Publications by authors named "Victor L Boyartchuk"

5 Publications

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The transcriptional repressor BLIMP1 curbs host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8.

J Immunol 2014 Mar 29;192(5):2291-304. Epub 2014 Jan 29.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605;

The transcriptional repressor B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (BLIMP1) is a master regulator of B and T cell differentiation. To examine the role of BLIMP1 in innate immunity, we used a conditional knockout (CKO) of Blimp1 in myeloid cells and found that Blimp1 CKO mice were protected from lethal infection induced by Listeria monocytogenes. Transcriptome analysis of Blimp1 CKO macrophages identified the murine chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 8, CCL8, as a direct target of Blimp1-mediated transcriptional repression in these cells. BLIMP1-deficient macrophages expressed elevated levels of Ccl8, and consequently Blimp1 CKO mice had higher levels of circulating CCL8, resulting in increased neutrophils in the peripheral blood, promoting a more aggressive antibacterial response. Mice lacking the Ccl8 gene were more susceptible to L. monocytogenes infection than were wild-type mice. Although CCL8 failed to recruit neutrophils directly, it was chemotactic for γ/δ T cells, and CCL8-responsive γ/δ T cells were enriched for IL-17F. Finally, CCL8-mediated enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes was dependent on γ/δ T cells. Collectively, these data reveal an important role for BLIMP1 in modulating host defenses by suppressing expression of the chemokine CCL8.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1301799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3943885PMC
March 2014

Listeria monocytogenes infection induces prosurvival metabolic signaling in macrophages.

Infect Immun 2011 Apr 24;79(4):1526-35. Epub 2011 Jan 24.

Program in Gene Function and Expression and Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, USA.

Host cells use metabolic signaling through the LXRα nuclear receptor to defend against Listeria monocytogenes infection. 25-Hydroxycholesterol is a natural ligand of LXRs that is produced by the enzyme cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H). We found that expression of Ch25h is upregulated following L. monocytogenes infection in a beta interferon (IFN-β)-dependent fashion. Moreover, increased Ch25h expression promotes survival of L. monocytogenes-infected cells and increases sensitivity of the host to infection. We determined that expression of Cd5l, a prosurvival gene, is controlled by CH25H. In addition, we found that CD5L inhibits activation of caspase-1, promoting survival of infected macrophages. Our results reveal a mechanism by which an intracellular pathogen can prolong survival of infected cells, thus providing itself with a protected environment in which to replicate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01195-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3067555PMC
April 2011

Histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 is required for Candida albicans pathogenesis.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Jan 4;107(4):1594-9. Epub 2010 Jan 4.

Program in Gene Function and Expression, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605-2324, USA.

Candida albicans is a ubiquitous opportunistic pathogen that is the most prevalent cause of hospital-acquired fungal infections. In mammalian hosts, C. albicans is engulfed by phagocytes that attack the pathogen with DNA-damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS). Acetylation of histone H3 lysine 56 (H3K56) by the fungal-specific histone acetyltransferase Rtt109 is important for yeast model organisms to survive DNA damage and maintain genome integrity. To assess the importance of Rtt109 for C. albicans pathogenicity, we deleted the predicted homolog of Rtt109 in the clinical C. albicans isolate, SC5314. C. albicans rtt109(-/-) mutant cells lack acetylated H3K56 (H3K56ac) and are hypersensitive to genotoxic agents. Additionally, rtt109(-/-) mutant cells constitutively display increased H2A S129 phosphorylation and elevated DNA repair gene expression, consistent with endogenous DNA damage. Importantly, C. albicans rtt109(-/-) cells are significantly less pathogenic in mice and more susceptible to killing by macrophages in vitro than are wild-type cells. Via pharmacological inhibition of the host NADPH oxidase enzyme, we show that the increased sensitivity of rtt109(-/-) cells to macrophages depends on the host's ability to generate ROS, providing a mechanistic link between the drug sensitivity, gene expression, and pathogenesis phenotypes. We conclude that Rtt109 is particularly important for fungal pathogenicity, suggesting a unique target for therapeutic antifungal compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912427107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2824404PMC
January 2010

Genetic control of the innate immune response to Borrelia hermsii influences the course of relapsing fever in inbred strains of mice.

Infect Immun 2010 Feb 7;78(2):586-94. Epub 2009 Dec 7.

Department of Molecular Genetics and Microbiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA.

Host susceptibility to infection is controlled in large measure by the genetic makeup of the host. Spirochetes of the genus Borrelia include nearly 40 species of vector-borne spirochetes that are capable of infecting a wide range of mammalian hosts, causing Lyme disease and relapsing fever. Relapsing fever is associated with high-level bacteremia, as well as hematologic manifestations, such as thrombocytopenia (i.e., low platelet numbers) and anemia. To facilitate studies of genetic control of susceptibility to Borrelia hermsii infection, we performed a systematic analysis of the course of infection using immunocompetent and immunocompromised inbred strains of mice. Our analysis revealed that sensitivity to B. hermsii infections is genetically controlled. In addition, whereas the role of adaptive immunity to relapsing fever-causing spirochetes is well documented, we found that innate immunity contributes significantly to the reduction of bacterial burden. Similar to human infection, the progression of the disease in mice was associated with thrombocytopenia and anemia. Histological and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis of infected tissues indicated that red blood cells (RBCs) were removed by tissue-resident macrophages, a process that could lead to anemia. Spirochetes in the spleen and liver were often visualized associated with RBCs, lending support to the hypothesis that direct interaction of B. hermsii spirochetes with RBCs leads to clearance of bacteria from the bloodstream by tissue phagocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.01216-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812184PMC
February 2010

Spt3 plays opposite roles in filamentous growth in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans and is required for C. albicans virulence.

Genetics 2002 Jun;161(2):509-19

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Spt3 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is required for the normal transcription of many genes in vivo. Past studies have shown that Spt3 is required for both mating and sporulation, two events that initiate when cells are at G(1)/START. We now show that Spt3 is needed for two other events that begin at G(1)/START, diploid filamentous growth and haploid invasive growth. In addition, Spt3 is required for normal expression of FLO11, a gene required for filamentous growth, although this defect is not the sole cause of the spt3Delta/spt3Delta filamentous growth defect. To extend our studies of Spt3's role in filamentous growth to the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, we have identified the C. albicans SPT3 gene and have studied its role in C. albicans filamentous growth and virulence. Surprisingly, C. albicans spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants are hyperfilamentous, the opposite phenotype observed for S. cerevisiae spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants. Furthermore, C. albicans spt3Delta/spt3Delta mutants are avirulent in mice. These experiments demonstrate that Spt3 plays important but opposite roles in filamentous growth in S. cerevisiae and C. albicans.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1462142PMC
June 2002