Publications by authors named "Vasundhara Bijalwan"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Underweight in Five High-Burden Pockets of Four Indian States.

Indian J Community Med 2018 Oct-Dec;43(4):279-283

Department of Pediatrics, Lady Hardinge Medical College and Associated Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital, New Delhi, India.

Objectives: Prevalence of under-nutrition is very high in India. Under-nutrition is a result of interplay between different immediate, underlying, and basic causes. The study was conducted with the objective to identify significant predictors of stunting, wasting, and underweight.

Methods: Cross-sectional studies with 2299 children from five high-burden pockets of four Indian states were conducted. Primary data on their anthropometric measurements along with their households' demographic and socioeconomic characteristics were collected. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the predictors of stunting, wasting, and underweight.

Results: Results show very high prevalence of stunting, wasting, and underweight in all five regions covered in the study. Multivariate analyses show that food security, use of toilets, and low body mass index status of mothers were the major predictors of stunting and underweight among children. Acute respiratory infection disease was the major predictor of underweight and diarrhea was the major predictor of stunting. Younger children (<24 months) had lower odds of underweight and stunting compared to older children (24-59 months). The analyses showed higher odds of wasting among male children. Regional variations were also seen in the study with higher odds of underweight and wasting in Khuntpani block and higher odds of stunting in Naraini block.

Conclusion: The above findings indicate that for comprehensively addressing child under-nutrition, it is very important to address maternal nutrition, improve food security, and reduce poverty status, provide better water and sanitation facility to the community, control infections, and address regional disparity.
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January 2019

Comparison between Weight-for-Height Z-Score and Mid Upper Arm Circumference to Diagnose Children with Acute Malnutrition in five Districts in India.

Indian J Community Med 2018 Jul-Sep;43(3):190-194

Department of Pediatrics, Kalawati Saran Children's Hospital Associated Lady Hardinge Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Background: The World Health Organization recommends weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) or mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) and bilateral pitting edema to diagnose acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months. WHZ and MUAC identify different sets of children with acute malnutrition, and overlap between their prevalence varies greatly among countries.

Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the degree of overlap and agreement between WHZ and MUAC to diagnose children with acute malnutrition in India.

Methods: Five nutrition surveys using Standardized Monitoring and Assessment of Relief and Transitions methodology were conducted in four Indian states. A total of 2127 children aged 6-59 months were analyzed. All anthropometric indices were calculated using emergency nutrition assessment software and analyzed in Epi-Info 3.5.4.

Results: Of total global acute malnutrition (GAM) cases, 96% and 28.4% cases were diagnosed with WHZ and MUAC, respectively. Similarly, of total severe acute malnutrition (SAM) cases, 95.1% were identified using WHZ and 30% using MUAC. The proportion of overlap between the two criteria for GAM and SAM cases was 24.5% and 25.2%, respectively. The analysis showed that MUAC was comparatively more sensitive to identify acute malnutrition among 6-23-month aged children and females.

Conclusion: One-fourth of GAM and SAM cases were identified with both criteria. MUAC identified approximately 30% of the total SAM cases which was lower than other countries. MUAC identified more number of females and younger children, who may have higher mortality risk and would result significantly smaller caseload (68% smaller) that requires intervention compared to when using WHZ.
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October 2018