause xylose valorization to be alienated and abandoned, a major bottleneck in the commercial viability of LCB-based biorefineries. Xylose is the second most abundant sugar in LCB, but a non-conventional industrial substrate unlike glucose. The current review seeks to summarize the recent developments in the biological conversion of xylose into a myriad of sustainable products and associated challenges. The review discusses the microbiology, genetics, and biochemistry of xylose metabolism with hurdles requiring debottlenecking for efficient xylose assimilation. It further describes the product formation by microbial cell factories which can assimilate xylose naturally and rewiring of metabolic networks to ameliorate xylose-based bioproduction in native as well as non-native strains. The review also includes a case study that provides an argument on a suitable pathway for optimal cell growth and succinic acid (SA) production from xylose through elementary flux mode analysis. Finally, a product portfolio from xylose bioconversion has been evaluated along with significant developments made through enzyme, metabolic and process engineering approaches, to maximize the product titers and yield, eventually empowering LCB-based biorefineries. Towards the end, the review is wrapped up with current challenges, concluding remarks, and prospects with an argument for intense future research into xylose-based biorefineries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1se00927cDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8691124PMC
December 2021

Special issue Microbes in Cancer Research in 'Seminar in Cancer Biology' 2021.

Semin Cancer Biol 2022 Jan 1. Epub 2022 Jan 1.

Center for Safe and Improved Food, & Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.semcancer.2021.12.014DOI Listing
January 2022

Recent Advancements in the Technologies Detecting Food Spoiling Agents.

J Funct Biomater 2021 Nov 27;12(4). Epub 2021 Nov 27.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Sciences, AP Goyal Shimla University, Shimla 171009, India.

To match the current life-style, there is a huge demand and market for the processed food whose manufacturing requires multiple steps. The mounting demand increases the pressure on the producers and the regulatory bodies to provide sensitive, facile, and cost-effective methods to safeguard consumers' health. In the multistep process of food processing, there are several chances that the food-spoiling microbes or contaminants could enter the supply chain. In this contest, there is a dire necessity to comprehend, implement, and monitor the levels of contaminants by utilizing various available methods, such as single-cell droplet microfluidic system, DNA biosensor, nanobiosensor, smartphone-based biosensor, aptasensor, and DNA microarray-based methods. The current review focuses on the advancements in these methods for the detection of food-borne contaminants and pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jfb12040067DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8709279PMC
November 2021

Sustainable green approach to synthesize FeO/α-FeO nanocomposite using waste pulp of Syzygium cumini and its application in functional stability of microbial cellulases.

Sci Rep 2021 12 21;11(1):24371. Epub 2021 Dec 21.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JG, UK.

Synthesis of nanomaterials following green routes have drawn much attention in recent years due to the low cost, easy and eco-friendly approaches involved therein. Therefore, the current study is focused towards the synthesis of FeO/α-FeO nanocomposite using waste pulp of Jamun (Syzygium cumini) and iron nitrate as the precursor of iron in an eco-friendly way. The synthesized FeO/α-FeO nanocomposite has been extensively characterized through numerous techniques to explore the physicochemical properties, including X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-Vis spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscope, high resolution transmission electron microscope and vibrating sample magnetometer. Further, efficiency of the FeO/α-FeO nanocomposite has been evaluated to improve the incubation temperature, thermal/pH stability of the crude cellulase enzymes obtained from the lab isolate fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides NS2 via solid state fermentation. It is found that the presence of 0.5% FeO/α-FeO nanocomposite showed optimum incubation temperature and thermal stability in the long temperature range of 50-60 °C for 15 h along with improved pH stability in the range of pH 3.5-6.0. The presented study may have potential application in bioconversion of waste biomass at high temperature and broad pH range.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-03776-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8692407PMC
December 2021

Valorization of sugar beet pulp to value-added products: A review.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Feb 16;346:126580. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

The processing of sugar beet in the sugar production industry releases huge amounts of sugar beet pulp as waste which can be considered a valuable by-product as a source of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin. Valorization of sugar beet pulp into value added products occurs through acid hydrolysis, hydrothermal techniques, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Biochemical conversion of beet pulp into simple fermentable sugars for producing value added products occurs through enzymatic hydrolysis is a cost effective and eco-friendly process. While beet pulp has predominantly been used as a fodder for livestock, recent developments in its biotechnological valorization have unlocked its value as a feedstock in the production of biofuels, biohydrogen, biodegradable plastics, and platform chemicals such as lactic acid, citric acid, alcohols, microbial enzymes, single cell proteins, and pectic oligosaccharides. This review brings forward recent biotechnological developments made in the valorization of sugar beet pulp into valuable products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126580DOI Listing
February 2022

Impact of mixed lignocellulosic substrate and fungal consortia to enhance cellulase production and its application in NiFeO nanoparticles mediated enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Feb 13;345:126560. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

Biorefiningand Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Centerfor Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Economic biowaste to biofuels production technology suffers from issues including high production cost of cellulase enzyme and its low efficiency. In this study five lignocellulosic biomass based on their high cellulosic contents are employed in 1:1 ratio with mixed fungal consortia to achieve enhance cellulase production via solid state fermentation. Under the optimum condition total 41 IU/gds FP activity was achieved in 120 h at 40 °C and pH 6.0. Further, crude cellulase was evaluated to improve thermal and pH stability under the influence of 2.0 mg/L NiFeO nanoparticles, showed stability at 70 °C and pH 6.0 up to 8 h. Consequently, NiFeO nanoparticles treated cellulase was used for the enzymatic hydrolysis of alkali treated wheat straw, and total 53 g/L reducing sugars could be produced in 18 h at 65 °C and pH 6.0. Thus, nanoparticles mediated enzymatic hydrolysis exhibited ∼ 29% and ∼ 28% higher sugar yield and productivity as compared to control after 18 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126560DOI Listing
February 2022

Studies on Zero-cost algae based phytoremediation of dye and heavy metal from simulated wastewater.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Dec 20;342:125971. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, Scotland's Rural College (SRUC), Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

In the present study, filamentous algae, an emerging candidate for biofuel and other useful chemical production, has been investigated as a biological adsorbent for the removal of contaminants from synthetic wastewater. Operational parameters were optimized in batch phytoremediation experiments. The adsorption equilibrium isotherm models such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevitch and kinetics models such as pseudo-1st and pseudo-2nd order in methylene blue decolorization and Cr(VI) removal were also investigated. The D-R isotherm theory provided the best fit. The pseudo-2nd order model accurately described the adsorption kinetic data. Maximum adsorption capacities were observed to 5.03 mg.g and 0.77 mg.g along with removal efficiencies were achieved to 91.3% and 91.4% for methylene blue and Cr(VI) remediation, respectively. Moreover, intra-particle diffusion kinetic theory was used to describe the mechanism. These outcomes are significant in the development of algae-based zero-cost pollutants removal technology in wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125971DOI Listing
December 2021

Thermo-chemical potential of solid waste seed biomass obtained from plant Phoenix dactylifera and Aegle marmelos L. Fruit core cell.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Feb 28;345:126441. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

The present study explores thermo-chemical potential of two biomasses namely; Phoenix dactylifera seed (PDS) and Aegle marmelos L core (AMP). These biomasses contain high amount of cellulose and exhibit heating value of 3-18 MJ/kg. The thermal kinetic of both the biomasses have been extensively studied using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) at four different heating rates 5, 10, 15, and 20 °C/min. Kinetic analysis was carried out using three model-free techniques including Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO), Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Starink. The average activation energy has been found to be 173.75, 172.94 and 170.71 kJ/mol, for PDS whereas 170.26, 167.24 and 164.80 kJ/mol, for AMP analyzed through KAS, FWO and Starink methods, respectively. Further, among all these models, the Starink model exhibits better result for the biofuels potential point of view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126441DOI Listing
February 2022

Valorization of dairy waste and by-products through microbial bioprocesses.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Feb 28;346:126444. Epub 2021 Nov 28.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK; Center for Safe and Improved Food, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

Waste is an inherent and unavoidable part of any process which can be attributed to various factors such as process inefficiencies, usability of resources and discarding of not so useful parts of the feedstock. Dairy is a burgeoning industry following the global population growth, resulting in generation of waste such as wastewater (from cleaning, processing, and maintenance), whey and sludge. These components are rich in nutrients, organic and inorganic materials. Additionally, the presence of alkaline and acidic detergents along with sterilizing agents in dairy waste makes it an environmental hazard. Thus, sustainable valorization of dairy waste requires utilization of biological methods such as microbial treatment. This review brings forward the current developments in utilization and valorization of dairy waste through microbes. Aerobic and anaerobic treatment of dairy waste using microbes can be a sustainable and green method to generate biofertilizers, biofuels, power, and other biobased products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126444DOI Listing
February 2022

Host miRNA and immune cell interactions: relevance in nano-therapeutics for human health.

Immunol Res 2022 02 29;70(1):1-18. Epub 2021 Oct 29.

Department of Biotechnology, MMEC, Maharishi Markandeshwar (Deemed To Be University), Mullana-Ambala, Haryana, 133207, India.

Around 2200 miRNA (microRNA) genes were found in the human genome. miRNAs are arranged in clusters within the genome and share the same transcriptional regulatory units. It has been revealed that approximately 50% of miRNAs elucidated in the genome are transcribed from non-protein-coding genes, and the leftover miRNAs are present in the introns of coding sequences. We are now approaching a stage in which miRNA diagnostics and therapies can be established confidently, and several commercial efforts are underway to carry these innovations from the bench to the clinic. MiRNAs control many of the significant cellular activities such as production, differentiation, growth, and metabolism. Particularly in the immune system, miRNAs have emerged as a crucial biological component during diseased state and homeostasis. miRNAs have been found to regulate inflammatory responses and autoimmune disorders. Moreover, each miRNA targets multiple genes simultaneously, making miRNAs promising tools as diagnostic biomarkers and as remedial targets. Still, one of the major obstacles in miRNA-based approaches is the achievement of specific and efficient systemic delivery of miRNAs. To overcome these challenges, nanoformulations have been synthesized to protect miRNAs from degradation and enhance cellular uptake. The current review deals with the miRNA-mediated regulation of the recruitment and activation of immune cells, especially in the tumor microenvironment, viral infection, inflammation, and autoimmunity. The nano-based miRNA delivery modes are also discussed here, especially in the context of immune modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12026-021-09247-8DOI Listing
February 2022

Shaping the gut microbiota by bioactive phytochemicals: An emerging approach for the prevention and treatment of human diseases.

Biochimie 2022 Feb 22;193:38-63. Epub 2021 Oct 22.

Applied Biotechnology Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The human digestive tract is the cottage to trillions of live microorganisms, which regulate health and illness. A healthy Gut Microbiota (GM) is necessary for preventing microbial growth, body growth, obesity, cancer, diabetes, and enhancing immunity. The equilibrium in GM's composition and the presence/absence of critical species enable specific responses to be essential for the host's better health condition. Research evidences revealed that the dietary plants and their bioactive phytochemicals (BPs) play an extensive and critical role in shaping the GM to get beneficial health effects. BPs are also known to improve gastrointestinal health and reduce the risk of several diseases by modulating GM-mediated cellular and molecular processes. Regular intake of BPs-rich vegetables, fruits, and herbal preparations promotes probiotic bacteria, including Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species, while inhibiting unwanted gut residents' development Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium etc. Upon consumption, BPs contact the GM that gets transformed before being absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Biotransformation of BPs by GM is linked with the enhancement of bioactivity/toxicity diminishment of the BPs compared to parental phytochemicals. Therefore, the current review focuses on the role of BPs in shaping GM for the prevention and treatment of human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2021.10.010DOI Listing
February 2022

Biological remediation technologies for dyes and heavy metals in wastewater treatment: New insight.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jan 19;343:126154. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Kings Buildings, West Mains Road, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK. Electronic address:

The pollution of the environment caused by dyes and heavy metals emitted by industries has become a worldwide problem. The development of efficient, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective methods of wastewater treatment containing dyes and heavy metals is critical. Biologically based techniques for treating effluents are fascinating since they provide several benefits over standard treatment methods. This review assesses the most recent developments in the use of biological based techniques to remove dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. The remediation of dyes and heavy metals by diverse microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi and enzymes are depicted in detail. Ongoing biological method's advances, scientific prospects, problems, and the future prognosis are all highlighted. This review is useful for gaining a better integrated view of biological based wastewater treatment and for speeding future research on the function of biological methods in water purification applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126154DOI Listing
January 2022

Effect of the Histone Methyltransferase Specific Probe BRD4770 on Metabolic Profiling of the Endophytic Fungus .

Front Microbiol 2021 17;12:725463. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Mycopathology and Microbial Technology Laboratory, Centre of Advanced Study in Botany, Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India.

The endophytic fungus was isolated from the stem of (Roxb.) Willd., commonly known as Ashok plant in India and Sri Lanka. Since no reports are available regarding epigenetic modulations by BRD4770 in microbial entities, . was treated with different concentrations of BRD4770 for this purpose and evaluated for its antioxidant and antibacterial potential against five human pathogenic bacteria, , methicillin-resistant (MRSA), , and The crude extract obtained from cultures treated with 100 nM concentration of BRD4770 showed increased antioxidant activity and inhibition zone against and MRSA, compared to the non-treated control. The composition of the non-treated and treated crude extract was analyzed, and induced compounds were identified with the help of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and LC-ESI-MS/MS. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis showed that berberine (antibacterial)-, caffeine-, and theobromine (antioxidant)-like compounds were induced in the BRD4770-treated crude extract. The presence of particular absorbance at a wavelength of 346.5 nm for berberine, 259.4 nm for caffeine, and 278.4 nm for theobromine in the reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of both BRD4770-treated crude metabolites and standard solution of the above compounds strongly supported the increased antibacterial and antioxidant activities that may be due to inducing the alterations in bioactivities of the BRD4770-treated culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.725463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8513106PMC
September 2021

Thrombolytic Enzymes of Microbial Origin: A Review.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Sep 28;22(19). Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Biorefining and Advanced Materials Research Center, SRUC, Edinburgh EH9 3JG, UK.

Enzyme therapies are attracting significant attention as thrombolytic drugs during the current scenario owing to their great affinity, specificity, catalytic activity, and stability. Among various sources, the application of microbial-derived thrombolytic and fibrinolytic enzymes to prevent and treat vascular occlusion is promising due to their advantageous cost-benefit ratio and large-scale production. Thrombotic complications such as stroke, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and peripheral occlusive diseases resulting from blood vessel blockage are the major cause of poor prognosis and mortality. Given the ability of microbial thrombolytic enzymes to dissolve blood clots and prevent any adverse effects, their use as a potential thrombolytic therapy has attracted great interest. A better understanding of the hemostasis and fibrinolytic system may aid in improving the efficacy and safety of this treatment approach over classical thrombolytic agents. Here, we concisely discuss the physiological mechanism of thrombus formation, thrombo-, and fibrinolysis, thrombolytic and fibrinolytic agents isolated from bacteria, fungi, and algae along with their mode of action and the potential application of microbial enzymes in thrombosis therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms221910468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8508633PMC
September 2021

Enhancement of the enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of wheat bran using the Bacillus strains and their consortium.

Bioresour Technol 2022 Jan 8;343:126092. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Department of Bioengineering and Alcoholic Drink Technology, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences, 1118 Budapest, Ménesi út 45, Hungary. Electronic address:

In the downstream process, the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass can be improved by applying a biological pretreatment procedure using microorganisms to produce hydrolytic enzymes to modify the recalcitrant structure of lignocellulose. In this study, various Bacillus strains (B. subtilis B.01162 and B.01212, B. coagulans B.01123 and B.01139, B. cereus B.00076 and B.01718, B. licheniformis B.01223 and B.01231) were evaluated for the degrading capacity of wheat bran in the submerged medium using enzymatic activities, reducing sugars and weight loss as indicators. The obtained results revealed that the B. subtilis B.01162, B. coagulans B.01123 and B. cereus B.00076 could be promising degraders for the wheat bran pretreatment. Besides, the application of their consortium (the combination of 2-3 Bacillus species) showed the positive effects on cellulose bioconversion compared with monocultures. Among them, the mixture of B. subtilis B.01162 and B. coagulans B.01123 increased significantly the cellulase, endo-glucanase, and xylanase enzyme activity resulting in accelerating the lignocellulose degradation. Our results served a very good base for the development of microbial consortium for biological pretreatment of lignocellulosic raw materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.126092DOI Listing
January 2022
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