Publications by authors named "Verena Volland-Thurn"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Chronic inflammation of middle ear cholesteatoma promotes its recurrence via a paracrine mechanism.

Cell Commun Signal 2021 Feb 24;19(1):25. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Medical School OWL Campus Klinikum Bielefeld, Bielefeld University, Teutoburger Str. 50, 33604, Bielefeld, Germany.

Background: Cholesteatoma disease is an expanding lesion in the middle ear. Hearing loss and facial paralysis alongside with other intracranial complications are found. No pharmaceutical treatment is available today and recurrence after surgical extraction occurs. We investigated possible TLR4-based mechanisms promoting recurrence and explore possible treatments strategies.

Methods: We isolated fibroblasts and epidermal stem cells from cholesteatoma tissue and healthy auditory canal skin. Subsequently, their expression under standard culture conditions and after stimulation with LPS was investigated by RT-qPCR. Cell metabolism and proliferation were analysed upon LPS treatment, with and without TLR4 antagonist. An indirect co-culture of fibroblasts and epidermal stem cells isolated from cholesteatoma tissue was utilized to monitor epidermal differentiation upon LPS treatment by RT-qPCR and immunocytochemistry.

Results: Under standard culture conditions, we detected a tissue-independent higher expression of IL-1β and IL-8 in stem cells, an upregulation of KGF and IGF-2 in both cell types derived from cholesteatoma and higher expression of TLR4 in stem cells derived from cholesteatoma tissue. Upon LPS challenge, we could detect a significantly higher expression of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 in stem cells and of TNF-a, GM-CSF and CXCL-5 in stem cells and fibroblasts derived from cholesteatoma. The expression of the growth factors KGF, EGF, EREG, IGF-2 and HGF was significantly higher in fibroblasts, particularly when derived from cholesteatoma. Upon treatment with LPS the metabolism was elevated in stem cells and fibroblasts, proliferation was only enhanced in fibroblasts derived from cholesteatoma. This could be reversed by the treatment with a TLR4 antagonist. The cholesteatoma fibroblasts could be triggered by LPS to promote the epidermal differentiation of the stem cells, while no LPS treatment or LPS treatment without the presence of fibroblasts did not result in such a differentiation.

Conclusion: We propose that cholesteatoma recurrence is based on TLR4 signalling imprinted in the cholesteatoma cells. It induces excessive inflammation of stem cells and fibroblasts, proliferation of perimatrix fibroblasts and the generation of epidermal cells from stem cells thru paracrine signalling by fibroblasts. Treatment of the operation site with a TLR4 antagonist might reduce the chance of cholesteatoma recurrence. Video Abstract.
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February 2021

Stem Cell-Induced Inflammation in Cholesteatoma is Inhibited by the TLR4 Antagonist LPS-RS.

Cells 2020 01 14;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Cell Biology, University of Bielefeld, 33619 Bielefeld, Germany.

Cholesteatoma is a severe non-cancerous lesion of the middle ear characterized by massive inflammation, tissue destruction, and an abnormal growth of keratinized squamous epithelium. We recently demonstrated the presence of pathogenic stem cells within cholesteatoma tissue, unfortunately their potential roles in regulating disease-specific chronic inflammation remain poorly understood. In the presented study, we utilized our established human in vitro cholesteatoma stem cell model for treatments with lipopolysaccharides (LPS), tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), and the TLR4-antagonist LPS from LPS-RS) followed by qPCR, western blot, and immunocytochemistry. Middle ear cholesteatoma stem cells (ME-CSCs) showed a significantly increased expression of TLR4 accompanied by a significantly enhanced LPS-dependent pro-inflammatory gene expression pattern of TNFα, IL-1α, IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 compared to non-pathogenic control cells. LPS-dependent pro-inflammatory gene expression in ME-CSCs was driven by an enhanced activity of NF-B p65 leading to a TNFα-mediated feed-forward-loop of pro-inflammatory NF-B target gene expression. Functional inactivation of TLR4 via the TLR4-antagonist LPS-RS blocked chronic inflammation in ME-CSCs, resulting in a nearly complete loss of IL-1ß, IL-6, and TNFα expression. In summary, we determined that ME-CSCs mediate the inflammatory environment of cholesteatoma via TLR4-mediated NF-B-signaling, suggesting a distinct role of ME-CSCs as drivers of cholesteatoma progression and TLR4 on ME-CSCs as a therapeutic target.
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January 2020