Publications by authors named "Victoria Potter"

46 Publications

Comparing outcomes of a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant using HLA-matched unrelated versus T-cell replete haploidentical donors in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a study of the Acute Leukemia Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Apr 30. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Hematology, Hôpital Saint Antoine, Sorbonne University and INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Optimal donor choice for a second allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (allo-HCT) in relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains undefined. We compared outcomes using HLA-matched unrelated donors (MUD) versus haploidentical donors in this population. Primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). The MUD allo-HCT group comprised 104 patients (male = 56, 54%), median age 36 years, mostly (76%) with B-cell phenotype in complete remission (CR) (CR2/CR3 + = 76, 73%). The 61 patients (male = 38, 62%) in the haploidentical group were younger, median age 30 years (p = 0.002), had mostly (79%) a B-cell phenotype and the majority were also in CR at time of the second allo-HCT (CR2/CR3 + = 40, 66%). Peripheral blood stem cells was the most common cell source in both, but a significantly higher number in the haploidentical group received bone marrow cells (26% vs. 4%, p < 0.0001). A haploidentical donor second allo-HCT had a 1.5-fold higher 2-year OS (49% vs. 31%), albeit not statistically significant (p = 0.13). A longer time from first allo-HCT to relapse was associated with improved OS, leukemia-free survival, graft-versus-host disease-free-relapse-free survival, and lower cumulative incidences of relapse and non-relapse mortality. Results suggest no major OS difference when choosing either a MUD or haploidentical donor for ALL patients needing a second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01317-7DOI Listing
April 2021

Haplotype Motif-Based Models for KIR-Genotype Informed Selection of Hematopoietic Cell Donors Fail to Predict Outcome of Patients With Myelodysplastic Syndromes or Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2020 19;11:584520. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Hopital Saint-Louis, APHP, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Results from registry studies suggest that harnessing Natural Killer (NK) cell reactivity mediated through Killer cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) could reduce the risk of relapse after allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (HCT). Several competing models have been developed to classify donors as KIR-advantageous or disadvantageous. Basically, these models differ by grouping donors based on distinct KIR-KIR-ligand combinations or by haplotype motif assignment. This study aimed to validate different models for unrelated donor selection for patients with Myelodysplatic Syndromes (MDS) or secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia (sAML). In a joint retrospective study of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) registry data from 1704 patients with secondary AML or MDS were analysed. The cohort consisted mainly of older patients (median age 61 years) with high risk disease who had received chemotherapy-based reduced intensity conditioning and anti-thymocyte globulin prior to allogeneic HCT from well-matched unrelated stem cell donors. The impact of the predictors on Overall Survival (OS) and relapse incidence was tested in Cox regression models adjusted for patient age, a modified disease risk index, performance status, donor age, HLA-match, sex-match, CMV-match, conditioning intensity, type of T-cell depletion and graft type. genes were typed using high-resolution amplicon-based next generation sequencing. In univariable and multivariable analyses none of the models predicted OS and the risk of relapse consistently. Our results do not support the hypothesis that optimizing NK-mediated alloreactivity is possible by KIR-genotype informed selection of HLA-matched unrelated donors. However, in the context of allogeneic transplantation, NK-cell biology is complex and only partly understood. KIR-genes are highly diverse and current assignment of haplotype motifs based on the presence or absence of selected KIR genes is over-simplistic. As a consequence, further research is highly warranted and should integrate cutting edge knowledge on KIR genetics, and NK-cell biology into future studies focused on homogeneous groups of patients and treatment modalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2020.584520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7851088PMC
January 2021

Augmented Reduced-Intensity Regimen Does Not Improve Postallogeneic Transplant Outcomes in Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 29;39(7):768-778. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens have extended the curative potential of allogeneic stem-cell transplantation to older adults with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplasia (MDS) but are associated with a high risk of disease relapse. Strategies to reduce recurrence are urgently required. Registry data have demonstrated improved outcomes using a sequential transplant regimen, fludarabine/amsacrine/cytarabine-busulphan (FLAMSA-Bu), but the impact of this intensified conditioning regimen has not been studied in randomized trials.

Patients And Methods: Two hundred forty-four patients (median age, 59 years) with high-risk AML (n = 164) or MDS (n = 80) were randomly assigned 1:1 to a fludarabine-based RIC regimen or FLAMSA-Bu. Pretransplant measurable residual disease (MRD) was monitored by flow cytometry (MFC-MRD) and correlated with outcome.

Results: There was no difference in 2-year overall survival (hazard ratio 1.05 [85% CI, 0.80 to 1.38] = .81) or cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR) (hazard ratio 0.94 [95%CI, 0.60 to 1.46] = .81) between the control and FLAMSA-Bu arms. Detectable pretransplant MFC-MRD was associated with an increased CIR (2-year CIR 41.0% 20.0%, = .01) in the overall trial cohort with a comparable prognostic impact when measured by an unsupervised analysis approach. There was no evidence of interaction between MRD status and conditioning regimen intensity for relapse or survival. Acquisition of full donor T-cell chimerism at 3 months abrogated the adverse impact of pretransplant MRD on CIR and overall survival.

Conclusion: The intensified RIC conditioning regimen, FLAMSA-Bu, did not improve outcomes in adults transplanted for high-risk AML or MDS regardless of pretransplant MRD status. Our data instead support the exploration of interventions with the ability to accelerate acquisition of full donor T-cell chimerism as a tractable strategy to improve outcomes in patients allografted for AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.02308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078252PMC
March 2021

Early and late-onset veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal syndrome post allogeneic stem cell transplantation - a real-world UK experience.

Am J Transplant 2021 02 20;21(2):864-869. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Haematological Medicine, Kings College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Classical veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a serious complication post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Before the recently revised EBMT criteria, the Baltimore and modified Seattle criteria failed to recognize the syndrome of late-onset VOD. We present real-world experience from a large UK transplant center reporting on VOD/SOS in consecutive HSCT adult patients (n = 530), transplanted for hematological cancers. We identified 27 patients treated with Defibrotide for VOD/SOS diagnosis, where detailed data were available for final analysis. Using standard definitions including EBMT criteria, around 30% (n = 8/27) of cases classified as late-onset VOD presenting at median of 46 (22-93) days but with D100 survival (63% vs 58%, Log-rank; P = 0.81) comparable to classical VOD. Hazard ratio for D100 mortality was 2.82 (95% CI: 1.74-4.56, P < .001, Gray test) with all VOD/SOS events. Twenty percent (n = 2/8) of late-onset VOD patients were anicteric and 42% (n = 8) classical VOD patients presented with refractory thrombocytopenia, while less than half met EBMT criteria for classical VOD in adults, highlighting gaps in real-world diagnostic limitations using EBMT criteria. However, challenges remain about underrecognition and difficulties related to early defibrotide access for treatment of late-onset VOD in current treatment guidelines. Our report strongly supports early Defibrotide for the treatment of severe VOD/SOS in adults regardless of time of onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.16345DOI Listing
February 2021

Evaluation of Trends and Prognosis Over Time in Patients with AML Relapsing After Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Reveals Improved Survival for Young Patients in Recent Years.

Clin Cancer Res 2020 Dec 28;26(24):6475-6482. Epub 2020 Sep 28.

Department of Clinical Hematology and Cellular Therapy, Saint-Antoine Hospital, INSERM UMR 938 and Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Purpose: Relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) post allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) has a dismal prognosis.

Experimental Design: To assess prognosis of patients with recurrent AML post allo-HCT over time, we analyzed European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry data of 8,162 adult patients with AML who relapsed between 2000 and 2018 after allo-HCT performed in first complete remission from matched sibling, unrelated, or haploidentical donors.

Results: The 2-year overall survival (OS) rate from relapse was 17%. For 3,630 patients, <50 years of age, the 2-year OS continuously increased from 16% between 2000 and 2004 to 18% for 2005-2009, to 21% for 2010-2014, and to 26% for 2015-2018 ( = 0.001). Improvement over time was noted both after relapse within and beyond 6 months from allo-HCT. On multivariate analysis among patients <50 years of age, OS was positively affected by a later year of relapse (baseline: 2000-2004; HR, 0.82; < 0.02 for 2010-2014 and HR, 0.72; = 0.0002 for 2015-2018), good performance status, favorable cytogenetics, and longer time from transplant to relapse, but negatively affected by increasing age. In contrast, among 4,532 patients, >50 years of age, the year of relapse had no influence on OS (16% for 2000-2004 and 14% for 2015-2018; = 0.56). Regarding treatment, encouraging results were observed after second allo-HCT, which was performed within 2 years after relapse in 17% of the entire cohort, resulting in a 2-year OS of 30.7%.

Conclusions: Outcome after posttransplant relapse among younger patients has improved significantly in recent years, likely reflecting, among other factors, the efficacy of posttransplant salvage including second allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3134DOI Listing
December 2020

Review of conditioning regimens for haplo-identical donor transplants using post-transplant cyclophosphamide in recipients of G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cell.

Cancer Treat Rev 2020 Sep 15;89:102071. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

Service d'Hématologie Clinique et Thérapie Cellulaire, Hôpital Saint-Antoine, Sorbonne Université, INSERM UMRs 938, Paris, France.

Haplo-identical transplant is being increasingly used in patients who do not have a readily available matched related or unrelated donor. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide's use due to its simplicity and documented efficacy has made this approach readily employable across diverse transplant centres across the globe. The outcomes of regimens used for conditioning in recipients of bone marrow are at times in variance to that from more commonly employed G-CSF mobilised peripheral stem cell (PBSC). This review highlights various conditioning regimens used in PBSC recipients, with emphasis on toxicities, practicalities and transplant related outcomes of relapse, non-relapse mortality and graft versus host disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2020.102071DOI Listing
September 2020

Challenges of aciclovir-resistant HSV infection in allogeneic bone marrow transplant recipients.

J Clin Virol 2020 07 11;128:104421. Epub 2020 May 11.

South London Specialist Virology Centre, Kings College Hospital, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RS, United Kingdom; Virus Reference Department, Public Health England, 61 Colindale Avenue, London NW9 5EQ, United Kingdom.

Introduction: The emergence of herpes simplex virus (HSV) resistance to aciclovir (ACV) has increasingly been reported among hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and often associated with extended ACV prophylaxis.

Methods: Between June 2011 and June 2019, medical records of 532 HSCT recipients with suspected HSV infection were retrospectively analyzed. HSV-1 and HSV-2 positive samples were identified in 47 and 16 patients respectively. Analysis of HSV resistance to antivirals was performed at the Public Health England reference laboratory in London using phenotypic and/or genotypic resistance assays.

Results: The prevalence of ACV-resistant HSV accounted for 17% (8/48) of infected HSV-1 cases. All 8 patients received T-cell depleted allogeneic HSCT for hematological malignancies. Half of these patients were male with a median age was 57.5 years (range; 26-63). Chronic Graft versus Host disease (cGVHD) affected 7 patients before HSV-1 diagnosis. HSV-1 infection developed while receiving either intravenous ACV (n = 2) or oral ACV (n = 6 patients) prophylaxis at a median of 373 [range,18-2183] days post-HSCT. ACV resistance was clinically suspected at a median of 25 [range,16-109] days after initial HSV diagnosis and subsequently laboratory confirmed at a median of 25 (range,10-59) days. All patients presented with hemorrhagic oral mucositis refractory to treatment dose ACV. Foscarnet (FOS) treatment was initiated in all 8 patients (pending laboratory confirmation of ACV resistance) with some effect but associated with significant toxicity burden. Four patients presented again with recurrent HSV infection or no resolution. Three with recurrent HSV died from other causes while suffering from persistent oral HSV lesions.

Conclusion: A prolonged immunosuppressed state following T-deplete HSCTs alongside extended use of ACV, early onset systemic HSV infection, presence of cGVHD, and treatment toxicities pose a significant challenge to the management of ACV resistant HSV infections and alternative effective antiviral options remains an unmet need in this clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2020.104421DOI Listing
July 2020

Presence of donor-encoded centromeric KIR B content increases the risk of infectious mortality in recipients of myeloablative, T-cell deplete, HLA-matched HCT to treat AML.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 10 13;55(10):1975-1984. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, UK.

The reported influence of donor Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) genes on the outcomes of haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) are contradictory, in part due to diversity of disease, donor sources, era and conditioning regimens within and between different studies. Here, we describe the results of a retrospective clinical analysis establishing the effect of donor KIR motifs on the outcomes of 119 HLA-matched, unrelated donor HCT for adult acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) using myeloablative conditioning (MAC) in a predominantly T-cell deplete (TCD) cohort. We observed that HCT involving donors with at least one KIR B haplotype were more likely to result in non-relapse mortality (NRM) than HCT involving donors with two KIR A haplotypes (p = 0.019). Upon separation of KIR haplotypes into their centromeric (Cen) and telomeric (Tel) motif structures, we demonstrated that the Cen-B motif was largely responsible for this effect (p = 0.001). When the cause of NRM was investigated further, infection was the dominant cause of death (p = 0.006). No evidence correlating donor KIR B haplotype with relapse risk was observed. The results from this analysis confirm previous findings in the unrelated, TCD, MAC transplant setting and imply a protective role for donor-encoded Cen-A motifs against infection in allogeneic HCT recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0858-9DOI Listing
October 2020

Outcome of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation in myeloproliferative neoplasm, unclassifiable: a retrospective study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2020 08 28;190(3):437-441. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

Université de Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille. INSERM, Infinite, U1286, Lille, France.

Myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN), unclassifiable (MPN-U) is a heterogeneous disease with regards to both clinical phenotype and disease course. Patients may initially be asymptomatic or present with leucocytosis or thrombocytosis, anaemia, progressive splenomegaly, constitutional symptom, thromboses or accelerated/blastic phase disease. Treatment strategies are variable and there are no widely accepted consensus management guidelines for MNU-U. Allogeneic Haematopoietic Cell Transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative strategy yet outcomes, to date, are not well defined. We hereby report on the largest retrospective study of patients with MPN-U undergoing allo-HCT, highlighting the potentially curative role and providing clinicians with robust engraftment, GvHD and outcome data to facilitate patient discussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16537DOI Listing
August 2020

Similar outcomes of alemtuzumab-based hematopoietic cell transplantation for SAA patients older or younger than 50 years.

Blood Adv 2019 10;3(20):3070-3079

Department of Haematological Medicine, King's College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HSCT) for severe aplastic anemia (SAA) among older patients remains poor and associated with increased risk for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In this retrospective study of 65 consecutive patients with acquired SAA who were transplanted using fludarabine, low-dose cyclophosphamide, and alemtuzumab (FCC), outcomes of 27 patients aged at least 50 years were compared with those of 38 patients younger than 50 years. The median age of the older cohort was 61 years (range, 51-71 years); 21 (78%) patients were transplanted from unrelated donors (3 of 21 from HLA 9/10 mismatch donors) and 6 from matched sibling donors. One-year GVHD-free, relapse-free survival (GRFS) was comparable to that of patients younger than 50 years (84% vs 94%, respectively; P = .23). Both groups showed low rates of acute (5% vs 4%) and chronic (18% vs 14%) GVHD, with no cases of severe GVHD among matched donor transplants, and similar 1-year transplant-related mortality (14% vs 5.4%, older vs younger; P = .23). HSCT comorbidity index (HTC-CI) scores were similar between the groups, but overall survival with an HCT-CI of at least 3 was lower compared with a score less than 3 (76% vs 98%; P = .005). Median donor T-cell chimerism among older patients was 64% and 60% at 1 and 3 years, respectively, and was similar to that of younger patients. Increased B regulatory cells potentially contributed to low alloreactivity and mutual donor-recipient tolerance in older patients. Effect of comorbidities rather than age alone may be a more important determinant of suitability for FCC HSCT in older patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849949PMC
October 2019

Fludarabine/busulfan versus fludarabine/total-body-irradiation (2 Gy) as conditioning prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients (≥60 years) with acute myelogenous leukemia: a study of the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 04 23;55(4):729-739. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Hematology and Cell Therapy and ALWP EBMT Office, Hospital Saint Antoine Paris, Paris, France.

Nonmyeloablative (NMA) conditioning regimens facilitate allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT) in elderly patients and/or in those with comorbidities. The acute leukemia working party (ALWP) of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) compared the outcomes of patients ≥60 years with AML in first complete remission (CR1), that had received an alloSCT following NMA conditioning, i.e. either fludarabine/busulfan (FB2) or fludarabine/total-body-irradiation-2Gy (FluTBI2Gy). A total of 1088 patients were included (median age 65 years). Donors were matched siblings (MSD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) in 47% and 53%, respectively. In vivo T-cell depletion (TCD) was applied to 79% and none (0%) of patients in the FB2 and FluTBI2Gy groups, respectively. In the MSD group we found a trend for less extensive cGVHD in patients receiving FB2 with in vivo TCD, HR: 0.49, p = 0.08, and in those without worse NRM, HR: 2.14, p = 0.04, and a trend for more total cGVHD, HR: 1.61, p = 0.09. Patients transplanted from MUDs had a significantly higher incidence of total cGVHD, extensive cGVHD and a worse GRFS with FluTBI2Gy in comparison to FB2, HR: 2.44; p < 0.0001; HR 4.59; p < 0.00001 and HR: 1.35; p = 0.03, respectively. No differences were observed with respect to LFS, OS, RI, NRM, and aGVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0720-0DOI Listing
April 2020

Graft-versus-host disease and graft-versus-leukaemia effects in secondary acute myeloid leukaemia: a retrospective, multicentre registry analysis from the Acute Leukaemia Working Party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2020 02 14;188(3):428-437. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

EBMT Paris Office, Hospital Saint Antoine, Paris, France.

We assessed the susceptibility of secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML) to graft-versus-leukaemia effects. Data from 2414 sAML patients in first (n = 2194) or second (n = 220) complete remission were included. They were given grafts from human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling (MSD, n = 1085), 10/10 unrelated donor (MUD, n = 1066) or 9/10 mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD, n = 263). The 100-day incidence of grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 25% while 2-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 38%. Relapse rates declined steadily by duration of follow-up and were significantly lower in patients with chronic GVHD (P < 0·001). Limited (hazard ratio [HR] = 0·66, P < 0·001) and extensive (HR = 0·52, P < 0·001) chronic GVHD were associated with a lower incidence of relapse. Each grade III-IV acute (HR = 7·04, P < 0·001) as well as limited (HR = 1·42, P = 0·03) and extensive (HR = 3·97, P < 0·001) chronic GVHD were associated with higher non-relapse mortality (NRM). This translated to better overall survival (OS; HR = 0·61, P < 0·001) in patients with limited chronic GVHD. In contrast, grade III-IV acute and extensive chronic GVHD were associated with worse OS (HR = 3·16, P < 0·001 and HR = 1·21, P = 0·03, respectively). Further, in comparison to HLA-identical sibling recipients, MUD recipients had a lower risk of relapse (HR = 0·82, P = 0·03) but higher NRM (HR = 1·38, P = 0·004). In conclusion, these data demonstrate that sAML is susceptible to graft-versus-leukaemia effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16185DOI Listing
February 2020

Full donor chimerism without graft-versus-host disease: the key factor for maximum benefit of pre-emptive donor lymphocyte infusions (pDLI).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 03 26;55(3):562-569. Epub 2019 Sep 26.

Haematology Department, King's College Hospital, London, UK.

Compared to standard-conditioned regimens, reduced-intensity conditioning and T-cell depletion deliver lower transplant-related mortality and decreased graft-vs-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. These advantages may however be mitigated by increased relapse rates and delays in achievement of full donor chimerism (FDC). Pre-emptive donor lymphocyte infusions (pDLI) facilitate the conversion of mixed (MDC) to FDC. However, there is a lack of published data on the risk/benefit analysis of this intervention. We performed a retrospective analysis of 119 patients who received 276 pDLI doses for falling CD3 chimerism, CD3 < 50% or mixed XX/XY karyotype. 71/119(60%) Patients achieved FDC, with only one reverting to MDC. Cumulative incidence (CI) of relapse at 5 years was significantly lower in the FDC group (16.0 vs 41.4%, p < 0.001). Those patients who achieved FDC had improved EFS (p < 0.001) and OS (p < 0.001). Interestingly, patients with FDC who developed DLI-induced graft-vs-host disease (GvHD) showed a similar outcome to those with MDC. The majority of patients who receive pDLI convert to FDC and retain that status. Achievement of FDC after pDLI impacts on survival, and those patients who achieve FDC without GvHD, experience maximum clinical benefit. Strategies to minimise DLI-induced GvHD should be considered to maximise the therapeutic potential of this intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0695-xDOI Listing
March 2020

Differential Interaction of Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Counts (ALC) With Different Depletion Strategies in Predicting Outcomes of Allogeneic Transplant: An International 2 Center Experience.

Front Oncol 2019 10;9:623. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Haematology and Stem Cell Transplantation, Kings College Hospital, London, United Kingdom.

Dosing regimens for antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and anti-CD52 antibody (alemtuzumab) for graft vs. host disease prophylaxis (GVHD) are empiric or weight-based, and do not account for individual patient factors. Recently, it has been shown that recipient peripheral blood absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) on the day of ATG administration interacts with the dose of ATG administered to predict transplantation outcome. Similarly, we wanted to analyze if the recipient ALC interacts with alemtuzumab dosing to predict outcomes. We retrospectively compared 364 patients, 124 patients receiving ATG (anti-thymocyte globulin) for GVHD prophylaxis, and undergoing unrelated first allogeneic transplant for myeloid and lymphoid malignancies (group 1) to 240 patients receiving alemtuzumab (group 2), in similar time period. There was no difference in survival or acute and chronic GVHD between 60 and 100 mg of alemtuzumab dosing. Unlike ATG (where the pre-transplant recipient ALC interacted with ATG dose on day of its administration (day 1) to predict OS and DFS ( = 0.05), within alemtuzumab group, the recipient ALC on second day of alemtuzumab administration (day 2) and its interaction with alemtuzumab dose strongly predicted OS, DFS and relapse ( = 0.05, HR-1.81, 1.1-3.3; = 0.002, HR-2.41, CI, 1.3-4.2; and = 0.003, HR-2.78, CI, 1.4-5.2), respectively. ALC (day 2) of 0.08 × 10/lit or higher, had a specificity of 96% in predicting inferior DFS. Like ATG, there is definite but differential interaction between the recipient peripheral blood ALC and alemtuzumab dose to predict OS, DFS, and relapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00623DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636242PMC
July 2019

Myeloablative and Reduced-Intensity Conditioned Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Myelofibrosis: A Retrospective Study by the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 11 5;25(11):2167-2171. Epub 2019 Jul 5.

Department of Haematology, CHU de Lille, LIRIC, INSERM U995, Universite de Lille, Lille, France.

This retrospective study by the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation analyzed the outcome of 2224 patients with myelofibrosis (MF) who underwent allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) between 2000 and 2014; 781 (35%) underwent myeloablative conditioning (MAC) and 1443 (65%) reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC). Median patient age was 52.9 years (range, 18 to 74 years) and 57.5 years (range, 21 to 76 years) in the MAC and RIC cohorts, respectively. Donor type was similar: matched sibling donors (MAC, 317 [41%]; RIC, 552 [38%]) and unrelated donors (MAC, 464 [59%]; RIC, 891 [62%]). Median time to both neutrophil and platelet (>20 × 10/L) engraftment did not differ between cohorts. Rates of grade II to IV acute GVHD were 28% (MAC) and 31% (RIC; P = NS). Cumulative chronic GVHD rates (limited/extensive) were 22%/27% (MAC) and 19%/31% (RIC; P = .10). Cumulative incidences of nonrelapse mortality (NRM) at 1, 3, and 5 years were 25.5%, 32.2%, and 34.6% (MAC) and 26.3%, 32.8%, and 34.4% (RIC), respectively. There was a trend toward a higher relapse rate with RIC regimens compared with MAC (P = .08); rates at 1, 3, and 5 years were 10.9%, 17.2%, and 20.1% (MAC) and 14%, 19.7%, and 23.2% (RIC), respectively. No significant difference in 5-year probabilities of overall survival (OS) was noted: MAC (53.0%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 49.1% to 56.9%) and RIC (51.0%; 95% CI, 48.3% to 53.7%); P = .78. Regarding the composite end point of GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (GRFS), the unadjusted Kaplan-Meier estimate of 5-year GRFS was 32.4% (95% CI, 29.0% to 36.1%) in the MAC group and 26.1% (95% CI, 23.9% to 28.2%) in the RIC group (P = .001). In the MAC cohort, multivariable analysis confirmed worse OS and NRM with older age (>50 years), using an unrelated donor and a Karnofsky Performance Status of 80 or less. For the RIC cohort, worse OS and NRM were associated with age 60 to 70 years compared with younger recipients, use of a mismatched donor, and poor performance status. In conclusion, although similar OS rates existed for both cohorts overall, this study suggests that MAC should still be used for younger individuals suitable for such an approach due to a trend toward less relapse and an overall suggested advantage of improved GRFS, albeit this should be examined in a more homogeneous cohort. RIC allo-SCT still offers significant survival advantage in the older, fitter MF allograft patient, and optimization to reduce significant relapse and NRM rates is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.034DOI Listing
November 2019

Remission of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Glucose-6-Phosphatase 3 Deficiency by Allogeneic Haematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

J Crohns Colitis 2020 Jan;14(1):142-147

Translational Gastroenterology Unit, NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Nuffield Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Mendelian disorders in glucose-6-phosphate metabolism can present with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. Using whole genome sequencing we identified a homozygous variant in the glucose-6-phosphatase G6PC3 gene [c.911dupC; p.Q305fs*82] in an adult patient with congenital neutropenia, lymphopenia and childhood-onset, therapy-refractory Crohn's disease. Because G6PC3 is expressed in several haematopoietic and non-haematopoietic cells it was unclear whether allogeneic stem cell transplantation [HSCT] would benefit this patient with intestinal inflammation. We show that HSCT resolves G6PC3-associated immunodeficiency and the Crohn's disease phenotype. It illustrates how even in adulthood, next-generation sequencing can have a significant impact on clinical practice and healthcare utilization in patients with immunodeficiency and monogenic IBD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjz112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6930000PMC
January 2020

Epstein-Barr Virus and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Clinical Significance in Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation for Multiple Sclerosis.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 10;69(10):1757-1763

Department of Hematology, King's College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Denmark Hill.

Introduction: Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AHSCT) with anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) conditioning as treatment of active multiple sclerosis (MS) is rapidly increasing across Europe (EBMT registry data 2017). Clinically significant Epstein-Barr virus reactivation (EBV-R) following AHSCT with ATG for severe autoimmune conditions is an underrecognized complication relative to T-cell deplete transplants performed for hematological diseases. This retrospective study reports EBV-R associated significant clinical sequelae in MS patients undergoing AHSCT with rabbit ATG.

Methods: Retrospective data were analyzed for 36 consecutive MS-AHSCT patients at Kings College Hospital, London. All patients routinely underwent weekly EBV DNA polymerase chain reaction monitoring and serum electrophoresis for monoclonal gammopathy (MG or M-protein). EBV-R with rising Epstein-Barr viral load, M-protein, and associated clinical sequelae were captured from clinical records.

Results: All patients had evidence of rising EBV DNA-emia, including 7 who were lost to long-term follow-up, with a number of them developing high EBV viral load and associated lymphoproliferative disorder (LPD). Nearly 72% (n = 18/29) developed de novo MG, some with significant neurological consequences with high M-protein and EBV-R. Six patients required anti-CD20 therapy (rituximab) with complete resolution of EBV related symptoms. Receiver operating characteristics estimated a peak EBV viremia of >500 000 DNA copies/mL correlated with high sensitivity (85.5%) and specificity (82.5%) (area under the curve: 0.87; P = .004) in predicting EBV-R related significant clinical events.

Conclusion: Symptomatic EBV reactivation increases risk of neurological sequelae and LPD in MS-AHSCT. We recommend regular monitoring for EBV and serum electrophoresis for MG in MS patients in the first 3 months post-AHSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz047DOI Listing
October 2019

Recipients Receiving Better HLA-Matched Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Grafts, Uncovered by a Novel HLA Typing Method, Have Superior Survival: A Retrospective Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03;25(3):443-450

Anthony Nolan Research Institute, Royal Free Hospital, London, United Kingdom; UCL Cancer Institute, Royal Free Campus, London, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

HLA matching at an allelic-level resolution for volunteer unrelated donor (VUD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) results in improved survival and fewer post-transplant complications. Limitations in typing technologies used for the hyperpolymorphic HLA genes have meant that variations outside of the antigen recognition domain (ARD) have not been previously characterized in HCT. Our aim was to explore the extent of diversity outside of the ARD and determine the impact of this diversity on transplant outcome. Eight hundred ninety-one VUD-HCT donors and their recipients transplanted for a hematologic malignancy in the United Kingdom were retrospectively HLA typed at an ultra-high resolution (UHR) for HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 using next-generation sequencing technology. Matching was determined at full gene level for HLA class I and at a coding DNA sequence level for HLA class II genes. The HLA matching status changed in 29.1% of pairs after UHR HLA typing. The 12/12 UHR HLA matched patients had significantly improved 5-year overall survival when compared with those believed to be 12/12 HLA matches based on their original HLA typing but were found to be mismatched after UHR HLA typing (54.8% versus 30.1%, P = .022). Survival was also significantly better in 12/12 UHR HLA-matched patients when compared with those with any degree of mismatch at this level of resolution (55.1% versus 40.1%, P = .005). This study shows that better HLA matching, found when typing is done at UHR that includes exons outside of the ARD, introns, and untranslated regions, can significantly improve outcomes for recipients of a VUD-HCT for a hematologic malignancy and should be prospectively performed at donor selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.12.768DOI Listing
March 2019

Impact of primary disease on outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for transformed secondary acute leukaemia.

Br J Haematol 2019 05 28;185(4):725-732. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Hôpital St. Louis, Paris, France.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia (CMML) can progress to secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (sAML). We compared the outcome of 4214 sAML patients who received allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) from an unrelated (62%) or human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sibling donor (38%) according the underlying disease: MDS (n = 3541), CMML (n = 251) or MPN (n = 422). After a median follow up of 46·5 months, the estimated 3-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 36% (34-37%) and 41% (40-43%), respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM) was 37% (35-39%) and 27% (26-29%), respectively. In a multivariable analysis for OS, besides age (P < 0·001), unrelated donor (P = 0·011), cytomegalovirus ± constellation (P = 0·007), Karnofsky index ≤ 80 (P < 0·001), remission status (P < 0·001), peripheral blood as stem cell source (P = 0·009), sAML from MPN (P = 0·003) remained a significant factor in comparison to sAML from MDS, while worse outcome of sAML from CMML did not reach statistical significance (P = 0·06). This large registry study demonstrates a major impact of the underlying disease on outcome of sAML after allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15819DOI Listing
May 2019

Mesenchymal stromal cells for acute graft-versus-host disease: response at 1 week predicts probability of survival.

Br J Haematol 2019 04 13;185(1):89-92. Epub 2019 Jan 13.

King's College London, London, UK.

Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been successfully used for the treatment of steroid-resistant graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD). However, the lack of early predictors of clinical responses impacts on the time at which to add further treatment and consequently the design of informative clinical trials. Here, we present the UK experience of one of the largest cohorts of GvHD patients undergoing MSC infusions so far reported. We show that clinical responses assessed as early as 1 week after MSC infusion predict patients' overall survival. In our cohort, cell dose, patients' age and type of organ involvement are crucial factors associated with clinical responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15749DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6916615PMC
April 2019

Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Patients Aged 50Years or Older with Severe Aplastic Anemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 5;25(3):488-495. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Instituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.

We report on 499 patients with severe aplastic anemia aged ≥ 50years who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from HLA-matched sibling (n = 275, 55%) or HLA-matched (8/8) unrelated donors (n = 187, 37%) between 2005 and 2016. The median age at HCT was 57.8 years; 16% of patients were 65 to 77years old. Multivariable analysis confirmed higher mortality risks for patients with performance score less than 90% (hazard ratio [HR], 1.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.92; P = .03) and after unrelated donor transplantation (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1 to 2.16; P = .05). The 3-year probabilities of survival for patients with performance scores of 90 to 100 and less than 90 after HLA-matched sibling transplant were 66% (range, 57% to 75%) and 57% (range, 47% to 76%), respectively. The corresponding probabilities after HLA-matched unrelated donor transplantation were 57% (range, 48% to 67%) and 48% (range, 36% to 59%). Age at transplantation was not associated with survival, but grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) risks were higher for patients aged 65years or older (subdistribution HR [sHR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 2.72; P = .026). Chronic GVHD was lower with the GVHD prophylaxis regimens calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) + methotrexate (sHR, .52; 95% CI, .33 to .81; P = .004) and CNI alone or with other agents (sHR, .27; 95% CI, .14 to .53; P < .001) compared with CNI + mycophenolate. Although donor availability is modifiable only to a limited extent, choice of GVHD prophylaxis and selection of patients with good performance scores are key for improved outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.08.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401340PMC
March 2019

HLA-Mismatched Donors in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndrome: An EBMT Registry Analysis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 01 30;25(1):114-120. Epub 2018 Aug 30.

CRCM, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Recently, haploidentical transplantation (haplo) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has been reported to give very encouraging results in patients with hematological malignancies. Patients who have no HLA-matched donor currently have the choice between a mismatched unrelated donor, an unrelated cord blood (CB) donor, and a haploidentical related donor. The aim of our study is to compare the outcome of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who have been transplanted from a haploidentical donor using PTCy, an HLA-mismatched unrelated donor (marrow or peripheral blood stem cells), or an unrelated mismatched CB donor. A total of 833 MDS patients from the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) registry, transplanted between 2011 and 2016, were identified. The potential benefit of haplo was compared with mismatched unrelated and CB donors in an adjusted and weighted model taking into account potential confounders and other prognostic variables. Haplo was at lower risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) than mismatched unrelated donor (P = .010) but at similar risk than CB. Progression-free survival was better after haplo (versus mismatched unrelated, P = .056; versus CB, P = .003) and overall survival tended to be superior after haplo (versus mismatched unrelated, P = .082; versus CB, P = .002). Nonrelapse mortality was not significantly different between haplo and mismatched unrelated donors. Relapse risk was not influenced by the type of donor. In conclusion, patients with MDS from the EBMT registry receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a haplo donor have significantly better outcome than those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from a CB donor and at least similar or better outcome than with a mismatched unrelated donor. Prospective studies comparing the type of donors will be needed to confirm this assumption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.08.026DOI Listing
January 2019