Publications by authors named "Veronica Morini"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phenotypic switch induced by simulated microgravity on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells.

Biomed Res Int 2014 18;2014:652434. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Department of Experimental Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Systems Biology Group, Viale Regina Elena 324, Via A. Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Microgravity exerts dramatic effects on cell morphology and functions, by disrupting cytoskeleton and adhesion structures, as well as by interfering with biochemical pathways and gene expression. Impairment of cells behavior has both practical and theoretical significance, given that investigations of mechanisms involved in microgravity-mediated effects may shed light on how biophysical constraints cooperate in shaping complex living systems. By exposing breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells to simulated microgravity (~0.001 g), we observed the emergence of two morphological phenotypes, characterized by distinct membrane fractal values, surface area, and roundness. Moreover, the two phenotypes display different aggregation profiles and adherent behavior on the substrate. These morphological differences are mirrored by the concomitant dramatic functional changes in cell processes (proliferation and apoptosis) and signaling pathways (ERK, AKT, and Survivin). Furthermore, cytoskeleton undergoes a dramatic reorganization, eventually leading to a very different configuration between the two populations. These findings could be considered adaptive and reversible features, given that, by culturing microgravity-exposed cells into a normal gravity field, cells are enabled to recover their original phenotype. Overall these data outline the fundamental role gravity plays in shaping form and function in living systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/652434DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4151603PMC
April 2015

Melatonin down-regulates MDM2 gene expression and enhances p53 acetylation in MCF-7 cells.

J Pineal Res 2014 Aug 10;57(1):120-9. Epub 2014 Jul 10.

Department of Surgery "P. Valdoni", "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Compelling evidence demonstrated that melatonin increases p53 activity in cancer cells. p53 undergoes acetylation to be stabilized and activated for driving cells destined for apoptosis/growth inhibition. Over-expression of p300 induces p53 acetylation, leading to cell growth arrest by increasing p21 expression. In turn, p53 activation is mainly regulated in the nucleus by MDM2. MDM2 also acts as E3 ubiquitin ligase, promoting the proteasome-dependent p53 degradation. MDM2 entry into the nucleus is finely tuned by two different modulations: the ribosomal protein L11, acts by sequestering MDM2 in the cytosol, whereas the PI3K-AkT-dependent MDM2 phosphorylation is mandatory for MDM2 translocation across the nuclear membrane. In addition, MDM2-dependent targeting of p53 is regulated in a nonlinear fashion by MDM2/MDMX interplay. Melatonin induces both cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in MCF7 breast cancer cells. We previously reported that this effect is associated with reduced MDM2 levels and increased p53 activity. Herein, we demonstrated that melatonin drastically down-regulates MDM2 gene expression and inhibits MDM2 shuttling into the nucleus, given that melatonin increases L11 and inhibits Akt-PI3K-dependent MDM2 phosphorylation. Melatonin induces a 3-fold increase in both MDMX and p300 levels, decreasing simultaneously Sirt1, a specific inhibitor of p300 activity. Consequently, melatonin-treated cells display significantly higher values of both p53 and acetylated p53. Thus, a 15-fold increase in p21 levels was observed in melatonin-treated cancer cells. Our results provide evidence that melatonin enhances p53 acetylation by modulating the MDM2/MDMX/p300 pathway, disclosing new insights for understanding its anticancer effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12150DOI Listing
August 2014

Nicotine increases survival in human colon cancer cells treated with chemotherapeutic drugs.

Toxicol In Vitro 2013 Dec 2;27(8):2256-63. Epub 2013 Oct 2.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Piazza Sassari 3, 00161 Rome, Italy; Department of Surgery "Pietro Valdoni", Sapienza University of Rome, Via Antonio Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Cigarette smoking is implicated in the development of colon cancer. Furthermore, nicotine increases cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) activation in human colon carcinoma cells. An open issue is whether nicotine interfere with colorectal cancer pharmacological treatment, by inhibiting drug-mediated apoptosis. To assess this hypothesis, we evaluated nicotine effect on Caco-2 and HCT-8 colon cancer cells, treated with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) and Camptothecin (CPT), chemotherapeutics commonly utilized as adjuvant treatment of colon cancer. Nicotine decreased anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects exerted by chemotherapeutics on both cell lines. These effects partially reverted by exposure to α-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), an inhibitor of α7-nAChR. Nicotine addition to Caco-2 and HCT-8, treated with 5-FU or CPT, decreased the cleavage of substrate of caspase 3 and 7, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). Moreover, P-ERK/ERK ratio was modified by nicotine addition to 5-FU and CPT treated cells in an opposite manner. However, when co-administrating PD98059, an ERK phosphorylation inhibitor, an increased apoptosis was observed. In Caco-2 and HCT-8 nicotine reverted 5-FU and CPT apoptotic effects through AKT phosphorylation, as demonstrated by apoptotic increase in presence of LY294002, an AKT phosphorylation inhibitor. Nicotine interfered with colorectal cancer pharmacological treatment in vitro by inhibiting apoptosis induced by chemotherapeutic drugs. Nicotine anti-apoptotic effects were exerted through ERK and AKT pathway activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2013.09.020DOI Listing
December 2013

Opposing effects of cannabinoids and vanilloids on evoked quantal release at the frog neuromuscular junction.

Neurosci Lett 2010 Apr 20;473(2):97-101. Epub 2010 Feb 20.

Departamento de Fisiologia e Biofísica, ICB/UFMG, Av. Antônio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais 31270-901, Brazil.

Cannabinoids and vanilloids are two distinct groups of substances that share some pharmacological targets. Here we report that two cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1) agonists, WIN 55212-2 (WIN) and arachidonyl-2'-chloroethylamide (ACEA) have opposing effects on evoked quantal acetylcholine release - WIN decreased quantal content while ACEA increased quantal content. The decrease in quantal content by WIN was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM 251. The increase in quantal content by ACEA was not blocked by AM 251, indicating it acts through a receptor other than CB1. As ACEA is also an agonist for the vanilloid receptor (TRPV1) we tested the effect of vanilloids on quantal content. Similar to ACEA, the vanilloid agonist capsaicin increased quantal content, and this effect was blocked by capsazepine, a TRPV1 antagonist. Capsazepine also blocked the increase in quantal content by ACEA. Together these data show an inhibitory effect of CB1 activation on evoked acetylcholine release and the first evidence for the presence of a vanilloid receptor at the neuromuscular junction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neulet.2010.02.026DOI Listing
April 2010