Publications by authors named "Veli-Pekka Harjola"

160 Publications

Systematic geriatric assessment for older patients with frailty in the emergency department: a randomised controlled trial.

BMC Geriatr 2021 07 2;21(1):408. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, PL 340 |Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Comprehensive geriatric assessment provided in hospital wards in frail patients admitted to hospital has been shown to reduce mortality and increase the likelihood of living at home later. Systematic geriatric assessment provided in emergency departments (ED) may be effective for reducing days in hospital and unnecessary hospital admissions, but this has not yet been proven in randomised trials.

Methods: We conducted a single-centre, randomised controlled trial with a parallel-group, superiority design in an academic hospital ED. ED patients aged ≥ 75 years who were frail, or at risk of frailty, as defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale, were included in the trial. Patients were recruited during the period between December 11, 2018 and June 7, 2019, and followed up for 365 days. For the intervention group, systematic geriatric assessment was added to their standard care in the ED, whereas the control group received standard care only. The primary outcome was cumulative hospital stay during 365-day follow-up. The secondary outcomes included: admission rate from the index visit, total hospital admissions, ED-readmissions, proportion of patients living at home at 365 days, 365-day mortality, and fall-related ED-visits.

Results: A total of 432 patients, 63 % female, with median age of 85 years, formed the analytic sample of 213 patients in the intervention group and 219 patients in the control group. Cumulative hospital stay during one-year follow-up as rate per 100 person-years for the intervention and control groups were: 3470 and 3149 days, respectively, with rate ratio of 1.10 (95 % confidence interval, 0.55-2.19, P = .78). Admission rates to hospital wards from the index ED visit for the intervention and control groups were: 62 and 70 %, respectively (P = .10). No significant differences were observed between the groups for any outcomes.

Conclusion: Systematic geriatric assessment for older adults with frailty in the ED did not reduce hospital stay during one-year follow-up. No statistically significant difference was observed for any secondary outcomes. More coordinated, continuous interventions should be tested for potential benefits in long-term outcomes.

Trial Registration: The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number and date NCT03751319 23/11/2018).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-021-02351-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8252275PMC
July 2021

Outcome of patients with different clinical presentations of high-risk pulmonary embolism.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

German Centre for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Berlin, Germany.

Aims: The 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines provide a revised definition of high-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) encompassing three clinical presentations: Cardiac arrest, obstructive shock, and persistent hypotension. This study investigated the prognostic implications of this new definition.

Methods And Results: Data from 784 consecutive PE patients prospectively enrolled in a single-centre registry were analysed. Study outcomes include an in-hospital adverse outcome (PE-related death or cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and in-hospital all-cause mortality. Overall, 86 patients (11.0%) presented with high-risk PE and more often had an adverse outcome (43.0%) compared to intermediate-high-risk patients (6.1%; P < 0.001). Patients with cardiac arrest had the highest rate of an in-hospital adverse outcome (78.4%) and mortality (59.5%; both P < 0.001 compared to intermediate-high-risk patients). Obstructive shock and persistent hypotension had similar rates of adverse outcomes (15.8% and 18.2%, respectively; P = 0.46), but the only obstructive shock was associated with an increased all-cause mortality risk. Use of an optimised venous lactate cut-off value (3.8 mmol/L) to diagnose obstructive shock allowed differentiation of adverse outcome risk between patients with shock (21.4%) and persistent hypotension (9.5%), resulting in a net reclassification improvement (0.24 ± 0.08; P = 0.002).

Conclusion: The revised ESC 2019 guidelines definition of high-risk PE stratifies subgroups at different risk of in-hospital adverse outcomes and all-cause mortality. Risk prediction can be improved by using an optimised venous lactate cut-off value to diagnose obstructive shock, which might help to better assess the risk-to-benefit ratio of systemic thrombolysis in different subgroups of high-risk patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuab038DOI Listing
June 2021

Reply to: High levels of plasma biomarkers at 24 h were found to be strong predictors of 90-day mortality: beware of some potential confounders!

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Mar 15;11(1):46. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Cardiology, Heart and Lung Center, University of Helsinki, Helsinki University Hospital, HUS, 00029, Helsinki, Finland.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-021-00839-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7960823PMC
March 2021

Soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 is a marker of organ injuries in cardiogenic shock: results from the CardShock Study.

Clin Res Cardiol 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Université de Lorraine, CHRU de Nancy, Médecine Intensive et Réanimation Central, INSERM U1116, Nancy, France.

Aims: Optimal outcome after cardiogenic shock (CS) depends on a coordinated healing response in which both debris removal and extracellular matrix tissue repair play a crucial role. Excessive inflammation can perpetuate a vicious circle, positioning leucocytes as central protagonists and potential therapeutic targets. High levels of circulating Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1), were associated with death in acute myocardial infarction confirming excessive inflammation as determinant of bad outcome. The present study aims to describe the association of soluble TREM-1 with 90-day mortality and with various organ injuries in patients with CS.

Methods And Results: This is a post-hoc study of CardShock, a prospective, multicenter study assessing the clinical presentation and management in patients with CS. At the time of this study, 87 patients had available plasma samples at either baseline, and/or 48 h and/or 96-120 h for soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) measurements. Plasma concentration of sTREM-1 was higher in 90-day non-survivors than survivors at baseline [median: 1392 IQR: (724-2128) vs. 621 (525-1233) pg/mL, p = 0.008), 48 h (p = 0.019) and 96-120 h (p = 0.029). The highest tertile of sTREM-1 at baseline (threshold: 1347 pg/mL) was associated with 90-day mortality with an unadjusted HR 3.08 CI 95% (1.48-6.42). sTREM-1 at baseline was not associated to hemodynamic parameters (heart rate, blood pressure, use of vasopressors or inotropes) but rather with organ injury markers: renal (estimated glomerular filtration rate, p = 0.0002), endothelial (bio-adrenomedullin, p = 0.018), myocardial (Suppression of Tumourigenicity 2, p = 0.002) or hepatic (bilirubin, p = 0.008).

Conclusion: In CS patients TREM-1 pathway is highly activated and gives an early prediction of vital organ injuries and outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-021-01823-0DOI Listing
March 2021

External validation and comparison of the CardShock and IABP-SHOCK II risk scores in real-world cardiogenic shock patients.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Jan 31. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, CIBERCV, Spain.

Background: Mortality from cardiogenic shock remains high and early recognition and risk stratification are mandatory for optimal patient allocation and to guide treatment strategy. The CardShock and the Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock (IABP-SHOCK II) risk scores have shown good results in predicting short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock. However, to date, they have not been compared in a large cohort of ischaemic and non-ischaemic real-world cardiogenic shock patients.

Methods: The Red-Shock is a multicentre cohort of non-selected cardiogenic shock patients. We calculated the CardShock and IABP-SHOCK II risk scores in each patient and assessed discrimination and calibration.

Results: We included 696 patients. The main cause of cardiogenic shock was acute coronary syndrome, occurring in 62% of the patients. Compared with acute coronary syndrome patients, non-acute coronary syndrome patients were younger and had a lower proportion of risk factors but higher rates of renal insufficiency; intra-aortic balloon pump was also less frequently used (31% vs 56%). In contrast, non-acute coronary syndrome patients were more often treated with mechanical circulatory support devices (11% vs 3%, p<0.001 for both). Both risk scores were good predictors of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients and had similar areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (area under the curve: 0.742 for the CardShock vs 0.752 for IABP-SHOCK II, p=0.65). Their discrimination performance was only modest when applied to non-acute coronary syndrome patients (0.648 vs 0.619, respectively, p=0.31). Calibration was acceptable for both scores (Hosmer-Lemeshow p=0.22 for the CardShock and 0.68 for IABP-SHOCK II).

Conclusions: In our cohort, both the CardShock and the IABP-SHOCK II risk scores were good predictors of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome-related cardiogenic shock.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619895230DOI Listing
January 2020

The FAST-FURO study: effect of very early administration of intravenous furosemide in the prehospital setting to patients with acute heart failure attending the emergency department.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2021 Jun;10(5):487-496

The GREAT (Global REsearch in Acute cardiovascular conditions Team) Network, Madrid, Spain.

Aims: The effect of early administration of intravenous (IV) furosemide in the emergency department (ED) on short-term outcomes of acute heart failure (AHF) patients remains controversial, with one recent Japanese study reporting a decrease of in-hospital mortality and one Korean study reporting a lack of clinical benefit. Both studies excluded patients receiving prehospital IV furosemide and only included patients requiring hospitalization. To assess the impact on short-term outcomes of early IV furosemide administration by emergency medical services (EMS) before patient arrival to the ED.

Methods And Results: In a secondary analysis of the Epidemiology of Acute Heart Failure in Emergency Departments (EAHFE) registry of consecutive AHF patients admitted to Spanish EDs, patients treated with IV furosemide at the ED were classified according to whether they received IV furosemide from the EMS (FAST-FURO group) or not (CONTROL group). In-hospital all-cause mortality, 30-day all-cause mortality, and prolonged hospitalization (>10 days) were assessed. We included 12 595 patients (FAST-FURO = 683; CONTROL = 11 912): 968 died during index hospitalization [7.7%; FAST-FURO = 10.3% vs. CONTROL = 7.5%; odds ratio (OR) = 1.403, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.085-1.813; P = 0.009], 1269 died during the first 30 days (10.2%; FAST-FURO = 13.4% vs. CONTROL = 9.9%; OR = 1.403, 95% CI = 1.146-1.764; P = 0.004), and 2844 had prolonged hospitalization (22.8%; FAST-FURO = 25.8% vs. CONTROL = 22.6%; OR = 1.189, 95% CI = 0.995-1.419; P = 0.056). FAST-FURO group patients had more diabetes mellitus, ischaemic cardiomyopathy, peripheral artery disease, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and severe decompensations, and had a better New York Heart Association class and had less atrial fibrillation. After adjusting for these significant differences, early IV furosemide resulted in no impact on short-term outcomes: OR = 1.080 (95% CI = 0.817-1.427) for in-hospital mortality, OR = 1.086 (95% CI = 0.845-1.396) for 30-day mortality, and OR = 1.095 (95% CI = 0.915-1.312) for prolonged hospitalization. Several sensitivity analyses, including analysis of 599 pairs of patients matched by propensity score, showed consistent findings.

Conclusion: Early IV furosemide during the prehospital phase was administered to the sickest patients, was not associated with changes in short-term mortality or length of hospitalization after adjustment for several confounders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjacc/zuaa042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8245147PMC
June 2021

Venous lactate improves the prediction of in-hospital adverse outcomes in normotensive pulmonary embolism.

Eur J Intern Med 2021 04 6;86:25-31. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner site Berlin, Germany; Clinic of Cardiology and Pneumology, University Medical Center Göttingen, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Campus Virchow Klinikum (CVK), Charité - University Medicine Berlin, Germany; Center for Thrombosis and Hemostasis (CTH), University Medical Center Mainz, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Arterial lactate is an established risk marker in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE). However, its clinical applicability is limited by the need of an arterial puncture. In contrast, venous lactate can easily be measured from blood samples obtained via routine peripheral venepuncture.

Methods: We investigated the prognostic value of venous lactate with regard to in-hospital adverse outcomes and mortality in 419 consecutive PE patients enrolled in a single-center registry between 09/2008 and 09/2017.

Results: An optimised venous lactate cut-off value of 3.3 mmol/l predicted both, in-hospital adverse outcome (OR 11.0 [95% CI 4.6-26.3]) and all-cause mortality (OR 3.8 [95%CI 1.3-11.3]). The established cut-off value for arterial lactate (2.0 mmol/l) and the upper limit of normal for venous lactate (2.3 mmol/l) had lower prognostic value for adverse outcomes (OR 3.6 [95% CI 1.5-8.7] and 5.7 [95% CI 2.4-13.6], respectively) and did not predict mortality. If added to the 2019 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) algorithm, venous lactate <2.3 mmol/l was associated with a high negative predictive value (0.99 [95% CI 0.97-1.00]) for adverse outcomes in intermediate-low-risk patients, whereas levels ≥3.3 mmol/l predicted adverse outcomes in the intermediate-high-risk group (OR 5.2 [95% CI 1.8-15.0]).

Conclusion: Venous lactate above the upper limit of normal was associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes and an optimised cut-off value of 3.3 mmol/l predicted adverse outcome and mortality. Adding venous lactate to the 2019 ESC algorithm may improve risk stratification. Importantly, the established cut-off value for arterial lactate has limited specificity in venous samples and should not be used.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2021.01.021DOI Listing
April 2021

Predictive value of plasma proenkephalin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in acute kidney injury and mortality in cardiogenic shock.

Ann Intensive Care 2021 Feb 5;11(1):25. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Cardiology, Heart and Lung Center, Helsinki University Hospital, University of Helsinki, 00029 HUS, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent form of organ injury in cardiogenic shock. However, data on AKI markers such as plasma proenkephalin (P-PENK) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (P-NGAL) in cardiogenic shock populations are lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of P-PENK and P-NGAL to predict acute kidney injury and mortality in cardiogenic shock.

Results: P-PENK and P-NGAL were measured at different time points between baseline and 48 h in 154 patients from the prospective CardShock study. The outcomes assessed were AKI defined by an increase in creatinine within 48 h and all-cause 90-day mortality. Mean age was 66 years and 26% were women. Baseline levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL (median [interquartile range]) were 99 (71-150) pmol/mL and 138 (84-214) ng/mL. P-PENK > 84.8 pmol/mL and P-NGAL > 104 ng/mL at baseline were identified as optimal cut-offs for AKI prediction and independently associated with AKI (adjusted HRs 2.2 [95% CI 1.1-4.4, p = 0.03] and 2.8 [95% CI 1.2-6.5, p = 0.01], respectively). P-PENK and P-NGAL levels at baseline were also associated with 90-day mortality. For patients with oliguria < 0.5 mL/kg/h for > 6 h before study enrollment, 90-day mortality differed significantly between patients with low and high P-PENK/P-NGAL at baseline (5% vs. 68%, p < 0.001). However, the biomarkers provided best discrimination for mortality when measured at 24 h. Identified cut-offs of P-PENK > 105.7 pmol/L and P-NGAL > 151 ng/mL had unadjusted hazard ratios of 5.6 (95% CI 3.1-10.7, p < 0.001) and 5.2 (95% CI 2.8-9.8, p < 0.001) for 90-day mortality. The association remained significant despite adjustments with AKI and two risk scores for mortality in cardiogenic shock.

Conclusions: High levels of P-PENK and P-NGAL at baseline were independently associated with AKI in cardiogenic shock patients. Furthermore, oliguria before study inclusion was associated with worse outcomes only if combined with high baseline levels of P-PENK or P-NGAL. High levels of both P-PENK and P-NGAL at 24 h were found to be strong and independent predictors of 90-day mortality.

Trial Registration: NCT01374867 at www.clinicaltrials.gov , registered 16 Jun 2011-retrospectively registered.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13613-021-00814-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865050PMC
February 2021

Mortality risk prediction in elderly patients with cardiogenic shock: results from the CardShock study.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 04 31;8(2):1398-1407. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Division of Emergency Medicine, Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University Hospital, PO Box 900, Helsinki, 00029 HUS, Finland.

Aims: This study aimed to assess the utility of contemporary clinical risk scores and explore the ability of two biomarkers [growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and soluble ST2 (sST2)] to improve risk prediction in elderly patients with cardiogenic shock.

Methods And Results: Patients (n = 219) from the multicentre CardShock study were grouped according to age (elderly ≥75 years and younger). Characteristics, management, and outcome between the groups were compared. The ability of the CardShock risk score and the IABP-SHOCK II score to predict in-hospital mortality and the additional value of GDF-15 and sST2 to improve risk prediction in the elderly was evaluated. The elderly constituted 26% of the patients (n = 56), with a higher proportion of women (41% vs. 21%, P < 0.05) and more co-morbidities compared with the younger. The primary aetiology of shock in the elderly was acute coronary syndrome (84%), with high rates of percutaneous coronary intervention (87%). Compared with the younger, the elderly had higher in-hospital mortality (46% vs. 33%; P = 0.08), but 1 year post-discharge survival was excellent in both age groups (90% in the elderly vs. 88% in the younger). In the elderly, the risk prediction models demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.75 for the CardShock risk score and 0.71 for the IABP-SHOCK II score. Incorporating GDF-15 and sST2 improved discrimination for both risk scores with areas under the curve ranging from 0.78 to 0.84.

Conclusions: Elderly patients with cardiogenic shock have higher in-hospital mortality compared with the younger, but post-discharge outcomes are similar. Contemporary risk scores proved useful for early mortality risk prediction also in the elderly, and risk stratification could be further improved with biomarkers such as GDF-15 or sST2.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13224DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8006692PMC
April 2021

Pilot analysis of the usefulness of mortality risk score systems at resuscitated patients

Orv Hetil 2021 01 10;162(2):52-60. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

1 Semmelweis Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Városmajori Szív- és Érgyógyászati Klinika, Budapest, Városmajor u. 68., 1122.

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A cardiovascularis halálokok közül világszerte nagy jelentőségű a hirtelen szívhalál. Annak ellenére, hogy a cardiopulmonalis resuscitatio és a postresuscitatiós intenzív osztályos kezelés is komoly metodikai és technikai fejlődésen ment keresztül az elmúlt időszakban, kevés az olyan validált pontrendszer, amely jól becsülné a beteg intenzív osztályra kerülésekor a mortalitási rizikót. Célkitűzés: A sikeres újraélesztést követő intenzív osztályos kezelés kezdetekor felmért, a cardiogen shock rizikóstratifikációjára alkalmazott CardShock Risk Score (CSRS) és az általunk hozzáadott, specifikus súlyozófaktorokkal (iniciális ritmus, inotropigény) módosított CardShock Risk Score (mCSRS) összevetése a mortalitás előrejelzésében post-cardiac arrest szindrómás betegeknél. Módszerek: Retrospektív vizsgálatunk során 172, kórházon kívül sikeresen újraélesztett és klinikánkon ellátott consecutiv betegből a CSRS- és mCSRS-pontrendszerek segítségével végül 123 beteg adatait elemeztük. A CSRS- és mCSRS-változók és a korai/késői mortalitás közötti összefüggést Cox-regressziós analízissel vizsgáltuk. A pontszámok alapján 3 csoportba (1-3, 4-6, 7+) soroltuk a betegeket. Az összevont csoportok túlélését log-rank teszttel hasonlítottuk össze. Eredmények: A betegpopuláció átlagéletkora 63,6 év volt (69% férfi), és a hirtelen szívhalál hátterében 80%-ban akut coronaria szindróma állt. A korai/késői mortalitást leginkább a felvétel utáni neurológiai állapot, a szérumlaktátszint, a vesefunkció, az iniciális ritmus és a beteg katecholaminigénye határozta meg. A mCSRS alkalmazását követően mind az "1-3" és a "4-6" (p≤0,001), mind a "4-6" és a "7+" (p = 0,006) csoportok között szignifikáns különbséget találtunk a túlélésben. Következtetés: A felvételkori pontok alapján a mCSRS pontosabban definiálja és differenciálja egymástól az általunk beválasztott két extra súlyozófaktorral az enyhe, a közepes és a magas mortalitási rizikóval bíró betegpopulációkat, mint a CSRS. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(2): 52-60.

Summary:

Introduction: Sudden cardiac death is one of the most significant cardiovascular causes of death worldwide. Although there have been immense methodological and technical advances in the field of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and following intensive care in the last decade, currently there are only a few validated risk-stratification scoring systems for the quick and reliable estimation of the mortality risk of these patients at the time of admission to the intensive care unit.

Objective: Our aim was to correlate the mortality prediction risk points calculated by CardShock Risk Score (CSRS) and modified (m) CSRS based on the admission data of the post-cardiac arrest syndrome (PCAS) patients.

Methods: The medical records of 172 out-of-hospital resuscitated cardiac arrest patients, who were admitted at the Heart and Vascular Centre of Semmelweis University, were screened retrospectively. Out of the 172 selected patients, 123 were eligible for inclusion to calculate CSRS and mCSRS. Based on CSRS score, we generated three different groups of patients, with scores 1 to 3, 4 to 6, and 7+, respectively. Mortality data of the groups were compared by log-rank test.

Results: Mean age of the patients was 63.6 years (69% male), the cause of sudden cardiac death was acut coronary syndrome in 80% of the cases. The early and late mortality was predicted by neurological status, serum lactate level, renal function, initial rhythm, and the need of catecholamines. Using mCSRS, a significant survival difference was proven in between the groups "1-3" vs "4-6" (p≤0.001), "4-6" vs "7+" (p = 0.006).

Conclusion: Compared to the CSRS, the mCSRS expanded with the 2 additional weighting points differentiates more specifically the low-moderate and high survival groups in the PCAS patient population treated in our institute. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(2): 52-60.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1556/650.2021.31949DOI Listing
January 2021

National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and 3-level triage scale as risk predictors in frail older adults in the emergency department.

BMC Emerg Med 2020 10 28;20(1):83. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Emergency Medicine, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The aim of the emergency department (ED) triage is to recognize critically ill patients and to allocate resources. No strong evidence for accuracy of the current triage instruments, especially for the older adults, exists. We evaluated the National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) and a 3-level triage assessment as risk predictors for frail older adults visiting the ED.

Methods: This prospective, observational study was performed in a Finnish ED. The data were collected in a six-month period and included were ≥ 75-year-old residents with Clinical Frailty Scale score of at least four. We analyzed the predictive values of NEWS2 and the three-level triage scale for 30-day mortality, hospital admission, high dependency unit (HDU) and intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, a count of 72-h and 30-day revisits, and ED length-of-stay (LOS).

Results: A total of 1711 ED visits were included. Median for age, CFS, LOS and NEWS2 were 85 years, 6 points, 6.2 h and 1 point, respectively. 30-day mortality was 96/1711. At triage, 69, 356 and 1278 of patients were assessed as red, yellow and green, respectively. There were 1103 admissions, of them 31 to an HDU facility, none to ICU. With NEWS2 and triage score, AUCs for 30-day mortality prediction were 0.70 (0.64-0.76) and 0.62 (0.56-0.68); for hospital admission prediction 0.62 (0.60-0.65) and 0.55 (0.52-0.56), and for HDU admission 0.72 (0.61-0.83) and 0.80 (0.70-0.90), respectively. The NEWS2 divided into risk groups of low, medium and high did not predict the ED LOS (p = 0.095). There was a difference in ED LOS between the red/yellow and as red/green patient groups (p < 0.001) but not between the yellow/green groups (p = 0.59). There were 48 and 351 revisits within 72 h and 30 days, respectively. With NEWS2 AUCs for 72-h and 30-day revisit prediction were 0.48 (95% CI 0.40-0.56) and 0.47 (0.44-0.51), respectively; with triage score 0.48 (0.40-0.56) and 0.49 (0.46-0.52), respectively.

Conclusions: The NEWS2 and a local 3-level triage scale are statistically significant, but poor in accuracy, in predicting 30-day mortality, and HDU admission but not ED LOS or revisit rates for frail older adults. NEWS2 also seems to predict hospital admission.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12873-020-00379-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594283PMC
October 2020

Association of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p with 90-Day Mortality in Cardiogenic Shock.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Oct 26;21(21). Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Unit of Cardiovascular Research, Minerva Foundation Institute for Medical Research, 00029 Helsinki, Finland.

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a life-threatening emergency. New biomarkers are needed in order to detect patients at greater risk of adverse outcome. Our aim was to assess the characteristics of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p in CS and evaluate the value of their expression levels in risk prediction. Circulating levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were measured from serial plasma samples of 179 patients during the first 5-10 days after detection of CS, derived from the CardShock study. Acute coronary syndrome was the most common cause (80%) of CS. Baseline (0 h) levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p were all significantly elevated in nonsurvivors compared to survivors ( < 0.05 for all). Above median levels at 0h of each miRNA were each significantly associated with higher lactate and alanine aminotransferase levels and decreased glomerular filtration rates. After adjusting the multivariate regression analysis with established CS risk factors, miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p levels above median at 0 h were independently associated with 90-day all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8 (95% confidence interval 1.1-3.0), = 0.018; adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), = 0.009, respectively). In conclusion, circulating plasma levels of miR-21-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-320a-3p at baseline were all elevated in nonsurvivors of CS and associated with markers of hypoperfusion. Above median levels of miR-21-5p and miR-320a-3p at baseline appear to independently predict 90-day all-cause mortality. This indicates the potential of miRNAs as biomarkers for risk assessment in cardiogenic shock.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21217925DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662780PMC
October 2020

Survival and quality of life after early discharge in low-risk pulmonary embolism.

Eur Respir J 2021 02 4;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Emergency Dept, Clinico San Carlos Hospital, IdISSC, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Early discharge of patients with acute low-risk pulmonary embolism requires validation by prospective trials with clinical and quality-of-life outcomes.

Methods: The multinational Home Treatment of Patients with Low-Risk Pulmonary Embolism with the Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor Rivaroxaban (HoT-PE) single-arm management trial investigated early discharge followed by ambulatory treatment with rivaroxaban. The study was stopped for efficacy after the positive results of the predefined interim analysis at 50% of the planned population. The present analysis includes the entire trial population (576 patients). In addition to 3-month recurrence (primary outcome) and 1-year overall mortality, we analysed self-reported disease-specific (Pulmonary Embolism Quality of Life (PEmb-QoL) questionnaire) and generic (five-level five-dimension EuroQoL (EQ-5D-5L) scale) quality of life as well as treatment satisfaction (Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS)) after pulmonary embolism.

Results: The primary efficacy outcome occurred in three (0.5%, one-sided upper 95% CI 1.3%) patients. The 1-year mortality was 2.4%. The mean±sd PEmb-QoL decreased from 28.9±20.6% at 3 weeks to 19.9±15.4% at 3 months, a mean change (improvement) of -9.1% (p<0.0001). Improvement was consistent across all PEmb-QoL dimensions. The EQ-5D-5L was 0.89±0.12 at 3 weeks after enrolment and improved to 0.91±0.12 at 3 months (p<0.0001). Female sex and cardiopulmonary disease were associated with poorer disease-specific and generic quality of life; older age was associated with faster worsening of generic quality of life. The ACTS burden score improved from 40.5±6.6 points at 3 weeks to 42.5±5.9 points at 3 months (p<0.0001).

Conclusions: Our results further support early discharge and ambulatory oral anticoagulation for selected patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism. Targeted strategies may be necessary to further improve quality of life in specific patient subgroups.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02368-2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Kinetics of procalcitonin, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 in cardiogenic shock - Insights from the CardShock study.

Int J Cardiol 2021 01 22;322:191-196. Epub 2020 Aug 22.

Emergency Medicine, University of Helsinki and Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Inflammatory responses play an important role in the pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study was to investigate the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in CS and to assess their relation to clinical presentation, other biochemical variables, and prognosis.

Methods: Levels of PCT, CRP and IL-6 were analyzed in serial plasma samples (0-120h) from 183 patients in the CardShock study. The study population was dichotomized by PCT ≥ and < 0.5 μg/L, and IL-6 and CRP above/below median.

Results: PCT peaked already at 24 h [median PCT 0.71 μg/L (IQR 0.24-3.4)], whereas CRP peaked later between 48 and 72 h [median CRP 137 mg/L (59-247)]. PCT levels were significantly higher among non-survivors compared with survivors from 12 h on, as were CRP levels from 24 h on (p < 0.001). PCT ≥ 0.5 μg/L (60% of patients) was associated with clinical signs of systemic hypoperfusion, cardiac and renal dysfunction, acidosis, and higher levels of blood lactate, IL-6, growth-differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15), and CRP. Similarly, IL-6 > median was associated with clinical signs and biochemical findings of systemic hypoperfusion. PCT ≥ 0.5 μg/L and IL-6 > median were associated with increased 90-day mortality (50% vs. 30% and 57% vs. 22%, respectively; p < 0.01 for both), while CRP showed no prognostic significance. The association of inflammatory markers with clinical infections was modest.

Conclusions: Inflammatory markers are highly related to signs of systemic hypoperfusion in CS. Moreover, high PCT and IL-6 levels are associated with poor prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2020.08.069DOI Listing
January 2021

Epidemiology, treatment and outcome of patients with lower respiratory tract infection presenting to emergency departments with dyspnoea (AANZDEM and EuroDEM studies).

Emerg Med Australas 2021 02 3;33(1):58-66. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Joseph Epstein Centre for Emergency Medicine Research, Western Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a frequent cause of dyspnoea in EDs, and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. We described and compared the management of this disease in Europe and Oceania/South-East Asia (SEA) cohorts.

Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study with three time points in Europe and Oceania/SEA. We included in this manuscript patients presenting to EDs with dyspnoea and a diagnosis of LRTI in ED. We collected comorbidities, chronic medication, clinical signs at arrival, laboratory parameters, ED management and patient outcomes.

Results: A total of 1389 patients were included, 773 in Europe and 616 in SEA. The European cohort had more comorbidities including chronic heart failure, obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking. Levels of inflammatory markers were higher in Europe. There were more patients with inflammatory markers in Europe and more hypercapnia in Oceania/SEA. The use of antibiotics was higher in SEA (72.2% vs 61.8%, P < 0.001) whereas intravenous diuretics, non-invasive and invasive ventilation were higher in Europe. Intensive care unit admission rate was 9.9% in Europe cohort and 3.4% in Oceania/SEA cohort. ED mortality was 1% and overall in-hospital mortality was 8.7% with no differences between regions.

Conclusions: More patients with LRTI in Europe presented with cardio-respiratory comorbidities, they received more adjunct therapies and had a higher intensive care unit admission rate than patients from Oceania/SEA, although mortality was similar between the two cohorts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1742-6723.13567DOI Listing
February 2021

Levosimendan Efficacy and Safety: 20 years of SIMDAX in Clinical Use.

Card Fail Rev 2020 Mar 8;6:e19. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Lomonosov Moscow State University Medical Centre Moscow, Russia.

Levosimendan was first approved for clinic use in 2000, when authorisation was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the haemodynamic stabilisation of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure. In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitisation and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced heart failure, right ventricular failure and pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the US. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and non-cardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, UK and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute heart failure arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2020.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374352PMC
March 2020

Levosimendan Efficacy and Safety: 20 Years of SIMDAX in Clinical Use.

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 2020 07;76(1):4-22

Lomonosov Moscow State University Medical Centre, Moscow, Russia.

Levosimendan was first approved for clinical use in 2000, when authorization was granted by Swedish regulatory authorities for the hemodynamic stabilization of patients with acutely decompensated chronic heart failure (HF). In the ensuing 20 years, this distinctive inodilator, which enhances cardiac contractility through calcium sensitization and promotes vasodilatation through the opening of adenosine triphosphate-dependent potassium channels on vascular smooth muscle cells, has been approved in more than 60 jurisdictions, including most of the countries of the European Union and Latin America. Areas of clinical application have expanded considerably and now include cardiogenic shock, takotsubo cardiomyopathy, advanced HF, right ventricular failure, pulmonary hypertension, cardiac surgery, critical care, and emergency medicine. Levosimendan is currently in active clinical evaluation in the United States. Levosimendan in IV formulation is being used as a research tool in the exploration of a wide range of cardiac and noncardiac disease states. A levosimendan oral form is at present under evaluation in the management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To mark the 20 years since the advent of levosimendan in clinical use, 51 experts from 23 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Ukraine) contributed to this essay, which evaluates one of the relatively few drugs to have been successfully introduced into the acute HF arena in recent times and charts a possible development trajectory for the next 20 years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FJC.0000000000000859DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7340234PMC
July 2020

Seasonal variations of patients presenting dyspnea to emergency departments in Europe: Results from the EURODEM Study

Turk J Med Sci 2020 12 17;50(8):1879-1886. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Tours University, Tours, France

Background/aim: To describe seasonal variations in epidemiology, management, and short-term outcomes of patients in Europe presenting to an emergency department (ED) with a main complaint of dyspnea.

Materials And Methods: Anobservational prospective cohort study was performed in 66 European EDs which included consecutive patients presenting to EDs with dyspnea as the main complaint during 3 72-h study periods. Data were collected on demographics, comorbidities, chronic treatment, prehospital treatment, mode of arrival of patient to ED, clinical signs at admission, treatment in the ED, ED diagnosis, discharge from ED, and in-hospital outcome.

Results: The study included 2524 patients with a median age of 69 (53–80) years old. Of the patients presented, 991 (39.3%) were in autumn, 849 (33.6%) were in spring, and 48 (27.1%) were in winter. The winter population was significantly older (P < 0.001) and had a lower rate of ambulance arrival to ED (P < 0.001). In the winter period, there was a higher rate for lower respiratory tract infection (35.1%), and patients were more hypertensive, more hypoxic, and more hyper/hypothermic compared to other seasons. The ED mortality was about 1% and, in hospital, mortality for admitted patients was 7.4%.

Conclusion: The analytic method and the outcome of this study may help to guide the allocation of ED resources more efficiently and to recommend seasonal ED management protocols based on the seasonal trend of dyspneic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2002-221DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7775711PMC
December 2020

Epidemiology, pathophysiology and contemporary management of cardiogenic shock - a position statement from the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 08 16;22(8):1315-1341. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

St Georges Hospital NHS Trust University of London, Cardiology Clinical Academy Group, London, UK.

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a complex multifactorial clinical syndrome with extremely high mortality, developing as a continuum, and progressing from the initial insult (underlying cause) to the subsequent occurrence of organ failure and death. There is a large spectrum of CS presentations resulting from the interaction between an acute cardiac insult and a patient's underlying cardiac and overall medical condition. Phenotyping patients with CS may have clinical impact on management because classification would support initiation of appropriate therapies. CS management should consider appropriate organization of the health care services, and therapies must be given to the appropriately selected patients, in a timely manner, whilst avoiding iatrogenic harm. Although several consensus-driven algorithms have been proposed, CS management remains challenging and substantial investments in research and development have not yielded proof of efficacy and safety for most of the therapies tested, and outcome in this condition remains poor. Future studies should consider the identification of the new pathophysiological targets, and high-quality translational research should facilitate incorporation of more targeted interventions in clinical research protocols, aimed to improve individual patient outcomes. Designing outcome clinical trials in CS remains particularly challenging in this critical and very costly scenario in cardiology, but information from these trials is imperiously needed to better inform the guidelines and clinical practice. The goal of this review is to summarize the current knowledge concerning the definition, epidemiology, underlying causes, pathophysiology and management of CS based on important lessons from clinical trials and registries, with a focus on improving in-hospital management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1922DOI Listing
August 2020

Acute coronary syndromes and acute heart failure: a diagnostic dilemma and high-risk combination. A statement from the Acute Heart Failure Committee of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 08 29;22(8):1298-1314. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Internal Medicine, Belgrade University School of Medicine and Heart Failure Center, Belgrade University Medical Center, Belgrade, Serbia.

Acute coronary syndrome is a precipitant of acute heart failure in a substantial proportion of cases, and the presence of both conditions is associated with a higher risk of short-term mortality compared to acute coronary syndrome alone. The diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome in the setting of acute heart failure can be challenging. Patients may present with atypical or absent chest pain, electrocardiograms can be confounded by pre-existing abnormalities, and cardiac biomarkers are frequently elevated in patients with chronic or acute heart failure, independently of acute coronary syndrome. It is important to distinguish transient or limited myocardial injury from primary myocardial infarction due to vascular events in patients presenting with acute heart failure. This paper outlines various clinical scenarios to help differentiate between these conditions and aims to provide clinicians with tools to aid in the recognition of acute coronary syndrome as a cause of acute heart failure. Interpretation of electrocardiogram and biomarker findings, and imaging techniques that may be helpful in the diagnostic work-up are described. Guidelines recommend an immediate invasive strategy for patients with acute heart failure and acute coronary syndrome, regardless of electrocardiographic or biomarker findings. Pharmacological management of patients with acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure should follow guidelines for each of these syndromes, with priority given to time-sensitive therapies for both. Studies conducted specifically in patients with the combination of acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure are needed to better define the management of these patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1831DOI Listing
August 2020

Prognostic impact of angiographic findings, procedural success, and timing of percutaneous coronary intervention in cardiogenic shock.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 04 12;7(2):768-773. Epub 2020 Mar 12.

Heart and Lung Center, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki University, Helsinki, Finland.

Aims: Urgent revascularization is the mainstay of treatment in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) related cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim was to investigate the association of angiographic results with 90-day mortality. Procedural complications of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were also examined.

Methods And Results: This CardShock (NCT01374867) substudy included 158 patients with ACS aetiology and data on coronary angiography and complications during PCI procedure. Survival analysis was conducted with Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression analysis. Median age was 67 ± 11 years, and 77% were men. During 90-day follow-up, 66 (42%) patients died. Patients with one-vessel disease (n = 49) had lower mortality than patients with two-vessel (n = 59) or three-vessel (n = 50) disease (25% vs. 48% vs. 52%, P = 0.011). Successful revascularization [Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) Flow 3 post-PCI) was achieved more often in survivors than non-survivors (81% vs. 60%, P = 0.019). The median symptom-to-balloon time was 340 (196-660) minutes, with no difference between survivors and non-survivors. In multivariable mortality analysis, multivessel disease (HR 2.59, CI 1.29-5.18) and TIMI flow <3 post-PCI (HR 2.41, CI 1.4-4.15) were associated with 90-day mortality. Procedural PCI complications were recorded in 51 (35%) patients, arrhythmic complications being the most common (n = 32, 63%). The incidence of complications was similar between survivors and non-survivors (31% vs. 42%, P = 0.21).

Conclusions: Multivessel disease is associated with worse survival in ACS-related CS. In patients undergoing PCI, arrhythmic complications were common, but not associated with excess mortality. Successful revascularization of the IRA had positive effect on outcome despite delay from symptom onset.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160464PMC
April 2020

External validation and comparison of the CardShock and IABP-SHOCK II risk scores in real-world cardiogenic shock patients.

Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care 2020 Jan 31:2048872619895230. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, CIBERCV, Spain.

Background: Mortality from cardiogenic shock remains high and early recognition and risk stratification are mandatory for optimal patient allocation and to guide treatment strategy. The CardShock and the Intra-Aortic Balloon Counterpulsation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Complicated by Cardiogenic Shock (IABP-SHOCK II) risk scores have shown good results in predicting short-term mortality in cardiogenic shock. However, to date, they have not been compared in a large cohort of ischaemic and non-ischaemic real-world cardiogenic shock patients.

Methods: The Red-Shock is a multicentre cohort of non-selected cardiogenic shock patients. We calculated the CardShock and IABP-SHOCK II risk scores in each patient and assessed discrimination and calibration.

Results: We included 696 patients. The main cause of cardiogenic shock was acute coronary syndrome, occurring in 62% of the patients. Compared with acute coronary syndrome patients, non-acute coronary syndrome patients were younger and had a lower proportion of risk factors but higher rates of renal insufficiency; intra-aortic balloon pump was also less frequently used (31% vs 56%). In contrast, non-acute coronary syndrome patients were more often treated with mechanical circulatory support devices (11% vs 3%, <0.001 for both). Both risk scores were good predictors of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome patients and had similar areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (area under the curve: 0.742 for the CardShock vs 0.752 for IABP-SHOCK II, =0.65). Their discrimination performance was only modest when applied to non-acute coronary syndrome patients (0.648 vs 0.619, respectively, =0.31). Calibration was acceptable for both scores (Hosmer-Lemeshow =0.22 for the CardShock and 0.68 for IABP-SHOCK II).

Conclusions: In our cohort, both the CardShock and the IABP-SHOCK II risk scores were good predictors of in-hospital mortality in acute coronary syndrome-related cardiogenic shock.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2048872619895230DOI Listing
January 2020

CT-IGFBP-4 as a novel prognostic biomarker in acute heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 04 22;7(2):434-444. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

HyTest Ltd, Intelligate 1, Joukahaisenkatu 6, Turku, 20520, Finland.

Aims: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 (IGFBP-4) fragments have been shown to predict the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, including segment-elevation myocardial infarction, in patients with acute coronary syndrome. We evaluated the prognostic value of the carboxy-terminal fragment of IGFBP-4 (CT-IGFBP-4) for all-cause mortality in emergency room patients with acute heart failure (AHF).

Methods And Results: CT-IGFBP-4, N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at admission from the lithium-heparin plasma of 156 patients with AHF. All-cause mortality was recorded for 1 year. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves, Kaplan-Meier, and Cox proportional hazard ratio analyses were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of the various clinical variables, CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, CRP, and their combinations. During 1 year of follow-up, 52 (33.3%) patients died. CT-IGFBP-4 only weakly correlated with NT-proBNP (Pearson correlation coefficient r = 0.16, P = 0.044) and did not correlate with CRP (r = 0.08, P = 0.35), emphasizing the different nature of these biomarkers. The receiver operator characteristic area under the curve (ROC AUC) of CT-IGFBP-4 for the prediction of all-cause mortality (0.727) was significantly higher than that of NT-proBNP (0.680, P = 0.045) and CRP (0.669, P = 0.016). The combination of CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP predicted mortality significantly better (ROC AUC = 0.788) than any of the biomarkers alone (P < 0.01 for all). The addition of CT-IGFBP-4 to a clinical prediction model that included age, gender, systolic blood pressure, creatinine, and sodium levels, as well as the history of previous heart failure, coronary artery disease, and hypertension significantly improved the mortality risk prediction (ROC AUC 0.774 vs. 0.699, P = 0.025). Cox hazard analysis indicated that elevated CT-IGFBP-4 was independently associated with 1 year mortality (hazard ratio 3.26, P = 0.0008) after adjustment for age, gender, history of previous heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension, chronic kidney failure, history of diabetes, heart rate, haemoglobin, plasma sodium, NT-proBNP, CRP, cystatin C, and elevated cardiac troponin I or T. Patients with increased levels of either two or three of the biomarkers CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP had significantly higher mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 10.04, P < 0.0001) than patients with increased levels of one or none of the biomarkers.

Conclusions: CT-IGFBP-4 was independently associated with all-cause mortality in patients with AHF. Compared with single biomarkers, the combination of CT-IGFBP-4, NT-proBNP, and CRP improved the prediction of all-cause mortality in patients with AHF.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160480PMC
April 2020

Imaging in patients with suspected acute heart failure: timeline approach position statement on behalf of the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.

Eur J Heart Fail 2020 02 9;22(2):181-195. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Acute heart failure is one of the main diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in clinical practice due to a non-specific clinical manifestation and the urgent need for timely and tailored management at the same time. In this position statement, the Heart Failure Association aims to systematize the use of various imaging methods in accordance with the timeline of acute heart failure care proposed in the recent guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology. During the first hours of admission the point-of-care focused cardiac and lung ultrasound examination is an invaluable tool for rapid differential diagnosis of acute dyspnoea, which is highly feasible and relatively easy to learn. Several portable and stationary imaging modalities are being increasingly used for the evaluation of cardiac structure and function, haemodynamic and volume status, precipitating myocardial ischaemia or valvular abnormalities, and systemic and pulmonary congestion. This paper emphasizes the central role of the full echocardiographic examination in the identification of heart failure aetiology, severity of cardiac dysfunction, indications for specific heart failure therapy, and risk stratification. Correct evaluation of cardiac filling pressures and accurate prognostication may help to prevent unscheduled short-term readmission. Alternative advanced imaging modalities should be considered to assist patient management in the pre- and post-discharge phase, including cardiac magnetic resonance, computed tomography, nuclear studies, and coronary angiography. The Heart Failure Association addresses this paper to the wide spectrum of acute care and heart failure specialists, highlighting the value of all available imaging techniques at specific stages and in common clinical scenarios of acute heart failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1678DOI Listing
February 2020

Haemodynamic Balance in Acute and Advanced Heart Failure: An Expert Perspective on the Role of Levosimendan.

Card Fail Rev 2019 Nov 4;5(3):155-161. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Heart and Vascular Center, Semmelweis University Budapest, Hungary.

Acute and advanced heart failure are associated with substantial adverse short- and longer-term prognosis. Both conditions necessitate complex treatment choices to restore haemodynamic stability and organ perfusion, relieve congestion, improve symptoms and allow the patient to leave the hospital and achieve an adequate quality of life. Among the available intravenous vasoactive therapies, inotropes constitute an option when an increase in cardiac contractility is needed to reverse a low output state. Within the inotrope category, levosimendan is well suited to the needs of both sets of patients since, in contrast to conventional adrenergic inotropes, it has not been linked in clinical trials or wider clinical usage with increased mortality risk and retains its efficacy in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade; it is further believed to possess beneficial renal effects. The overall haemodynamic profile and clinical tolerability of levosimendan, combined with its extended duration of action, have encouraged its intermittent use in patients with advanced heart failure. This paper summarises the key messages derived from a series of 12 tutorials held at the Heart Failure 2019 congress organised in Athens, Greece, by the Heart Failure Association of the European Society of Cardiology.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15420/cfr.2019.01.R1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6848932PMC
November 2019

Pre-hospital management protocols and perceived difficulty in diagnosing acute heart failure.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 02 8;7(1):289-296. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Emergency Medicine, University of Helsinki, Department of Emergency Medicine and Services, Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Aim: To illustrate the pre-hospital management arsenals and protocols in different EMS units, and to estimate the perceived difficulty of diagnosing suspected acute heart failure (AHF) compared with other common pre-hospital conditions.

Methods And Results: A multinational survey included 104 emergency medical service (EMS) regions from 18 countries. Diagnostic and therapeutic arsenals related to AHF management were reported for each type of EMS unit. The prevalence and contents of management protocols for common medical conditions treated pre-hospitally was collected. The perceived difficulty of diagnosing AHF and other medical conditions by emergency medical dispatchers and EMS personnel was interrogated. Ultrasound devices and point-of-care testing were available in advanced life support and helicopter EMS units in fewer than 25% of EMS regions. AHF protocols were present in 80.8% of regions. Protocols for ST-elevation myocardial infarction, chest pain, and dyspnoea were present in 95.2, 80.8, and 76.0% of EMS regions, respectively. Protocolized diagnostic actions for AHF management included 12-lead electrocardiogram (92.1% of regions), ultrasound examination (16.0%), and point-of-care testings for troponin and BNP (6.0 and 3.5%). Therapeutic actions included supplementary oxygen (93.2%), non-invasive ventilation (80.7%), intravenous furosemide, opiates, nitroglycerine (69.0, 68.6, and 57.0%), and intubation 71.5%. Diagnosing suspected AHF was considered easy to moderate by EMS personnel and moderate to difficult by emergency medical dispatchers (without significant differences between de novo and decompensated heart failure). In both settings, diagnosis of suspected AHF was considered easier than pulmonary embolism and more difficult than ST-elevation myocardial infarction, asthma, and stroke.

Conclusions: The prevalence of AHF protocols is rather high but the contents seem to vary. Difficulty of diagnosing suspected AHF seems to be moderate compared with other pre-hospital conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12524DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083500PMC
February 2020

Short-Term Therapies for Treatment of Acute and Advanced Heart Failure-Why so Few Drugs Available in Clinical Use, Why Even Fewer in the Pipeline?

J Clin Med 2019 11 1;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Division of Clinical Physiology, Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, H-4032 Debrecen, Hungary.

Both acute and advanced heart failure are an increasing threat in term of survival, quality of life and socio-economical burdens. Paradoxically, the use of successful treatments for chronic heart failure can prolong life but-per definition-causes the rise in age of patients experiencing acute decompensations, since nothing at the moment helps avoiding an acute or final stage in the elderly population. To complicate the picture, acute heart failure syndromes are a collection of symptoms, signs and markers, with different aetiologies and different courses, also due to overlapping morbidities and to the plethora of chronic medications. The palette of cardio- and vasoactive drugs used in the hospitalization phase to stabilize the patient's hemodynamic is scarce and even scarcer is the evidence for the agents commonly used in the practice (e.g. catecholamines). The pipeline in this field is poor and the clinical development chronically unsuccessful. Recent set backs in expected clinical trials for new agents in acute heart failure (AHF) (omecamtiv, serelaxine, ularitide) left a field desolately empty, where only few drugs have been approved for clinical use, for example, levosimendan and nesiritide. In this consensus opinion paper, experts from 26 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Italy, The Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, U.K. and Ukraine) analyse the situation in details also by help of artificial intelligence applied to bibliographic searches, try to distil some lesson-learned to avoid that future projects would make the same mistakes as in the past and recommend how to lead a successful development project in this field in dire need of new agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm8111834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912236PMC
November 2019

A pragmatic approach to the use of inotropes for the management of acute and advanced heart failure: An expert panel consensus.

Int J Cardiol 2019 12 6;297:83-90. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Charité, University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum (CVK), Department of Cardiology, Germany; BCRT, Berlin Institute of Health for Center for Regenerative Therapies, Berlin, Germany.

Inotropes aim at increasing cardiac output by enhancing cardiac contractility. They constitute the third pharmacological pillar in the treatment of patients with decompensated heart failure, the other two being diuretics and vasodilators. Three classes of parenterally administered inotropes are currently indicated for decompensated heart failure, (i) the beta adrenergic agonists, including dopamine and dobutamine and also the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine, (ii) the phosphodiesterase III inhibitor milrinone and (iii) the calcium sensitizer levosimendan. These three families of drugs share some pharmacologic traits, but differ profoundly in many of their pleiotropic effects. Identifying the patients in need of inotropic support and selecting the proper inotrope in each case remain challenging. The present consensus, derived by a panel meeting of experts from 21 countries, aims at addressing this very issue in the setting of both acute and advanced heart failure.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.09.005DOI Listing
December 2019
-->