Publications by authors named "Vasupradha Vethantham"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Streamlining Electronic Medical Records: Remove the Copy-Forward Option.

South Med J 2020 Oct;113(10):505-506

From the Division of Infectious Diseases, Donald and Barbara Zucker School of Medicine at Hofstra/Northwell, Manhasset, New York, and Syosset, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.14423/SMJ.0000000000001153DOI Listing
October 2020

Roles of Sumoylation in mRNA Processing and Metabolism.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2017 ;963:15-33

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY, 10027, USA.

SUMO has gained prominence as a regulator in a number of cellular processes. The roles of sumoylation in RNA metabolism, however, while considerable, remain less well understood. In this chapter we have assembled data from proteomic analyses, localization studies and key functional studies to extend SUMO's role to the area of mRNA processing and metabolism. Proteomic analyses have identified multiple putative sumoylation targets in complexes functioning in almost all aspects of mRNA metabolism, including capping, splicing and polyadenylation of mRNA precursors. Possible regulatory roles for SUMO have emerged in pre-mRNA 3' processing, where SUMO influences the functions of polyadenylation factors and activity of the entire complex. SUMO is also involved in regulating RNA editing and RNA binding by hnRNP proteins, and recent reports have suggested the involvement of the SUMO pathway in mRNA export. Together, these reports suggest that SUMO is involved in regulation of many aspects of mRNA metabolism and hold the promise for exciting future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-50044-7_2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5480244PMC
September 2017

Epigenetic Modulation of Human Podocyte Vitamin D Receptor in HIV Milieu.

J Mol Biol 2015 Oct 22;427(20):3201-3215. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Center of Immunology and Inflammation, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, NY 11030, USA; Hofstra North Shore LIJ Medical School, Hempstead, NY 11549-1000, USA. Electronic address:

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) has been reported to induce podocyte injury through down regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and activation of renin angiotensin system; however, the involved mechanism is not clear. Since HIV has been reported to modulate gene expression via epigenetic phenomena, we asked whether epigenetic factors contribute to down regulation of VDR. Kidney cells in HIV transgenic mice and HIV-infected podocytes (HIV/HPs) displayed enhanced expression of SNAIL, a repressor of VDR. To elucidate the mechanism, we studied the effect of HIV on expression of molecules involved in SNAIL repressor complex formation and demonstrated that HIV enhances expression of the histone deacetylase HDAC1 and DNA methyl transferases DNMT3b and DNMT1. 293T cells, when stably transfected with SNAIL (SNAIL/293T), displayed suppressed transcription and translation of VDR. In SNAIL/293T cells, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the association of HDAC1, DNMT3b, DNMT1, and mSin3A with SNAIL. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed the presence of the SNAIL repressor complex at the VDR promoter. Consistent with the enhanced DNA methyl transferase expression in HIV/HPs, there was an increased CpG methylation at the VDR promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed occurrence of H3K4 trimethylation on SNAIL promoter. Neither a VDR agonist (VDA) nor an HDAC inhibitor (HDACI) nor a demethylating agent (DAC) individually could optimally up regulate VDR in HIV milieu. However, VDA and HDACI when combined were successful in de-repressing VDR expression. Our findings demonstrate that SNAIL recruits multiple chromatin enzymes to form a repressor complex in HIV milieu that down regulates VDR expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2015.07.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586951PMC
October 2015

AT1R blockade in adverse milieus: role of SMRT and corepressor complexes.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2015 Aug 17;309(3):F189-203. Epub 2015 Jun 17.

Department of Medicine, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ Medical School and Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Hempstead, New York;

ANG II type 1 receptor blockade (AT1R-BLK) is used extensively to slow down the progression of proteinuric kidney diseases. We hypothesized that AT1R-BLK provides podocyte protection through regulation of silencing mediator of retinoic acid and thyroid hormone receptor (SMRT) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression under adverse milieus such as high glucose and human immunodeficiency virus infection. Both AT1R-BLK and VDR agonists (VDAs) stimulated VDR complex formation that differed not only in their composition but also in their functionality. AT1R-BLK-induced VDR complexes contained predominantly unliganded VDR, SMRT, and phosphorylated histone deacetylase 3, whereas VDA-VDR complexes were constituted by liganded VDR and CREB-binding protein/p300. AT1R-BLK-induced complexes attenuated podocyte acetyl-histone 3 levels as well as cytochrome P-450 family 24A1 expression, thus indicating their deacetylating and repressive properties. On the other hand, VDA-VDR complexes not only increased podocyte acetyl-histone 3 levels but also enhanced cytochrome P-450 family 24A1 expression, thus suggesting their acetylating and gene activation properties. AT1R-BLK- induced podocyte SMRT inhibited expression of the proapoptotic gene BAX through downregulation of Wip1 and phosphorylation of checkpoint kinase 2 in high-glucose milieu. Since SMRT-depleted podocytes lacked AT1R-BLK-mediated protection against DNA damage, it appears that SMRT is necessary for DNA repairs during AT1R-BLK. We conclude that AT1R-BLK provides podocyte protection in adverse milieus predominantly through SMRT expression and partly through unliganded VDR expression in 1,25(OH)2D-deficient states; on the other hand, AT1R-BLK contributes to liganded VDR expression in 1,25(OH)2D-sufficient states.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00476.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4525095PMC
August 2015

Genome-wide identification of enhancers in skeletal muscle: the role of MyoD1.

Genes Dev 2012 Dec;26(24):2763-79

Department of Pathology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York 10016, USA.

To identify the compendium of distal regulatory elements that govern myogenic differentiation, we generated chromatin state maps based on histone modifications and recruitment of factors that typify enhancers in myoblasts and myotubes. We found a striking concordance between the locations of these newly defined enhancers, MyoD1-binding events, and noncoding RNA transcripts. These enhancers recruit several sequence-specific transcription factors in a spatially constrained manner around MyoD1-binding sites. Remarkably, MyoD1-null myoblasts show a wholesale loss of recruitment of these factors as well as diminished monomethylation of H3K4 (H3K4me1) and acetylation of H3K27 (H3K27ac) and reduced recruitment of Set7, an H3K4 monomethylase. Surprisingly, we found that H3K4me1, but not H3K27ac, could be restored by re-expression of MyoD1 in MyoD1(-/-) myoblasts, although re-expression of this factor in MyoD1-null myotubes restored both histone modifications. Our studies identified a role for MyoD1 in condition-specific enhancer assembly through recruitment of transcription factors and histone-modifying enzymes that shape muscle differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.200113.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3533080PMC
December 2012

Dynamic loss of H2B ubiquitylation without corresponding changes in H3K4 trimethylation during myogenic differentiation.

Mol Cell Biol 2012 Mar 17;32(6):1044-55. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Department of Pathology and Cancer Institute, Smilow Research Center, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Ubiquitylation of H2B on lysine 120 (H2Bub) is associated with active transcriptional elongation. H2Bub has been implicated in histone cross talk and is generally regarded to be a prerequisite for trimethylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) and H3K79 in both yeast and mammalian cells. We performed a genome-wide analysis of epigenetic marks during muscle differentiation, and strikingly, we observed a near-complete loss of H2Bub in the differentiated state. We examined the basis for global loss of this mark and found that the H2B ubiquitin E3 ligase, RNF20, was depleted from chromatin in differentiated myotubes, indicating that recruitment of this protein to genes substantially decreases upon differentiation. Remarkably, during the course of myogenic differentiation, we observed retention and acquisition of H3K4 trimethylation on a large number of genes in the absence of detectable H2Bub. The Set1 H3K4 trimethylase complex was efficiently recruited to a subset of genes in myotubes in the absence of detectable H2Bub, accounting in part for H3K4 trimethylation in myotubes. Our studies suggest that H3K4me3 deposition in the absence of detectable H2Bub in myotubes is mediated via Set1 and, perhaps, MLL complexes, whose recruitment does not require H2Bub. Thus, muscle cells represent a novel setting in which to explore mechanisms that regulate histone cross talk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.06026-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3295016PMC
March 2012

Genome-wide remodeling of the epigenetic landscape during myogenic differentiation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 5;108(22):E149-58. Epub 2011 May 5.

Department of Pathology and Cancer Institute, New York University School of Medicine, 522 First Avenue, Smilow Research Building 1104, New York, NY 10016, USA.

We have examined changes in the chromatin landscape during muscle differentiation by mapping the genome-wide location of ten key histone marks and transcription factors in mouse myoblasts and terminally differentiated myotubes, providing an exceptionally rich dataset that has enabled discovery of key epigenetic changes underlying myogenesis. Using this compendium, we focused on a well-known repressive mark, histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation, and identified novel regulatory elements flanking the myogenin gene that function as a key differentiation-dependent switch during myogenesis. Next, we examined the role of Polycomb-mediated H3K27 methylation in gene repression by systematically ablating components of both PRC1 and PRC2 complexes. Surprisingly, we found mechanistic differences between transient and permanent repression of muscle differentiation and lineage commitment genes and observed that the loss of PRC1 and PRC2 components produced opposing differentiation defects. These phenotypes illustrate striking differences as compared to embryonic stem cell differentiation and suggest that PRC1 and PRC2 do not operate sequentially in muscle cells. Our studies of PRC1 occupancy also suggested a "fail-safe" mechanism, whereby PRC1/Bmi1 concentrates at genes specifying nonmuscle lineages, helping to retain H3K27me3 in the face of declining Ezh2-mediated methyltransferase activity in differentiated cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1102223108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3107312PMC
May 2011

In vitro sumoylation of recombinant proteins and subsequent purification for use in enzymatic assays.

Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2009 Jan;2009(1):pdb.prot5121

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

The sumoylation reaction is mechanistically similar to ubiquitination. It is ATP-dependent and in vitro can be completed in two steps using purified E1 (SAE1/SAE2), E2 (ubc9), and SUMO. Even without the inclusion of an E3 ligase, many substrates can be modified at the same lysines in vitro as in vivo. Here we describe a simplified in vitro sumoylation protocol using recombinant sumoylation substrate, E1, E2, SUMO, and an ATP-regenerating system. The modified substrate can then be repurified from the reaction mixture in a single step to be used in assays to assess the impact of sumoylation on enzymatic and/or other activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/pdb.prot5121DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3725622PMC
January 2009

Chain termination and inhibition of mammalian poly(A) polymerase by modified ATP analogues.

Biochem Pharmacol 2010 Mar 6;79(5):669-77. Epub 2009 Oct 6.

Department of Experimental Therapeutics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

We report the inhibition of mammalian polyadenylation by the triphosphate derivatives of adenosine analogues, 8-chloroadenosine (8-Cl-Ado) and 8-aminoadenosine (8-amino-Ado), which are under preclinical and clinical investigations for the treatment of hematological malignancies. The nucleotide substrate specificity of bovine poly(A) polymerase (PAP) towards C8-modified ATP analogues was examined using primer extension assays. Radiolabeled RNA primers were incubated with bovine PAP, and in the absence of ATP, no primer extension was observed with 8-Cl-ATP, whereas 8-amino-ATP resulted in chain termination. The effects of modified ATP analogues on ATP-dependent poly(A)-tail synthesis by bovine PAP also were determined, and incubation with analogue triphosphate resulted in significant reduction of poly(A)-tail length. To model the biochemical consequences of 8-Cl-Ado incorporation into RNA, a synthetic RNA primer containing a 3'-terminal 8-Cl-AMP residue was evaluated, and polyadenylation of the primer by bovine PAP with ATP was blocked completely. To explain these experimental observations and probe the possible structural mechanisms, molecular modeling was employed to examine the interactions between PAP and various ATP analogues. Molecular docking demonstrated that C8-modifications of ATP led to increased distance between the 3'-hydroxyl group of the RNA oligonucleotide terminus and the alpha-phosphate of ATP that render the molecules in an unfavorable position for incorporation into RNA. Similarly, C8-substitution with a chlorine or amino group at the 3'-terminal residue of RNA also inhibits further chain elongation by PAP. In conclusion, modified ATP analogues may exert their biological effects through polyadenylation inhibition, and thus may provide an RNA-directed mechanism of action for 8-Cl-Ado and 8-amino-Ado.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcp.2009.09.028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2812641PMC
March 2010

Sumoylation regulates multiple aspects of mammalian poly(A) polymerase function.

Genes Dev 2008 Feb;22(4):499-511

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

The addition of the poly(A) tail to the ends of eukaryotic mRNAs is catalyzed by poly(A) polymerase (PAP). PAP activity is known to be highly regulated, for example, by alternative splicing and phosphorylation. In this study we show that the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) plays multiple roles in regulating PAP function. Our discovery of SUMO-conjugated PAP began with the observation of a striking pattern of abundant higher-molecular-weight forms of PAP in certain mouse tissues and cell lines. PAP constitutes an unusual SUMO substrate in that, despite the absence of any consensus sumoylation sites, PAP interacts very strongly with the SUMO E2 enzyme ubc9 and can be extensively sumoylated both in vitro and in vivo. Six sites of sumoylation in PAP were identified, with two overlapping one of two nuclear localization signals (NLS). Strikingly, mutation of the two lysines at the NLS to arginines, or coexpression of a SUMO protease with wild-type PAP, caused PAP to be localized to the cytoplasm, demonstrating that sumoylation is required to facilitate PAP nuclear localization. Sumoylation also contributes to PAP stability, as down-regulation of sumoylation led to decreases in PAP levels. Finally, the activity of purified PAP was shown to be inhibited by in vitro sumoylation. Our study thus shows that SUMO regulates PAP in numerous distinct ways and is integral to normal PAP function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.1628208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2238671PMC
February 2008

Sumoylation modulates the assembly and activity of the pre-mRNA 3' processing complex.

Mol Cell Biol 2007 Dec 8;27(24):8848-58. Epub 2007 Oct 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027, USA.

Eukaryotic pre-mRNA 3'-end formation is catalyzed by a complex set of factors that must be intricately regulated. In this study, we have discovered a novel role for the small ubiquitin-like modifier SUMO in the regulation of mammalian 3'-end processing. We identified symplekin, a factor involved in complex assembly, and CPSF-73, an endonuclease, as SUMO modification substrates. The major sites of sumoylation in symplekin and CPSF-73 were determined and found to be highly conserved across species. A sumoylation-deficient mutant was defective in rescuing cell viability in symplekin small interfering RNA (siRNA)-treated cells, supporting the importance of this modification in symplekin function. We also analyzed the involvement of sumoylation in 3'-end processing by altering the sumoylation status of nuclear extracts. This was done by the addition of a SUMO protease, which we show interacts with both symplekin and CPSF-73, or by siRNA-mediated depletion of ubc9, the SUMO E2-conjugating enzyme. Both treatments resulted in a marked inhibition of processing. The assembly of a functional polyadenylation complex was also impaired by the SUMO protease. Our identification of two key polyadenylation factors as SUMO targets and of the role of SUMO in enhancing the assembly and activity of the 3'-end-processing complex together reveal an important function for SUMO in the processing of mRNA precursors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.01186-07DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2169417PMC
December 2007

Polyadenylation factor CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease.

Nature 2006 Dec 26;444(7121):953-6. Epub 2006 Nov 26.

Department of Biological Sciences, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

Most eukaryotic messenger RNA precursors (pre-mRNAs) undergo extensive maturational processing, including cleavage and polyadenylation at the 3'-end. Despite the characterization of many proteins that are required for the cleavage reaction, the identity of the endonuclease is not known. Recent analyses indicated that the 73-kDa subunit of cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor (CPSF-73) might be the endonuclease for this and related reactions, although no direct data confirmed this. Here we report the crystal structures of human CPSF-73 at 2.1 A resolution, complexed with zinc ions and a sulphate that might mimic the phosphate group of the substrate, and the related yeast protein CPSF-100 (Ydh1) at 2.5 A resolution. Both CPSF-73 and CPSF-100 contain two domains, a metallo-beta-lactamase domain and a novel beta-CASP (named for metallo-beta-lactamase, CPSF, Artemis, Snm1, Pso2) domain. The active site of CPSF-73, with two zinc ions, is located at the interface of the two domains. Purified recombinant CPSF-73 possesses RNA endonuclease activity, and mutations that disrupt zinc binding in the active site abolish this activity. Our studies provide the first direct experimental evidence that CPSF-73 is the pre-mRNA 3'-end-processing endonuclease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature05363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3866582PMC
December 2006
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