Publications by authors named "Veronika Fedirko"

132 Publications

Dietary Advanced Glycation End-Products and Colorectal Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Study.

Nutrients 2021 Sep 8;13(9). Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), 28029 Madrid, Spain.

Dietary advanced glycation end-products (dAGEs) have been hypothesized to be associated with a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) by promoting inflammation, metabolic dysfunction, and oxidative stress in the colonic epithelium. However, evidence from prospective cohort studies is scarce and inconclusive. We evaluated CRC risk associated with the intake of dAGEs in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Dietary intakes of three major dAGEs: N-carboxy-methyllysine (CML), N-carboxyethyllysine (CEL), and N-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1) were estimated in 450,111 participants (median follow-up = 13 years, with 6162 CRC cases) by matching to a detailed published European food composition database. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of dAGEs with CRC were computed using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models. Inverse CRC risk associations were observed for CML (HR comparing extreme quintiles: HR. = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00) and MG-H1 (HR. = 0.92, 95% CI = 0.85-1.00), but not for CEL (HR. = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.89-1.05). The associations did not differ by sex or anatomical location of the tumor. Contrary to the initial hypothesis, our findings suggest an inverse association between dAGEs and CRC risk. More research is required to verify these findings and better differentiate the role of dAGEs from that of endogenously produced AGEs and their precursor compounds in CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13093132DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8470201PMC
September 2021

Dietary intake and plasma phospholipid concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids and colorectal cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.

Epidemiologic studies examining the association between specific fatty acids and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk are inconclusive. We investigated the association between dietary estimates and plasma levels of individual and total saturated (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), industrial-processed trans (iTFA), and ruminant-sourced trans (rTFA) fatty acids, and CRC risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Baseline fatty acid intakes were estimated in 450 112 participants (6162 developed CRC, median follow-up = 15 years). In a nested case-control study, plasma phospholipid fatty acids were determined by gas chromatography in 433 colon cancer cases and 433 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using Cox and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Dietary total SFA (highest vs lowest quintile, HR  = 0.80; 95%CI:0.69-0.92), myristic acid (HR  = 0.83, 95%CI:0.74-0.93) and palmitic acid (HR  = 0.81, 95%CI:0.70-0.93) were inversely associated with CRC risk. Plasma myristic acid was also inversely associated with colon cancer risk (highest vs lowest quartile, OR  = 0.51; 95%CI:0.32-0.83), whereas a borderline positive association was found for plasma stearic acid (OR  = 1.63; 95%CI:1.00-2.64). Dietary total MUFA was inversely associated with colon cancer (per 1-SD increment, HR  = 0.92, 95%CI: 0.85-0.98), but not rectal cancer (HR  = 1.04, 95%CI:0.95-1.15, P  = 0.027). Dietary iTFA, and particularly elaidic acid, was positively associated with rectal cancer (HR  = 1.07, 95%CI:1.02-1.13). Our results suggest that total and individual saturated fatty acids and fatty acids of industrial origin may be relevant to the aetiology of CRC. Both dietary and plasma myristic acid levels were inversely associated with colon cancer risk, which warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33615DOI Listing
April 2021

Dietary intake of advanced glycation endproducts and risk of hepatobiliary cancers: A multinational cohort study.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 25. Epub 2021 Apr 25.

Nutrition and Metabolism Branch, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), Lyon, France.

Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) may contribute to liver carcinogenesis because of their proinflammatory and prooxidative properties. Diet is a major source of AGEs, but there is sparse human evidence on the role of AGEs intake in liver cancer etiology. We examined the association between dietary AGEs and the risk of hepatobiliary cancers in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition prospective cohort (n = 450 111). Dietary intake of three AGEs, N -[carboxymethyl]lysine (CML), N -[1-carboxyethyl]lysine (CEL) and N -[5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl]-ornithine (MG-H1), was estimated using country-specific dietary questionnaires linked to an AGEs database. Cause-specific hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between dietary AGEs and risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), gallbladder and biliary tract cancers were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression. After a median follow-up time of 14.9 years, 255 cases of HCC, 100 cases of gallbladder cancer and 173 biliary tract cancers were ascertained. Higher intakes of dietary AGEs were inversely associated with the risk of HCC (per 1 SD increment, HR-  = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.76-0.99, HR-  = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.96 and HR-  = 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.97). In contrast, positive associations were observed with risk of gallbladder cancer (per 1 SD, HR-  = 1.28, 95% CI: 1.05-1.56, HR-  = 1.17; 95% CI: 0.96-1.40, HR-  = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.06-1.54). No associations were observed for cancers of the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts. Our findings suggest that higher intakes of dietary AGEs are inversely associated with the risk of HCC and positively associated with the risk of gallbladder cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33612DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8360042PMC
April 2021

Association of Pre-diagnostic Antibody Responses to Escherichia coli and Bacteroides fragilis Toxin Proteins with Colorectal Cancer in a European Cohort.

Gut Microbes 2021 Jan-Dec;13(1):1-14

Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology, Umeå University, Ireland.

Experimental evidence has implicated genotoxic () and enterotoxigenic (ETBF) in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, evidence from epidemiological studies is sparse. We therefore assessed the association of serological markers of and ETBF exposure with odds of developing CRC in the European Prospective Investigation into Nutrition and Cancer (EPIC) study.Serum samples of incident CRC cases and matched controls (n = 442 pairs) were analyzed for immunoglobulin (Ig) A and G antibody responses to seven proteins and two isoforms of the ETBF toxin via multiplex serology. Multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association of sero-positivity to and ETBF with CRC.The IgA-positivity of any of the tested antigens was associated with higher odds of developing CRC (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.05-1.91). Dual-positivity for both IgA and IgG to and ETBF was associated with >1.7-fold higher odds of developing CRC, with a significant association only for IgG (OR: 1.75; 95% CI: 1.04, 2.94). This association was more pronounced when restricted to the proximal colon cancers (OR: 2.62; 95% CI: 1.09, 6.29) compared to those of the distal colon (OR: 1.24; 95% CI: 0.51, 3.00) (= 0.095). Sero-positivity to and ETBF was associated with CRC development, suggesting that co-infection of these bacterial species may contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. These findings warrant further exploration in larger prospective studies and within different population groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2021.1903825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078709PMC
April 2021

Plasma concentrations of advanced glycation end-products and colorectal cancer risk in the EPIC study.

Carcinogenesis 2021 05;42(5):705-713

Office of the Director, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), Lyon, France.

Advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) are a heterogeneous group of compounds formed by the non-enzymatic reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars, or dicarbonyls as intermediate compounds. Experimental studies suggest that AGEs may promote colorectal cancer, but prospective epidemiologic studies are inconclusive. We conducted a case-control study nested within a large European cohort. Plasma concentrations of three protein-bound AGEs-Nε-(carboxy-methyl)lysine (CML), Nε-(carboxy-ethyl)lysine (CEL) and Nδ-(5-hydro-5-methyl-4-imidazolon-2-yl)-ornithine (MG-H1)-were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in baseline samples collected from 1378 incident primary colorectal cancer cases and 1378 matched controls. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk associated with CML, CEL, MG-H1, total AGEs, and [CEL+MG-H1: CML] and [CEL:MG-H1] ratios. Inverse colorectal cancer risk associations were observed for CML (OR comparing highest to lowest quintile, ORQ5 versus Q1 = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.27-0.59), MG-H1 (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.53-1.00) and total AGEs (OR Q5 versus Q1 = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.37-0.73), whereas no association was observed for CEL. A higher [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio was associated with colorectal cancer risk (ORQ5 versus Q1 = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.31-2.79). The associations observed did not differ by sex, or by tumour anatomical sub-site. Although individual AGEs concentrations appear to be inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, a higher ratio of methylglyoxal-derived AGEs versus those derived from glyoxal (calculated by [CEL+MG-H1: CML] ratio) showed a strong positive risk association. Further insight on the metabolism of AGEs and their dicarbonyls precursors, and their roles in colorectal cancer development is needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgab026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8162627PMC
May 2021

Red Blood Cell Fatty Acids and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 05 22;30(5):874-885. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Background: A growing body of evidence suggests that alterations of dietary fatty acid (FA) profiles are associated with colorectal cancer risk. However, data from large-scale epidemiologic studies using circulating FA measurements to objectively assess individual FA and FA categories are scarce.

Methods: We investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) membrane FAs and risk of colorectal cancer in a case-control study nested within a large prospective cohort. After a median follow-up of 6.4 years, 1,069 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified and matched to 1,069 controls among participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The FA composition of RBC phospholipids (in mol%) was analyzed by gas chromatography, and their association with risk of colorectal cancer was estimated by multivariable adjusted conditional logistic regression models.

Results: After correction for multiple testing, subjects with higher concentrations of RBC stearic acid were at higher risk for colorectal cancer (OR = 1.23; 95% CI = 1.07-1.42, per 1 mol%). Conversely, colorectal cancer incidence decreased with increasing proportions of RBC n-3 PUFA, particularly eicosapentaenoic acid (0.75; 0.62-0.92, per 1 mol%). The findings for the n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid were inconsistent.

Conclusions: The positive association between prediagnostic RBC stearic acid and colorectal cancer reflects putative differences in FA intake and metabolism between cancer cases and matched controls, which deserve further investigation. The inverse relationship between EPA and colorectal cancer is in line with the repeatedly reported protective effect of fish consumption on colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: These findings add to the evidence on colorectal cancer prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1426DOI Listing
May 2021

Effects of Supplemental Calcium and Vitamin D on Circulating Biomarkers of Gut Barrier Function in Patients with Colon Adenoma: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 Mar 23;14(3):393-402. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Gut barrier dysfunction promotes chronic inflammation, contributing to several gastrointestinal diseases, including colorectal cancer. Preliminary evidence suggests that vitamin D and calcium could prevent colorectal carcinogenesis, in part, by influencing gut barrier function. However, relevant human data are scarce. We tested the effects of supplemental calcium (1,200 mg/day) and/or vitamin D (1,000 IU/day) on circulating concentrations of biomarkers of gut permeability (anti-flagellin and anti-lipopolysaccharide IgA and IgG, measured via ELISA) from baseline to 1 and 3 or 5 years postbaseline among 175 patients with colorectal adenoma in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. We also assessed factors associated with baseline concentrations of these biomarkers. We found no appreciable effects of supplemental vitamin D and/or calcium on individual or aggregate biomarkers of gut permeability. At baseline, a combined permeability score (the summed concentrations of all four biomarkers) was 14% lower among women ( = 0.01) and 10% higher among those who consumed >1 serving per day of red or processed meats relative to those who consumed none ( = 0.03). The permeability score was estimated to be 49% higher among participants with a body mass index (BMI) > 35 kg/m relative to those with a BMI < 22.5 kg/m ( = 0.17). Our results suggest that daily supplemental vitamin D and/or calcium may not modify circulating concentrations of gut permeability biomarkers within 1 or 3-5 years, but support continued investigation of modifiable factors, such as diet and excess adiposity, that could affect gut permeability. PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Calcium and vitamin D may be involved in regulating and maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, the dysfunction of which results in exposure of the host to luminal bacteria, endotoxins, and antigens leading to potentially cancer-promoting endotoxemia and chronic colon inflammation. While our results suggest that daily supplementation with these chemopreventive agents does not modify circulating concentrations of gut permeability biomarkers, they support continued investigation of other potential modifiable factors, such as diet and excess adiposity, that could alter gut barrier function, to inform the development of treatable biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms and effective colon cancer preventive strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137511PMC
March 2021

Soluble Receptor for Advanced Glycation End-products (sRAGE) and Colorectal Cancer Risk: A Case-Control Study Nested within a European Prospective Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 01 20;30(1):182-192. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Public Health Directorate, Oviedo, Spain.

Background: Overexpression of the receptor for advanced glycation end-product (RAGE) has been associated with chronic inflammation, which in turn has been associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) competes with RAGE to bind its ligands, thus potentially preventing RAGE-induced inflammation.

Methods: To investigate whether sRAGE and related genetic variants are associated with colorectal cancer risk, we conducted a nested case-control study in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Plasma sRAGE concentrations were measured by ELISA in 1,361 colorectal cancer matched case-control sets. Twenty-four SNPs encoded in the genes associated with sRAGE concentrations were available for 1,985 colorectal cancer cases and 2,220 controls. Multivariable adjusted ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression for colorectal cancer risk and circulating sRAGE and SNPs, respectively.

Results: Higher sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.59-1.00). Sex-specific analyses revealed that the observed inverse risk association was restricted to men (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42-0.94), whereas no association was observed in women (OR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48; for sex = 0.006). Participants carrying minor allele of rs653765 (promoter region of ) had lower colorectal cancer risk (C vs. T, OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.99).

Conclusions: Prediagnostic sRAGE concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk in men, but not in women. An SNP located within gene, pertaining to RAGE shedding, was associated with colorectal cancer risk.

Impact: Further studies are needed to confirm our observed sex difference in the association and better explore the potential involvement of genetic variants of sRAGE in colorectal cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0855DOI Listing
January 2021

The role of the gut microbiome in cancer-related fatigue: pilot study on epigenetic mechanisms.

Support Care Cancer 2021 Jun 20;29(6):3173-3182. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

School of Nursing, Emory University, 1520 Clifton Road NE, Atlanta, 30322, USA.

Purpose: Recent evidence supports a key role of gut microbiome in brain health. We conducted a pilot study to assess associations of gut microbiome with cancer-related fatigue and explore the associations with DNA methylation changes.

Methods: Self-reported Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and stool samples were collected at pre-radiotherapy and one-month post-radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Gut microbiome data were obtained by sequencing the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid gene. DNA methylation changes in the blood were assessed using Illumina Methylation EPIC BeadChip.

Results: We observed significantly different gut microbiota patterns among patients with high vs. low fatigue across time. This pattern was characterized by low relative abundance in short-chain fatty acid-producing taxa (family Ruminococcaceae, genera Subdoligranulum and Faecalibacterium; all p < 0.05), with high abundance in taxa associated with inflammation (genera Family XIII AD3011 and Erysipelatoclostridium; all p < 0.05) for high-fatigue group. We identified nine KEGG Orthology pathways significantly different between high- vs. low-fatigue groups over time (all p < 0.001), including pathways related to fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, inflammation, and brain function. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on the top differentially methylated CpG sites that were associated with the taxa and fatigue. All biological processes from the GSEA were related to immune responses and inflammation (FDR < 0.05).

Conclusions: Our results suggest different patterns of the gut microbiota in cancer patients with high vs. low fatigue. Results from functional pathways and DNA methylation analyses indicate that inflammation is likely to be the major driver in the gut-brain axis for cancer-related fatigue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00520-020-05820-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055716PMC
June 2021

Inflammation Modulation by Vitamin D and Calcium in the Morphologically Normal Colorectal Mucosa of Patients with Colorectal Adenoma in a Clinical Trial.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2021 01 11;14(1):65-76. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Increased COX-2 and decreased 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-HPGD) expression promote prostaglandin-mediated inflammation and colorectal carcinogenesis. Experimental studies suggest that vitamin D and calcium may inhibit these pathways, but their effects on colorectal tissue COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in humans are unknown. We tested the effects of supplemental vitamin D (1,000 IU/day) and/or calcium (1,200 mg/day) on COX-2 and 15-HPGD expression in the morphologically normal rectal mucosa from 62 paients with colorectal adenoma in a placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial. We measured biomarker expression using automated IHC and quantitative image analysis at baseline and 1-year follow-up, and assessed treatment effects using mixed linear models. The primary outcome was the COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio, because these enzymes function as physiologic antagonists. After 1 year of treatment, the mean COX-2/15-HPGD expression ratio in full-length crypts proportionately decreased 47% in the vitamin D group ( = 0.001), 46% in the calcium group ( = 0.002), and 34% in the calcium + vitamin D group ( = 0.03), relative to the placebo group. Among individuals with the functional vitamin D-binding protein isoform DBP2 ( rs4588*A), the COX-2/15-HPDG ratio decreased 70% ( = 0.0006), 75% ( = 0.0002), and 60% ( = 0.006) in the vitamin D, calcium, and combined supplementation groups, respectively, relative to placebo. These results show that vitamin D and calcium favorably modulate the balance of expression of COX-2 and 15-HPGD-biomarkers of inflammation that are strongly linked to colorectal carcinogenesis-in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of patients with colorectal adenoma (perhaps especially those with the DBP2 isoform). PREVENTION RELEVANCE: Supplemental calcium and vitamin D reduce indicators of cancer-promoting inflammation in normal colorectal tissue in humans, thus furthering our understanding of how they may help prevent colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7947029PMC
January 2021

Gut Microbiome Associated with the Psychoneurological Symptom Cluster in Patients with Head and Neck Cancers.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 6;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 6.

School of Nursing, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06477, USA.

Cancer patients experience a cluster of co-occurring psychoneurological symptoms (PNS) related to cancer treatments. The gut microbiome may affect severity of the PNS via neural, immune, and endocrine signaling pathways. However, the link between the gut microbiome and PNS has not been well investigated in cancer patients, including those with head and neck cancers (HNCs). This pilot study enrolled 13 patients with HNCs, who reported PNS using the Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAEs). Stool specimens were collected to analyze patients' gut microbiome. All data were collected pre- and post-radiation therapy (RT). Associations between the bacterial abundances and the PNS clusters were analyzed using the linear discriminant analysis effect size; functional pathway analyses of 16S rRNA V3-V4 bacterial communities were conducted using Tax4fun. The high PNS cluster had a greater decrease in microbial evenness than the low PNS cluster from pre- to post-RT. The high and low PNS clusters showed significant differences using weighted UniFrac distance. Those individuals with the high PNS cluster were more likely to have higher abundances in phylum , order , class , and four genera (, and ), while the low PNS cluster had higher abundances in family and three genera (, and ). Both glycan metabolism (Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis) and vitamin metabolism (folate biosynthesis and lipoic acid metabolism) were significantly different between the high and low PNS clusters pre- and post-RT. Our preliminary data suggest that the diversity and abundance of the gut microbiome play a potential role in developing PNS among cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563252PMC
September 2020

Associations of Novel Dietary and Lifestyle Inflammation Scores with Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2020 11 20;29(11):2300-2308. Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background: Colorectal carcinogenesis is mechanistically linked to inflammation and is highly associated with diet and lifestyle factors that may affect chronic inflammation. We previously developed dietary (DIS) and lifestyle (LIS) inflammation scores, comprising inflammation biomarker-weighted components, to characterize the collective contributions of 19 food groups and four lifestyle exposures to systemic inflammation. Both scores were more strongly directly associated with circulating inflammation biomarkers in three validation populations, including a subset of the study population described below, than were the previously reported dietary inflammatory index and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern.

Methods: We calculated the DIS and LIS in three pooled case-control studies of incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma ( = 765 cases and 1,986 controls) with extensive dietary and lifestyle data, and investigated their associations with adenoma using multivariable unconditional logistic regression.

Results: For those in the highest (more proinflammatory) relative to the lowest (more anti-inflammatory) quintiles of the DIS and LIS, the multivariable-adjusted ORs were 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.98-1.75; = 0.09] and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.48-2.66; < 0.001), respectively. These associations were strongest for adenomas with high-risk characteristics and among men. Those in the highest relative to the lowest joint DIS/LIS quintile had a 2.65-fold higher odds (95% CI, 1.77-3.95) of colorectal adenoma.

Conclusions: These results support that diets and lifestyles with higher balances of pro- to anti-inflammatory exposures may be associated with higher risk for incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma.

Impact: Our findings support further investigation of the DIS and LIS in relation to colorectal neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641945PMC
November 2020

Metabolomics Analysis of Aspirin's Effects in Human Colon Tissue and Associations with Adenoma Risk.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2020 10 12;13(10):863-876. Epub 2020 Jul 12.

Department of Medicine, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Although substantial evidence supports aspirin's efficacy in colorectal cancer chemoprevention, key molecular mechanisms are uncertain. An untargeted metabolomics approach with high-resolution mass spectrometry was used to elucidate metabolic effects of aspirin treatment in human colon tissue. We measured 10,269 metabolic features in normal mucosal biopsies collected at colonoscopy after approximately 3 years of randomized treatment with placebo, 81 or 325 mg/day aspirin from 325 participants in the Aspirin/Folate Polyp Prevention Study. Linear regression was used to identify aspirin-associated metabolic features and network analysis was used to identify pathways and predict metabolite identities. Poisson regression was used to examine metabolic features associations with colorectal adenoma risk. We detected 471 aspirin-associated metabolic features. Aside from the carnitine shuttle, aspirin-associated metabolic pathways were largely distinct for 81 mg aspirin (e.g., pyrimidine metabolism) and 325 mg (e.g., arachidonic acid metabolism). Among aspirin-associated metabolic features, we discovered three that were associated with adenoma risk and could contribute to the chemopreventive effect of aspirin treatment, and which have also previously been associated with colorectal cancer: creatinine, glycerol 3-phosphate, and linoleate. The last two of these are in the glycerophospholipid metabolism pathway, which was associated with 81 mg aspirin treatment and provides precursors for the synthesis of eicosanoids from arachidonic acid upstream of cyclooxygenase inhibition by aspirin. Conversely, carnitine shuttle metabolites were increased with aspirin treatment and associated with increased adenoma risk. Thus, our untargeted metabolomics approach has identified novel metabolites and pathways that may underlie the effects of aspirin during early colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-20-0014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7541578PMC
October 2020

Associations of Novel Dietary and Lifestyle Inflammation Scores With Incident Colorectal Cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Jun 5;4(3):pkaa009. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Chronically higher inflammation, likely contributed to by dietary and lifestyle exposures, may increase risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). To address this, we investigated associations of novel dietary (DIS) and lifestyle (LIS) inflammation scores with incident CRC in the prospective National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons Diet and Health Study (N = 453 465).

Methods: The components of our previously developed and externally validated 19-component DIS and 4-component LIS were weighted based on their strengths of associations with a panel of circulating inflammation biomarker concentrations in a diverse subset (N = 639) of participants in the REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study cohort. We calculated the components and applied their weights in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons cohort at baseline, summed the weighted components (higher scores reflect a higher balance of proinflammatory exposures), and investigated associations of the scores with incident CRC using Cox proportional hazards regression. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: Over a mean 13.5 years of follow-up, 10 336 participants were diagnosed with CRC. Among those in the highest relative to the lowest DIS and LIS quintiles, the multivariable-adjusted hazards ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were HR = 1.27 (95% CI = 1.19 to 1.35; < .001) and 1.38 (95% CI = 1.30 to 1.48; < .001), respectively. The associations were stronger among men and for colon cancers. The hazards ratio for those in the highest relative to the lowest joint DIS and LIS quintile was HR = 1.83 (95% CI = 1.68 to 1.99; < .001).

Conclusions: Aggregates of proinflammatory dietary and lifestyle exposures may be associated with higher risk for CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkaa009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7236782PMC
June 2020

Association of prediagnostic vitamin D status with mortality among colorectal cancer patients differs by common, inherited vitamin D-binding protein isoforms.

Int J Cancer 2020 11 25;147(10):2725-2734. Epub 2020 May 25.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Lower prediagnostic circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D)-considered the best marker of total vitamin D exposure-is associated with higher mortality risk among colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, it is unknown whether this association differs by the vitamin D-binding protein (GC) isoform Gc2 (encoded by GC rs4588*C>A, Thr436Lys), which may substantially affect vitamin D metabolism and modify associations of 25(OH)D with colorectal neoplasm risk. Prediagnostic 25(OH)D-mortality associations according to Gc2 isoform were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression among 1281 CRC cases (635 deaths, 483 from CRC) from two large prospective cohorts conducted in the United States (Cancer Prevention Study-II) and Europe (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition). 25(OH)D measurements were calibrated to a single assay, season standardized, and categorized using Institute of Medicine recommendations (deficient [<30], insufficient [30 - <50], sufficient [≥50 nmol/L]). In the pooled analysis, multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for CRC-specific mortality associated with deficient relative to sufficient 25(OH)D concentrations were 2.24 (95% CI 1.44-3.49) among cases with the Gc2 isoform, and 0.94 (95% CI 0.68-1.22) among cases without Gc2 (P = .0002). The corresponding HRs for all-cause mortality were 1.80 (95% CI 1.24-2.60) among those with Gc2, and 1.12 (95% CI 0.84-1.51) among those without Gc2 (P = .004). Our findings suggest that the association of prediagnostic vitamin D status with mortality among CRC patients may differ by functional GC isoforms, and patients who inherit the Gc2 isoform (GC rs4588*A) may particularly benefit from higher circulating 25(OH)D for improved CRC prognosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529852PMC
November 2020

Association of Circulating Vitamin D With Colorectal Cancer Depends on Vitamin D-Binding Protein Isoforms: A Pooled, Nested, Case-Control Study.

JNCI Cancer Spectr 2020 Feb 15;4(1):pkz083. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Background: Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin-D [25(OH)D] concentrations are consistently inversely associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in observational studies. However, it is unknown whether this association depends on the functional rs4588*A (Thr436Lys) variant encoding the vitamin D-binding protein-2 (DBP2) isoform, which may affect vitamin D status and bioavailability.

Methods: We analyzed data from 1710 incident CRC cases and 1649 incidence-density-matched controls nested within three prospective cohorts of mostly Caucasians. Study-specific incidence rate ratios (RRs) for associations of prediagnostic, season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations according to DBP2 isoform with CRC were estimated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression and were pooled using fixed-effects models. All statistical significance tests were two-sided.

Results: The odds of having 25(OH)D concentrations less than 50 nmol/L (considered insufficient by the Institute of Medicine) were 43% higher for each DBP2-encoding variant (rs4588*A) inherited (per DBP2 odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27 to 1.62, = 1.2 × 10). The association of 25(OH)D concentrations with CRC risk differed by DBP2: 25(OH)D concentrations considered sufficient (≥ 50 nmol/L), relative to deficient (< 30 nmol/L), were associated with a 53% lower CRC risk among individuals with the DBP2 isoform (RR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.33 to 0.67), but with a non-statistically significant 12% lower risk among individuals without it (RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.27) ( = .01).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that the 25(OH)D-CRC association may differ by DBP isoform, and those with a DBP2-encoding genotype linked to vitamin D insufficiency may particularly benefit from adequate 25(OH)D for CRC prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jncics/pkz083DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7050153PMC
February 2020

Prediagnostic Plasma Bile Acid Levels and Colon Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2020 05;112(5):516-524

Hellenic Health Foundation, Athens, Greece.

Background: Bile acids have been proposed to promote colon carcinogenesis. However, there are limited prospective data on circulating bile acid levels and colon cancer risk in humans.

Methods: Associations between prediagnostic plasma levels of 17 primary, secondary, and tertiary bile acid metabolites (conjugated and unconjugated) and colon cancer risk were evaluated in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Bile acid levels were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 569 incident colon cancer cases and 569 matched controls. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for colon cancer risk across quartiles of bile acid concentrations.

Results: Positive associations were observed between colon cancer risk and plasma levels of seven conjugated bile acid metabolites: the primary bile acids glycocholic acid (ORquartile 4 vs quartile 1= 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.52 to 3.26), taurocholic acid (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.23 to 2.58), glycochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.48), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.36), and glycohyocholic acid (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.13 to 2.40), and the secondary bile acids glycodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.12 to 2.54) and taurodeoxycholic acid (OR = 1.54, 95% CI = 1.02 to 2.31). By contrast, unconjugated bile acids and tertiary bile acids were not associated with risk.

Conclusions: This prospective study showed that prediagnostic levels of certain conjugated primary and secondary bile acids were positively associated with risk of colon cancer. Our findings support experimental data to suggest that a high bile acid load is colon cancer promotive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djz166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225675PMC
May 2020

Vitamin D-Related Genes, Blood Vitamin D Levels and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Western European Populations.

Nutrients 2019 08 20;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 20.

CIBER Epidemiology and Public Healh (CIBERESP), Madrid 28029, Spain.

Higher circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (25(OH)D) have been found to be associated with lower risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) in prospective studies. Whether this association is modified by genetic variation in genes related to vitamin D metabolism and action has not been well studied in humans. We investigated 1307 functional and tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; individually, and by gene/pathway) in 86 vitamin D-related genes in 1420 incident CRC cases matched to controls from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. We also evaluated the association between these SNPs and circulating 25(OH)D in a subset of controls. We confirmed previously reported CRC risk associations between SNPs in the , , and genes. We also identified additional associations with 25(OH)D, as well as CRC risk, and several potentially novel SNPs in genes related to vitamin D transport and action (, and ). However, none of these SNPs were statistically significant after Benjamini-Hochberg (BH) multiple testing correction. When assessed by a priori defined functional pathways, tumor growth factor β (TGFβ) signaling was associated with CRC risk ( ≤ 0.001), with most statistically significant genes being = 0.008) and = 0.008), and 18 SNPs in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) binding sites ( = 0.036). The 25(OH)D-gene pathway analysis suggested that genetic variants in the genes related to VDR complex formation and transcriptional activity are associated with CRC depending on 25(OH)D levels (interaction = 0.041). Additional studies in large populations and consortia, especially with measured circulating 25(OH)D, are needed to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11081954DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6722852PMC
August 2019

Development and Validation of Novel Dietary and Lifestyle Inflammation Scores.

J Nutr 2019 12;149(12):2206-2218

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University Rollins School of Public Health, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Chronically higher inflammation, which may partly result from diet and lifestyle, is implicated in risk for multiple chronic diseases. The dietary inflammatory index (DII) and empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), developed to characterize dietary contributions to systemic inflammation, have several limitations. There are no scores to characterize contributions of lifestyle to inflammation.

Objectives: To reflect dietary/lifestyle contributions to inflammation, we developed novel, inflammation biomarker panel-weighted, dietary (DIS) and lifestyle (LIS) inflammation scores in a subset (n = 639) of the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke Study (REGARDS) cohort.

Methods: We selected a priori 19 food groups and 4 lifestyle characteristics to comprise the DIS and LIS, respectively. We calculated the components' weights based on their strengths of association with an inflammation biomarker score [comprising high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10] using multivariable linear regression. The sums of the weighted components constitute the scores, such that higher scores reflect, on balance, more proinflammatory exposures. We calculated the DIS, LIS, DII, and EDIP with cross-sectional data from the remaining REGARDS cohort (  n = 14,210 with hsCRP measurements) and 2 other study populations with hsCRP and/or an 8-component inflammation biomarker panel, and investigated their associations with circulating inflammation biomarker concentrations using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: In REGARDS, those in the highest relative to the lowest DIS, LIS, DII, and EDIP quintiles had statistically significant 1.66-, 4.29-, 1.56-, and 1.32-fold higher odds of a high hsCRP concentration (>3 mg/dL), respectively (all P-trend < 0.001). Those in the highest relative to the lowest joint DIS/LIS quintile had a statistically significant 7.26-fold higher odds of a high hsCRP concentration. Similar findings were noted in the other 2 validation populations.

Conclusion: Our results support that dietary and lifestyle exposures collectively contribute substantially to systemic inflammation, and support the use of our novel DIS and LIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jn/nxz165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887697PMC
December 2019

Consumption of Fish and Long-chain n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Is Associated With Reduced Risk of Colorectal Cancer in a Large European Cohort.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 03 25;18(3):654-666.e6. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Molecular Epidemiology and Exposomics Unit, Italian Institute for Genomic Medicine (IIGM), Torino, Italy.

Background & Aims: There is an unclear association between intake of fish and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFAs) and colorectal cancer (CRC). We examined the association between fish consumption, dietary and circulating levels of n-3 LC-PUFAs, and ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA with CRC using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Methods: Dietary intake of fish (total, fatty/oily, lean/white) and n-3 LC-PUFA were estimated by food frequency questionnaires given to 521,324 participants in the EPIC study; among these, 6291 individuals developed CRC (median follow up, 14.9 years). Levels of phospholipid LC-PUFA were measured by gas chromatography in plasma samples from a sub-group of 461 CRC cases and 461 matched individuals without CRC (controls). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs), respectively, with 95% CIs.

Results: Total intake of fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.80-0.96; P = .005), fatty fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.82-0.98; P = .009), and lean fish (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.83-1.00; P = .016) were inversely associated with CRC incidence. Intake of total n-3 LC-PUFA (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.78-0.95; P = .010) was also associated with reduced risk of CRC, whereas dietary ratio of n-6:n-3 LC-PUFA was associated with increased risk of CRC (HR for quintile 5 vs 1, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.18-1.45; P < .001). Plasma levels of phospholipid n-3 LC-PUFA was not associated with overall CRC risk, but an inverse trend was observed for proximal compared with distal colon cancer (P = .026).

Conclusions: In an analysis of dietary patterns of participants in the EPIC study, we found regular consumption of fish, at recommended levels, to be associated with a lower risk of CRC, possibly through exposure to n-3 LC-PUFA. Levels of n-3 LC-PUFA in plasma were not associated with CRC risk, but there may be differences in risk at different regions of the colon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2019.06.031DOI Listing
March 2020

Association of Selenoprotein and Selenium Pathway Genotypes with Risk of Colorectal Cancer and Interaction with Selenium Status.

Nutrients 2019 Apr 25;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Unit of Nutrition and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO-IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, 08908 Barcelona, Spain.

Selenoprotein genetic variations and suboptimal selenium (Se) levels may contribute to the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. We examined the association between CRC risk and genotype for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in selenoprotein and Se metabolic pathway genes. assays were designed and resulted in the genotyping of 1040 variants in 154 genes from 1420 cases and 1421 controls within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Multivariable logistic regression revealed an association of 144 individual SNPs from 63 Se pathway genes with CRC risk. However, regarding the selenoprotein genes, only rs11111979 retained borderline statistical significance after adjustment for correlated tests ( = 0.10; significance threshold was < 0.1). SNPs in Wingless/Integrated (Wnt) and Transforming growth factor (TGF) beta-signaling genes (, , ) from pathways affected by Se intake were also associated with CRC risk after multiple testing adjustments. Interactions with Se status (using existing serum Se and Selenoprotein P data) were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. Pathway analyses using the modified Adaptive Rank Truncated Product method suggested that genes and gene x Se status interactions in antioxidant, apoptosis, and TGF-beta signaling pathways may be associated with CRC risk. This study suggests that SNPs in the Se pathway alone or in combination with suboptimal Se status may contribute to CRC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11040935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520820PMC
April 2019

Effects of supplemental calcium and vitamin D on tight-junction proteins and mucin-12 expression in the normal rectal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients.

Mol Carcinog 2019 07 2;58(7):1279-1290. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

The physical gut barrier, comprised of a thick mucus layer and the epithelium, plays an important role in defense against microbes and foreign antigens. Calcium and vitamin D may be involved in maintaining the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier, the dysfunction of which may lead to endotoxemia and inflammation, and contribute to colorectal carcinogenesis. We investigated supplemental calcium (1200 mg, daily) and/or vitamin D (1000 IU daily) effects on intestinal barrier function-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a large colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial. We assessed expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 (CLDN1), occludin (OCLD), and mucin-12 (MUC12) in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa using standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Following 1 year of treatment, in the calcium relative to the no calcium group, the CLDN1, OCLD, and MUC12 expression increased by 14% (P = 0.17), 23% (P = 0.11), and 22% (P = 0.07), respectively. In secondary analyses, the estimated calcium treatment effects were greater among participants with baseline serum 25-OH-vitamin D concentrations below the median value of 22.69 ng/mL (CLDN1: 29%, P = 0.04; OCLD: 36%, P = 0.06; MUC12: 35%, P = 0.05). There were no biomarker expression changes in the vitamin D alone group; however, modest increases were found in the combined calcium/vitamin D group. At baseline, obesity, history of a sessile-serrated adenoma, colorectal MIB-1/Ki-67 expression, and a family history of colorectal cancer were associated with CLDN1, OCLD, and MUC12 expression. Our study supports continued investigation of factors that could affect intestinal mucosal barrier integrity relevant to colorectal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.23010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6548635PMC
July 2019

Bacterial Translocation and Risk of Liver Cancer in a Finnish Cohort.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2019 04 2;28(4):807-813. Epub 2019 Jan 2.

Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland.

Background: Elevated systemic exposure to gut-derived bacterial products has been associated with hepatic inflammation and chronic liver diseases, potentially increasing the risk of liver cancer. However, only one prior study prospectively examined exposure to bacterial products in the circulation and risk of liver cancer, with a relatively limited coverage of biomarkers.

Methods: We conducted a nested case-control study (224 liver cancer cases and 224 matched controls) in a large cohort of Finnish male smokers followed from baseline (1985-1988) to 2014. The associations between a panel of biomarkers for bacterial translocation and the risk of liver cancer were assessed using multivariable-adjusted conditional logistic regression. The biomarkers included immunoglobulin (Ig) A, IgG, and IgM against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and flagellin, soluble CD14 (an LPS coreceptor), and the LPS-binding protein.

Results: Anti-flagellin IgA [odds ratios (OR), 2.79; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.34-5.78; = 0.01] and anti-LPS IgA (2.44; 95% CI, 1.33-4.48; < 0.01) were significantly associated with risk of liver cancer. When restricting the analysis to histologically classified hepatocellular carcinoma, the ORs were 4.18 (95% CI, 1.60-10.92; < 0.01) and 2.48 (95% CI, 1.16-5.29; < 0.01), respectively. The results were not substantially changed after excluding cases diagnosed within the first 5 years of follow-up and those with hepatitis C virus infection.

Conclusions: Antibodies to flagellin and LPS were associated with increased risk of liver cancer.

Impact: Gut-derived bacterial translocation into the circulation may play a role in the development of primary liver cancer. Our findings could contribute to the understanding of primary liver cancer etiology and further prevention efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-18-0240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7197395PMC
April 2019

Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on markers of proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis in the normal colorectal mucosa of colorectal adenoma patients.

PLoS One 2018 17;13(12):e0208762. Epub 2018 Dec 17.

Department of Epidemiology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

To clarify the roles of vitamin D and calcium as potential chemopreventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, and to develop "treatable", pre-neoplastic, phenotypic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, we estimated the effects of supplemental vitamin D3 (1,000 IU/day [25 μg/day]) and calcium (1,200 mg/day), alone and in combination, on biomarkers of proliferation (mib-1), differentiation (p21), and apoptosis (bax [apoptosis-promoting] and bcl-2 [apoptosis-inhibiting]), in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa in a subsample of participants (n = 104) in a larger randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among colorectal adenoma patients. The biomarkers were measured in rectal biopsies at baseline and after one year of follow up, using automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. In the vitamin D plus calcium group relative to control, in the crypt differentiation zone (upper 40% of crypts), mib-1 expression decreased 24% (P = 0.28); p21 expression alone and relative to mib-1 expression increased 29% (P = 0.06) and 73% (P = 0.06), respectively; and bax expression relative to mib-1 expression increased 58% (P = 0.21). The estimated vitamin D alone treatment effects were similar but of lesser magnitudes, and those for calcium alone were mixed. All estimated treatment effects on bcl-2 expression were close to the null. These pilot study results support further investigation of whether 1) vitamin D and calcium promote colorectal epithelial cell differentiation, reduce proliferation, and promote apoptosis in the normal-appearing human colorectal mucosa, 2) vitamin D and calcium act as chemopreventive agents against colorectal neoplasms, and 3) mib-1, p21, and bax are potential "treatable", pre-neoplastic, biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0208762PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6296527PMC
May 2019

Effects of vitamin D and calcium on expression of MSH2 and transforming growth factors in normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients: A randomized clinical trial.

Mol Carcinog 2019 04 21;58(4):511-523. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Abnormal expression of the DNA mismatch repair protein MSH2 and autocrine/paracrine transforming growth factors TGFα (growth promoter) and TGFβ (growth inhibitor) is common during colorectal carcinogenesis. To estimate vitamin D and calcium effects on these biomarkers in the normal-appearing colorectal mucosa of sporadic colorectal adenoma patients, we conducted a pilot, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, modified 2 × 2 factorial chemoprevention clinical trial (N = 104) of supplemental vitamin D (1000 IU daily) and calcium (1200 mg daily), alone and in combination, versus placebo over 1 year. The expression of the three biomarkers and Ki-67/mib-1 in colorectal crypts in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa were detected using automated immunohistochemistry and quantified using image analysis. In the vitamin D and vitamin D plus calcium groups, relative to their reference groups, in the upper 40% (differentiation zone) of crypts, it was estimated that, respectively, the MSH2/mib-1 ratio increased by 47% (P = 0.14) and 62% (P = 0.08), TGFβ expression increased by 41% (P = 0.25) and 78% (P = 0.14), and the TGFα/TGFβ ratio decreased by 25% (P = 0.31) and 44% (P = 0.13). Although not statistically significant, these results support further research into (i) whether supplemental vitamin D , alone or in combination with calcium, may increase DNA mismatch repair relative to proliferation, increase TGFβ expression, and decrease autocrine/paracrine growth promotion relative to growth inhibition in the colorectal epithelium, all hypothesized to reduce risk for colorectal carcinogenesis; and (ii) the expression of MSH2 relative to mib-1, TGFβ alone, and TGFα relative to TGFβ in the normal-appearing rectal mucosa as potential modifiable, pre-neoplastic markers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22945DOI Listing
April 2019

NSAIDs and Colorectal Cancer Phenotypes: What Now?

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 05;111(5):440-441

Department of Epidemiology, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy174DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6934436PMC
May 2019

Effects of Supplemental Calcium and Vitamin D on Expression of Toll-Like Receptors and Phospho-IKKα/β in the Normal Rectal Mucosa of Colorectal Adenoma Patients.

Cancer Prev Res (Phila) 2018 11 12;11(11):707-716. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Chronic inflammation in the colorectum, a significant contributor to colorectal carcinogenesis, can be triggered by the activation of proinflammatory signaling pathways such as those initiated by Toll-like receptors (TLR) and nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). Although experimental evidence supports calcium and vitamin D potentially modifying these proinflammatory pathways in the colorectum, human data in these regards are scarce. We investigated supplemental calcium (1,200 mg daily) and/or vitamin D (1,000 IU daily) effects on inflammatory signaling pathway-related biomarkers in a subset of 105 participants from a colorectal adenoma recurrence chemoprevention clinical trial. We assessed expression of TLR4 and TLR5, which recognize the bacterial components lipopolysaccharides and flagellin, respectively, and phospho-IKKα/β (pIKKα/β), a biomarker of inflammation, in the normal-appearing rectal crypt epithelium and stroma using standardized, automated immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis. Following 1 year of treatment, TLR4, TLR5, and pIKKα/β expression in the rectal mucosa did not statistically significantly change with vitamin D or calcium supplementation, taken alone or in combination. Several baseline participant characteristics, including body mass index, history of sessile serrated adenomas, high red/processed meat intake, and high levels of rectal epithelial cell proliferation (as measured by MIB-1/Ki-67), were associated with higher baseline expression of TLRs or pIKKα/β. Our findings suggest that vitamin D and calcium may have no substantial effect on the investigated biomarkers. However, several modifiable lifestyle factors may be associated with TLRs and pIKKα/β expression in the normal rectal mucosa, supporting their future investigation as potentially treatable, preneoplastic risk factors for colorectal neoplasms. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-18-0123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6214739PMC
November 2018

Circulating Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer Risk: An International Pooling Project of 17 Cohorts.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2019 02;111(2):158-169

Department of Health National Institute for Health and Welfare, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health.

Methods: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations. For 30.1% of participants, 25(OH)D was newly measured. Previously measured 25(OH)D was calibrated to the same assay to permit estimating risk by absolute concentrations. Study-specific relative risks (RRs) for prediagnostic season-standardized 25(OH)D concentrations were calculated using conditional logistic regression and pooled using random effects models.

Results: Compared with the lower range of sufficiency for bone health (50-<62.5 nmol/L), deficient 25(OH)D (<30 nmol/L) was associated with 31% higher colorectal cancer risk (RR = 1.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.62); 25(OH)D above sufficiency (75-<87.5 and 87.5-<100 nmol/L) was associated with 19% (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.67 to 0.99) and 27% (RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.59 to 0.91) lower risk, respectively. At 25(OH)D of 100 nmol/L or greater, risk did not continue to decline and was not statistically significantly reduced (RR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.67 to 1.24, 3.5% of control participants). Associations were minimally affected when adjusting for body mass index, physical activity, or other risk factors. For each 25 nmol/L increment in circulating 25(OH)D, colorectal cancer risk was 19% lower in women (RR = 0.81, 95% CI = 0.75 to 0.87) and 7% lower in men (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.86 to 1.00) (two-sided Pheterogeneity by sex = .008). Associations were inverse in all subgroups, including colorectal subsite, geographic region, and season of blood collection.

Conclusions: Higher circulating 25(OH)D was related to a statistically significant, substantially lower colorectal cancer risk in women and non-statistically significant lower risk in men. Optimal 25(OH)D concentrations for colorectal cancer risk reduction, 75-100 nmol/L, appear higher than current IOM recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6376911PMC
February 2019

Associations of Circulating 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 Concentrations With Incident, Sporadic Colorectal Adenoma Risk According to Common Vitamin D-Binding Protein Isoforms.

Am J Epidemiol 2018 09;187(9):1923-1930

Department of Epidemiology, Rollins School of Public Health, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), the main circulating form of vitamin D, is inversely associated with incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma risk. We investigated whether this association differs by 2 functional variants in the vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene, group-specific component (GC), that encode for common protein isoforms Gc1s, Gc1f, and Gc2 linked to differences in vitamin D metabolism. We pooled data (418 patients with adenoma and 524 polyp-free control subjects) from 3 colonoscopy-based case-control studies (Minnesota, 1991-1994; North Carolina, 1994-1997; South Carolina, 2002). We estimated 25(OH)D3-adenoma associations, stratified by DBP isoforms, using multivariable logistic regression. Higher 25(OH)D3 concentrations were inversely associated with colorectal adenoma risk among those with the Gc2 isoform (per 10-ng/mL increase in 25(OH)D3, odds ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.56, 0.90), but not among those with only Gc1 isoforms (odds ratio = 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 0.87, 1.32; P for interaction = 0.03). Thus, the vitamin D-incident, sporadic colorectal adenoma association may differ by common DBP isoforms, and patients with the Gc2 isoform may particularly benefit from maintaining higher circulating 25(OH)D3 concentrations for adenoma prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwy102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6118072PMC
September 2018

Dietary intake of total polyphenol and polyphenol classes and the risk of colorectal cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.

Eur J Epidemiol 2018 Nov 15;33(11):1063-1075. Epub 2018 May 15.

CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain.

Polyphenols may play a chemopreventive role in colorectal cancer (CRC); however, epidemiological evidence supporting a role for intake of individual polyphenol classes, other than flavonoids is insufficient. We evaluated the association between dietary intakes of total and individual classes and subclasses of polyphenols and CRC risk and its main subsites, colon and rectum, within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. The cohort included 476,160 men and women from 10 European countries. During a mean follow-up of 14 years, there were 5991 incident CRC cases, of which 3897 were in the colon and 2094 were in the rectum. Polyphenol intake was estimated using validated centre/country specific dietary questionnaires and the Phenol-Explorer database. In multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models, a doubling in total dietary polyphenol intake was not associated with CRC risk in women (HR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.99-1.14) or in men (HR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.90-1.05), respectively. Phenolic acid intake, highly correlated with coffee consumption, was inversely associated with colon cancer in men (HR = 0.91, 95% CI 0.85-0.97) and positively associated with rectal cancer in women (HR = 1.10, 95% CI 1.02-1.19); although associations did not exceed the Bonferroni threshold for significance. Intake of other polyphenol classes was not related to colorectal, colon or rectal cancer risks. Our study suggests a possible inverse association between phenolic acid intake and colon cancer risk in men and positive with rectal cancer risk in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-018-0408-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6760973PMC
November 2018
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