Publications by authors named "Veronica Patton"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Vascular endothelial growth factor c promotes ovarian carcinoma progression through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms.

Am J Pathol 2014 Apr 6;184(4):1050-1061. Epub 2014 Feb 6.

Department of Oncology, Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri (IRCCS; the Foundation of the Carlo Besta Neurological Institute), Bergamo and Milan, Italy.

Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGFC) has been reported to promote tumor progression in several tumor types, mainly through the stimulation of lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis. However, the expression and biological significance of the VEGFC/VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-3 pathway in ovarian cancer growth and dissemination are unclear, and have been investigated in this study. Soluble VEGFC was detected in the plasma and ascites of patients with ovarian carcinoma, and VEGFR3 expression was found in their tumor tissues. In human ovarian carcinoma xenograft models, high levels of soluble VEGFC in ascites and serum were detected, in association with disease progression, tumor burden, and volume of ascites. Peak VEGFC expression preceded para-aortic lymph node infiltration by HOC8 neoplastic cells. Histological detection of tumor cells in blood and lymphatic vessels indicated both hematogenous and lymphatic dissemination. Overexpression of VEGFC in the VEGFR3-positive and luciferase-expressing IGROV1 cells promoted carcinoma dissemination after orthotopic transplantation in the ovary of immunodeficient mice. In vitro, VEGFC released by the tumor cells stimulated tumor cell migration in an autocrine manner. Cediranib, an inhibitor of VEGFR1-3 and c-kit, inhibited in vivo metastasis of VEGFC-overexpressing IGROV1 and in vitro autocrine effects. These findings suggest that the VEGFC/VEGFR3 pathway acts as an enhancer of ovarian cancer progression through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms, hence offering a potential target for therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2013.12.030DOI Listing
April 2014

The Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) inhibitor NMS-P937 is effective in a new model of disseminated primary CD56+ acute monoblastic leukaemia.

PLoS One 2013 8;8(3):e58424. Epub 2013 Mar 8.

Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Nerviano, Milano, Italy.

CD56 is expressed in 15-20% of acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) and is associated with extramedullary diffusion, multidrug resistance and poor prognosis. We describe the establishment and characterisation of a novel disseminated model of AML (AML-NS8), generated by injection into mice of leukaemic blasts freshly isolated from a patient with an aggressive CD56(+) monoblastic AML (M5a). The model reproduced typical manifestations of this leukaemia, including presence of extramedullary masses and central nervous system involvement, and the original phenotype, karyotype and genotype of leukaemic cells were retained in vivo. Recently Polo-Like Kinase 1 (PLK1) has emerged as a new candidate drug target in AML. We therefore tested our PLK1 inhibitor NMS-P937 in this model either in the engraftment or in the established disease settings. Both schedules showed good efficacy compared to standard therapies, with a significant increase in median survival time (MST) expecially in the established disease setting (MST = 28, 36, 62 days for vehicle, cytarabine and NMS-P937, respectively). Importantly, we could also demonstrate that NMS-P937 induced specific biomarker modulation in extramedullary tissues. This new in vivo model of CD56(+) AML that recapitulates the human tumour lends support for the therapeutic use of PLK1 inhibitors in AML.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0058424PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3592825PMC
September 2013

Phosphorylation of TCTP as a marker for polo-like kinase-1 activity in vivo.

Anticancer Res 2010 Dec;30(12):4973-85

BU Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences srl, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.

Polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) is the master regulator of mitosis and a target for anticancer therapy. To develop a marker of PLK1 activity in cells and tumour tissues, this study focused on translational controlled tumour protein (TCTP) and identified serine 46 as a site phosphorylated by PLK1 in vitro. Using an antibody raised against phospho-TCTP-Ser46, it was demonstrated that phosphorylation at this site correlates with PLK1 level and kinase activity in cells. Moreover, PLK1 depletion by siRNA or inactivation by specific inhibitors caused a correspondent decrease in phospho-TCTP-Ser46 signal validating this site as a direct marker of PLK1. Using this marker, the study characterized PLK1 inhibitors in cells by setting up a high-content assay and finally immunohistochemical assay suitable for following inhibitor activity in preclinical tumour models and possibly in clinical studies was developed.
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December 2010

Dual targeting of CDK and tropomyosin receptor kinase families by the oral inhibitor PHA-848125, an agent with broad-spectrum antitumor efficacy.

Mol Cancer Ther 2010 Aug 3;9(8):2243-54. Epub 2010 Aug 3.

Cell Biology Department, BU Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, v.le Pasteur 10, Nerviano, Milan 20014, Italy.

Altered expression and activity of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) and tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) families are observed in a wide variety of tumors. In those malignancies with aberrant CDK activation, the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) pathway is deregulated, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation. Constitutive activation of TRKs is instead linked to cancer cell survival and dissemination. Here, we show that the novel small-molecule PHA-848125, a potent dual inhibitor of CDKs and TRKs, possesses significant antitumor activity. The compound inhibits cell proliferation of a wide panel of tumoral cell lines with submicromolar IC(50). PHA-848125-treated cells show cell cycle arrest in G(1) and reduced DNA synthesis, accompanied by inhibition of pRb phosphorylation and modulation of other CDK-dependent markers. The compound additionally inhibits phosphorylation of TRKA and its substrates in cells, which functionally express this receptor. Following oral administration, PHA-848125 has significant antitumor activity in various human xenografts and carcinogen-induced tumors as well as in disseminated primary leukemia models, with plasma concentrations in rodents in the same range as those found active in inhibiting cancer cell proliferation. Mechanism of action was also confirmed in vivo as assessed in tumor biopsies from treated mice. These results show that the dual CDK-TRK inhibitor PHA-848125 has the potential for being a novel and efficacious targeted drug for cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-10-0190DOI Listing
August 2010

Efficacy of PHA-848125, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, on the K-Ras(G12D)LA2 lung adenocarcinoma transgenic mouse model: evaluation by multimodality imaging.

Mol Cancer Ther 2010 Mar 2;9(3):673-81. Epub 2010 Mar 2.

Pharmacology Department, BU Oncology, Nerviano Medical Sciences, Milano, Italy.

K-ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the most common form of lung cancer. Recent studies indicate that NSCLC patients with mutant K-ras do not respond to epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors. In the attempt to find alternative therapeutic regimes for such patients, we tested PHA-848125, an oral pan cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor currently under evaluation in phase II clinical trial, on a transgenic mouse model, K-Ras(G12D)LA2, which develops pulmonary cancerous lesions reminiscent of human lung adenocarcinomas. We used magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography to follow longitudinally disease progression and evaluate therapeutic efficacy in this model. Treatment of K-Ras(G12D)LA2 mice with 40 mg/kg twice daily for 10 days with PHA-848125 induced a significant tumor growth inhibition at the end of treatment (P < 0.005) and this was accompanied by a reduction in the cell membrane turnover, as seen by 11C-Choline-positron emission tomography (P < 0.05). Magnetic resonance imaging data were validated versus histology and the mechanism of action of the compound was verified by immunohistochemistry, using cyclin-dependent kinase-related biomarkers phospho-Retinoblastoma and cyclin A. In this study, multimodality imaging was successfully used for the preclinical assessment of PHA-848125 therapeutic efficacy on a lung adenocarcinoma mouse model. This compound induced a volumetric and metabolic anticancer effect and could represent a valid therapeutic approach for NSCLC patients with mutant K-ras.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0726DOI Listing
March 2010

Therapeutic efficacy of the pan-cdk inhibitor PHA-793887 in vitro and in vivo in engraftment and high-burden leukemia models.

Exp Hematol 2010 Apr 16;38(4):259-269.e2. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Nerviano Medical Sciences Srl, Business Unit Oncology, Nerviano, Italy.

Objective: The aim of the work was to determine and characterize, in vitro and in vivo, the therapeutic activity of PHA-793887, a new potent pan-cdk inhibitor, in the context of hematopoietic neoplasms.

Materials And Methods: Thirteen leukemic cell lines bearing different cytogenetic abnormalities and normal hematopoietic cells were used in cytotoxicity and colony assays. The drug activity at the molecular level was analyzed by Western blotting. PHA-793887 was also tested in vivo in several leukemia xenograft models.

Results: PHA-793887 was cytotoxic for leukemic cell lines in vitro, with IC(50) ranging from 0.3 to 7 microM (mean: 2.9 microM), regardless of any specific chromosomal aberration. At these doses, the drug was not cytotoxic for normal unstimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells or CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. Interestingly, in colony assays PHA-793887 showed very high activity against leukemia cell lines, with an IC(50) <0.1 microM (mean: 0.08 microM), indicating that it has efficient and prolonged antiproliferative activity. PHA-793887 induced cell-cycle arrest, inhibited Rb and nucleophosmin phosphorylation, and modulated cyclin E and cdc6 expression at low doses (0.2-1 microM) and induced apoptosis at the highest dose (5 microM). It was also effective in vivo in both subcutaneous xenograft and primary leukemic disseminated models that better mimic naturally occurring human disease. Interestingly, in one disseminated model derived from a relapsed Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoid leukemia patient, PHA-793887 showed strong therapeutic activity also when treatment was started after establishment of high disease burden.

Conclusions: We conclude that PHA-793887 has promising therapeutic activity against acute leukemias in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2010.02.004DOI Listing
April 2010

Reduced mammary tumor progression in a transgenic mouse model fed an isoflavone-poor soy protein concentrate.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2008 Oct;52(10):1121-9

Department of Pharmacological Sciences, University of Milano, Milan, Italy.

Dietary exposure to soy has been associated with reduced breast cancer incidence. Soy isoflavones and protein components, such as protease inhibitors and the lunasin peptide, have been indicated as potential agents reducing carcinogenesis. In this study, the effect of soy-based diets was evaluated in a transgenic mouse model of breast carcinoma, overexpressing the neu oncogene. Neu female mice were fed for 20 wk a soy- and isoflavone-free diet (IFD), 4RF21 laboratory mouse diet, soy-based, thus isoflavone-rich (STD), or AIN-76-based semisynthetic diets with a soy protein isolate (SPI) or an isoflavone-poor soy protein concentrate (IPSP) as protein source. Mice were then sacrificed and tumors removed. Mammary tumor weights were not different in SPI versus IFD and STD fed mice. In contrast, mice fed IPSP showed reduced tumor progression versus IFD and STD groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, IPSP fed mice showed lower bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation into breast tumor cells compared to STD and SPI fed animals (p < 0.02). Lung metastases were detected in 80% of IFD fed mice, in 70% of mice fed STD and SPI, and only in 50% of the IPSP fed animals. These results indicate that a diet containing an isoflavone-poor soy protein concentrate may inhibit breast tumor progression and metastasis development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200700296DOI Listing
October 2008

A Cdc7 kinase inhibitor restricts initiation of DNA replication and has antitumor activity.

Nat Chem Biol 2008 Jun 11;4(6):357-65. Epub 2008 May 11.

Nerviano Medical Sciences Oncology, Via Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Italy.

Cdc7 is an essential kinase that promotes DNA replication by activating origins of replication. Here, we characterized the potent Cdc7 inhibitor PHA-767491 (1) in biochemical and cell-based assays, and we tested its antitumor activity in rodents. We found that the compound blocks DNA synthesis and affects the phosphorylation of the replicative DNA helicase at Cdc7-dependent phosphorylation sites. Unlike current DNA synthesis inhibitors, PHA-767491 prevents the activation of replication origins but does not impede replication fork progression, and it does not trigger a sustained DNA damage response. Treatment with PHA-767491 results in apoptotic cell death in multiple cancer cell types and tumor growth inhibition in preclinical cancer models. To our knowledge, PHA-767491 is the first molecule that directly affects the mechanisms controlling initiation as opposed to elongation in DNA replication, and its activities suggest that Cdc7 kinase inhibition could be a new strategy for the development of anticancer therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchembio.90DOI Listing
June 2008

PHA-739358, a potent inhibitor of Aurora kinases with a selective target inhibition profile relevant to cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2007 Dec;6(12 Pt 1):3158-68

Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l.-Oncology, Viale Pasteur 10, 20014 Nerviano, Milan, Italy.

PHA-739358 is a small-molecule 3-aminopyrazole derivative with strong activity against Aurora kinases and cross-reactivities with some receptor tyrosine kinases relevant for cancer. PHA-739358 inhibits all Aurora kinase family members and shows a dominant Aurora B kinase inhibition-related cellular phenotype and mechanism of action in cells in vitro and in vivo. p53 status-dependent endoreduplication is observed upon treatment of cells with PHA-739358, and phosphorylation of histone H3 in Ser(10) is inhibited. The compound has significant antitumor activity in different xenografts and spontaneous and transgenic animal tumor models and shows a favorable pharmacokinetic and safety profile. In vivo target modulation is observed as assessed by the inhibition of the phosphorylation of histone H3, which has been validated preclinically as a candidate biomarker for the clinical phase. Pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics modeling was used to define drug potency and to support the prediction of active clinical doses and schedules. We conclude that PHA-739358, which is currently tested in clinical trials, has great therapeutic potential in anticancer therapy in a wide range of cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-07-0444DOI Listing
December 2007