Publications by authors named "Vern B Carruthers"

90Publications

Orally Bioavailable Endochin-Like Quinolone Carbonate Ester Prodrug Reduces Toxoplasma gondii Brain Cysts.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2020 08 20;64(9). Epub 2020 Aug 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

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August 2020

Cathepsin Protease B and Aspartyl Protease 1 Are Dispensable for Endolysosomal Protein Digestion.

mSphere 2020 02 12;5(1). Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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February 2020

Toxoplasma gondii: Bradyzoite Differentiation In Vitro and In Vivo.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2071:269-282

Department of Pathology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA.

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January 2021

PCR Screening of Toxoplasma gondii Single Clones Directly from 96-Well Plates Without DNA Purification.

Methods Mol Biol 2020 ;2071:117-123

Department of Chemistry, Biology, and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, Perugia, Italy.

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January 2021

Interrupting Toxoplasma's Regularly Scheduled Program of Egress.

Trends Parasitol 2019 05 1;35(5):338-340. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA. Electronic address:

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May 2019

Protein -fucosyltransferase 2-mediated -glycosylation of the adhesin MIC2 is dispensable for tachyzoite infection.

J Biol Chem 2019 02 4;294(5):1541-1553. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Melbourne at the Peter Doherty Institute for Infection and Immunity, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia

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February 2019

Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii perforin-like protein 1 membrane interaction and activity during egress.

PLoS Pathog 2018 12 4;14(12):e1007476. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States of America.

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December 2018

Optimization of dipeptidic inhibitors of cathepsin L for improved Toxoplasma gondii selectivity and CNS permeability.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2018 06 9;28(10):1972-1980. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Vahlteich Medicinal Chemistry Core, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States; Department of Medicinal Chemistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, United States. Electronic address:

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June 2018

LCAT Primarily Contributes to Tachyzoite Egress.

mSphere 2018 Jan-Feb;3(1). Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

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February 2018

New and emerging uses of CRISPR/Cas9 to genetically manipulate apicomplexan parasites.

Parasitology 2018 08 21;145(9):1119-1126. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology,University of Michigan Medical School,Ann Arbor,Michigan 48109,USA.

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August 2018

Intersection of endocytic and exocytic systems in Toxoplasma gondii.

Traffic 2018 05 25;19(5):336-353. Epub 2018 Mar 25.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan.

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May 2018

Structural Features of Apicomplexan Pore-Forming Proteins and Their Roles in Parasite Cell Traversal and Egress.

Toxins (Basel) 2017 08 29;9(9). Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA.

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August 2017

A Genome-wide CRISPR Screen in Toxoplasma Identifies Essential Apicomplexan Genes.

Cell 2016 Sep 2;166(6):1423-1435.e12. Epub 2016 Sep 2.

Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

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September 2016

A Toxoplasma gondii Ortholog of Plasmodium GAMA Contributes to Parasite Attachment and Cell Invasion.

mSphere 2016 Jan-Feb;1(1). Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

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June 2016

Toxoplasma Retromer Is Here to Stay.

Trends Parasitol 2016 10 27;32(10):758-760. Epub 2016 May 27.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-5620, USA. Electronic address:

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October 2016

Cerebral complement C1q activation in chronic Toxoplasma infection.

Brain Behav Immun 2016 Nov 22;58:52-56. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Stanley Division of Developmental Neurovirology, Department of Pediatrics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe Street, Blalock 1105, Baltimore, MD 21287-4933, USA. Electronic address:

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November 2016

A Lipolytic Lecithin:Cholesterol Acyltransferase Secreted by Toxoplasma Facilitates Parasite Replication and Egress.

J Biol Chem 2016 Feb 22;291(8):3725-46. Epub 2015 Dec 22.

From the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205,

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February 2016

Appetite for a Foodborne Infection.

PLoS Pathog 2015 Sep 24;11(9):e1005124. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

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September 2015

Shared Immune and Repair Markers During Experimental Toxoplasma Chronic Brain Infection and Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2016 Mar 20;42(2):386-95. Epub 2015 Sep 20.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI;

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March 2016

Alternative splicing mechanisms orchestrating post-transcriptional gene expression: intron retention and the intron-rich genome of apicomplexan parasites.

Curr Genet 2016 Feb 21;62(1):31-8. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, Biology and Biotechnology, University of Perugia, via del Giochetto, 06122, Perugia, Italy.

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February 2016

Parasites and their heterophagic appetite for disease.

PLoS Pathog 2015 May 21;11(5):e1004803. Epub 2015 May 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

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May 2015

Structural basis of Toxoplasma gondii MIC2-associated protein interaction with MIC2.

J Biol Chem 2015 Jan 19;290(3):1432-41. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

From the Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 and

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January 2015

Acidification Activates Toxoplasma gondii Motility and Egress by Enhancing Protein Secretion and Cytolytic Activity.

PLoS Pathog 2014 Nov 6;10(11):e1004488. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

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November 2014

A conserved apicomplexan microneme protein contributes to Toxoplasma gondii invasion and virulence.

Infect Immun 2014 Oct 4;82(10):4358-68. Epub 2014 Aug 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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October 2014

Toxoplasma gondii ingests and digests host cytosolic proteins.

mBio 2014 Jul 15;5(4):e01188-14. Epub 2014 Jul 15.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, the University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA

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July 2014

A vacuolar-H(+) -pyrophosphatase (TgVP1) is required for microneme secretion, host cell invasion, and extracellular survival of Toxoplasma gondii.

Mol Microbiol 2014 Aug 16;93(4):698-712. Epub 2014 Jul 16.

Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases and Department of Cellular Biology, University of Georgia, GA, 30602-7400, USA; College of Veterinary Medicine, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.

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August 2014

Characterization of the chloroquine resistance transporter homologue in Toxoplasma gondii.

Eukaryot Cell 2014 Nov 23;13(11):1360-70. Epub 2014 May 23.

Research School of Biology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australia

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November 2014

A thiazole derivative of artemisinin moderately reduces Toxoplasma gondii cyst burden in infected mice.

J Parasitol 2014 Aug 13;100(4):516-21. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109.

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August 2014

Toxoplasma gondii-induced activation of EGFR prevents autophagy protein-mediated killing of the parasite.

PLoS Pathog 2013 19;9(12):e1003809. Epub 2013 Dec 19.

Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America ; Division of Infectious Diseases and HIV Medicine, Department of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America ; Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, United States of America.

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September 2014

Protein trafficking through the endosomal system prepares intracellular parasites for a home invasion.

PLoS Pathog 2013 Oct 24;9(10):e1003629. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille, CNRS UMR 8204, INSERM U 1019, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.

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October 2013

A novel high throughput invasion screen identifies host actin regulators required for efficient cell entry by Toxoplasma gondii.

PLoS One 2013 31;8(5):e64693. Epub 2013 May 31.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan, United States of America.

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February 2014

Recent insights into apicomplexan parasite egress provide new views to a kill.

Curr Opin Microbiol 2013 Aug 28;16(4):459-64. Epub 2013 May 28.

Division of Parasitology, MRC National Institute for Medical Research, The Ridgeway, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, United Kingdom.

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August 2013

Functional dissection of Toxoplasma gondii perforin-like protein 1 reveals a dual domain mode of membrane binding for cytolysis and parasite egress.

J Biol Chem 2013 Mar 2;288(12):8712-25. Epub 2013 Feb 2.

Cell and Molecular Biology Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-5630, USA.

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March 2013

Non-canonical maturation of two papain-family proteases in Toxoplasma gondii.

J Biol Chem 2013 Feb 18;288(5):3523-34. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

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February 2013

Microneme protein 5 regulates the activity of Toxoplasma subtilisin 1 by mimicking a subtilisin prodomain.

J Biol Chem 2012 Oct 15;287(43):36029-40. Epub 2012 Aug 15.

Division of Molecular Biosciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.

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October 2012

Cathepsin proteases in Toxoplasma gondii.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2011 ;712:49-61

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA.

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September 2011

Forward targeting of Toxoplasma gondii proproteins to the micronemes involves conserved aliphatic amino acids.

Traffic 2011 Jul 21;12(7):840-53. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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July 2011

Toxoplasma gondii toxolysin 4 is an extensively processed putative metalloproteinase secreted from micronemes.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2011 May 26;177(1):49-56. Epub 2011 Jan 26.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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May 2011

Cell cycle-dependent, intercellular transmission of Toxoplasma gondii is accompanied by marked changes in parasite gene expression.

Mol Microbiol 2011 Jan 9;79(1):192-204. Epub 2010 Nov 9.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 1150 W. Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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January 2011

A novel family of Toxoplasma IMC proteins displays a hierarchical organization and functions in coordinating parasite division.

PLoS Pathog 2010 Sep 9;6(9):e1001094. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California, United States of America.

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September 2010

Apicomplexan perforin-like proteins.

Commun Integr Biol 2010 Jan;3(1):18-23

Department of Microbiology and Immunology; University of Michigan; Ann Arbor, MI USA.

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January 2010

Cathepsin L occupies a vacuolar compartment and is a protein maturase within the endo/exocytic system of Toxoplasma gondii.

Mol Microbiol 2010 Jun 23;76(6):1340-57. Epub 2010 Apr 23.

Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA.

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June 2010

New roles for perforins and proteases in apicomplexan egress.

Cell Microbiol 2009 Oct 13;11(10):1444-52. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 48109, USA.

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October 2009

Toxoplasma gondii cathepsin L is the primary target of the invasion-inhibitory compound morpholinurea-leucyl-homophenyl-vinyl sulfone phenyl.

J Biol Chem 2009 Sep 13;284(39):26839-50. Epub 2009 Jul 13.

Medical Structural Genomics of Pathogenic Protozoa Consortium, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-7742, USA.

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September 2009

Tagging of endogenous genes in a Toxoplasma gondii strain lacking Ku80.

Eukaryot Cell 2009 Apr 13;8(4):530-9. Epub 2009 Feb 13.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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April 2009

Rapid membrane disruption by a perforin-like protein facilitates parasite exit from host cells.

Science 2009 Jan 18;323(5913):530-3. Epub 2008 Dec 18.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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January 2009

Microneme proteins in apicomplexans.

Subcell Biochem 2008 ;47:33-45

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA.

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July 2008

MARveling at parasite invasion.

Trends Parasitol 2008 Feb 18;24(2):51-4. Epub 2008 Jan 18.

Department of Biological Sciences, Center for Global Health and Infectious Disease, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-0369, USA.

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February 2008

Microbial pathogenesis: mechanisms of infectious disease.

Cell Host Microbe 2007 Oct;2(4):214-9

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

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October 2007

A transient forward-targeting element for microneme-regulated secretion in Toxoplasma gondii.

Biol Cell 2008 Apr;100(4):253-64

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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April 2008

Kinetic modeling of Toxoplasma gondii invasion.

J Theor Biol 2007 Dec 14;249(4):817-25. Epub 2007 Sep 14.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan Medical School, 5641 Medical Sciences Bldg. II, 1150 West Medical Center Dr., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0620, USA.

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December 2007

Effects of Toxoplasma gondii infection on the brain.

Schizophr Bull 2007 May 23;33(3):745-51. Epub 2007 Feb 23.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Michigan School of Medicine, Ann Arbor MI 48109, USA.

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May 2007

Cysteine protease inhibitors block Toxoplasma gondii microneme secretion and cell invasion.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007 Feb 4;51(2):679-88. Epub 2006 Dec 4.

Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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February 2007

Targeted deletion of MIC5 enhances trimming proteolysis of Toxoplasma invasion proteins.

Eukaryot Cell 2006 Dec 15;5(12):2174-83. Epub 2006 Sep 15.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, MD 21205, USA.

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December 2006

Toxoplasma MIC2 is a major determinant of invasion and virulence.

PLoS Pathog 2006 Aug;2(8):e84

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

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August 2006

Two separate, conserved acidic amino acid domains within the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2 cytoplasmic tail are required for parasite survival.

J Biol Chem 2006 Oct 21;281(41):30745-54. Epub 2006 Aug 21.

Department of Molecular Microbiology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri 63130-1093, USA.

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October 2006

A cleavable propeptide influences Toxoplasma infection by facilitating the trafficking and secretion of the TgMIC2-M2AP invasion complex.

Mol Biol Cell 2006 Oct 16;17(10):4551-63. Epub 2006 Aug 16.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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October 2006

Proteolysis and Toxoplasma invasion.

Int J Parasitol 2006 May 13;36(5):595-600. Epub 2006 Mar 13.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, 615 North Wolfe Street, Room E5136, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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May 2006

Preparing for an invasion: charting the pathway of adhesion proteins to Toxoplasma micronemes.

Parasitol Res 2006 Apr 30;98(5):389-95. Epub 2005 Dec 30.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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April 2006

Distinct mechanisms govern proteolytic shedding of a key invasion protein in apicomplexan pathogens.

Mol Microbiol 2005 Sep;57(5):1342-56

Department of Protein Structure, National Institute for Medical Research, Mill Hill, London NW7 1AA, UK.

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September 2005

The opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii deploys a diverse legion of invasion and survival proteins.

J Biol Chem 2005 Oct 7;280(40):34233-44. Epub 2005 Jul 7.

The W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

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October 2005

A new release on life: emerging concepts in proteolysis and parasite invasion.

Mol Microbiol 2005 Mar;55(6):1617-30

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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March 2005

The novel coccidian micronemal protein MIC11 undergoes proteolytic maturation by sequential cleavage to remove an internal propeptide.

Int J Parasitol 2004 Aug;34(9):1047-58

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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August 2004

Trans-genera reconstitution and complementation of an adhesion complex in Toxoplasma gondii.

Cell Microbiol 2004 Aug;6(8):771-82

Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Baltimore MD, USA.

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August 2004

Neospora caninum expresses an unusual single-domain Kazal protease inhibitor that is discharged into the parasitophorous vacuole.

Int J Parasitol 2004 May;34(6):693-701

W. Harry Feinstein Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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May 2004

Multimerization of the Toxoplasma gondii MIC2 integrin-like A-domain is required for binding to heparin and human cells.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2004 Apr;134(2):201-12

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street E5132, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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April 2004

Proteomic analysis of cleavage events reveals a dynamic two-step mechanism for proteolysis of a key parasite adhesive complex.

Mol Cell Proteomics 2004 Jun 24;3(6):565-76. Epub 2004 Feb 24.

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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June 2004

Translocation of ribosomal protein P0 onto the Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite surface.

Int J Parasitol 2003 Dec;33(14):1589-94

Department of Biological Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India.

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December 2003

Mutation of an unusual mitochondrial targeting sequence of SODB2 produces multiple targeting fates in Toxoplasma gondii.

J Cell Sci 2003 Nov;116(Pt 22):4675-85

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 North Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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November 2003

Rapid invasion of host cells by Toxoplasma requires secretion of the MIC2-M2AP adhesive protein complex.

EMBO J 2003 May;22(9):2082-90

W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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May 2003

Identification and partial characterization of a second Kazal inhibitor in Toxoplasma gondii.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2003 Apr;128(1):119-22

The W Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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April 2003

Molecular mimicry of a CCR5 binding-domain in the microbial activation of dendritic cells.

Nat Immunol 2003 May 31;4(5):485-90. Epub 2003 Mar 31.

Immunobiology Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA.

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May 2003

Functional analysis of Toxoplasma gondii protease inhibitor 1.

J Biol Chem 2002 Nov 11;277(47):45259-66. Epub 2002 Sep 11.

The W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA.

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November 2002

Is Toxoplasma egress the first step in invasion?

Trends Parasitol 2002 Jun;18(6):251-5

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe St, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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June 2002

A family of transmembrane microneme proteins of Toxoplasma gondii contain EGF-like domains and function as escorters.

J Cell Sci 2002 Feb;115(Pt 3):563-74

Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, Department of Biology, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College Road, London, SW7 2AZ, UK.

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February 2002

Host cell invasion by the opportunistic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii.

Acta Trop 2002 Feb;81(2):111-22

W. Harry Feinstone Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, 615 N. Wolfe Street, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

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February 2002