Publications by authors named "Veronique Marcaud"

4 Publications

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Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320356PMC
September 2020

Refsum Disease Presenting with a Late-Onset Leukodystrophy.

JIMD Rep 2015 21;19:7-10. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France,

Adult Refsum disease is an autosomal recessive peroxisomal disorder characterized by phytanic acid storage. Clinical symptoms usually begin in late childhood before the age of 20. Typical clinical presentation includes nyctalopia caused by retinitis pigmentosa, and anosmia. After 10-15 years, deafness, cerebellar ataxia, polyneuropathy, ichthyosis, and cardiac arrhythmia can occur.We report the case of a very late-onset adult Refsum disease presenting with marked cognitive decline and severe leukoencephalopathy, without peripheral nervous system involvement. Brain MRI showed a leukoencephalopathy involving the periventricular white matter, subcortical area, and the brainstem with relative sparing of juxtacortical U fibers. This was associated with severe cortical and subcortical atrophy with ventricle dilatation. MR spectroscopy showed a marked increase in the choline/NAA ratio. Elevated plasma phytanic acid level was found, whereas plasma levels of pristanic and very long chain fatty acids were normal. The patient is homozygous for a previously undescribed PHYH frameshift mutation. Whether the very unusual phenotype is related to this peculiar mutation remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/8904_2014_355DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4501234PMC
July 2015

Chronic myelomonocytic leukemia associated with generalized myasthenia gravis.

Leuk Lymphoma 2014 Jul 6;55(7):1668-9. Epub 2013 Nov 6.

Hematology Department.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2013.845296DOI Listing
July 2014

Connexin 43-mediated bystander effect in two rat glioma cell models.

Cancer Gene Ther 2002 Feb;9(2):149-55

Biologie des interactions neurones-glie, Unité INSERM U495, Université P et M Curie Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

In tumor models, the killing by ganciclovir of a fraction of tumor cells transfected with the thymidine kinase (TK) gene has been shown to induce complete regression of the tumor. The mechanism responsible for this bystander effect is thought to be the diffusion of toxic metabolites or apoptotic signals across gap junctions. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the major component of astrocyte gap junctions. We investigated the susceptibility of two rat glioma cell lines (CNS1 and C6) to thymidine kinase/ganciclovir, before and after transfection with the Cx43 gene. We report a close correlation between the level of Cx43 expression, the extent of gap junctional communication and the amplitude of the bystander effect. Transfection of C6 cells (which display a weak bystander effect and low levels of connexin) with a Cx43 construct induced a strong bystander effect. Inhibition of gap junction activity by 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid abolished the metabolic interaction between TK(+) and TK(-) cells. This metabolic interaction was also abolished if TK(+) and TK(-) cells were separated by a semipermeable membrane. Surprisingly, the transfection of only one of these two interacting cell types with the Cx43 gene was sufficient to induce a bystander effect, although this effect was weaker than that observed if both TK(+) and TK(-) cells expressed Cx43. Finally, Cx43 expression increased sensitivity to contact inhibition. Overall, our data provide evidence that the restoration of gap junctional communication may potentiate HSV/tk-based cancer treatment and suggest that this strategy may have wider application in cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.cgt.7700411DOI Listing
February 2002