Publications by authors named "Vassilis Mougios"

73 Publications

Effects of Two Workload-Matched High-Intensity Interval Training Protocols on Regional Body Composition and Fat Oxidation in Obese Men.

Nutrients 2021 Mar 27;13(4). Epub 2021 Mar 27.

School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 17237 Athens, Greece.

The effects of two high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on regional body composition and fat oxidation in men with obesity were compared using a parallel randomized design. Sixteen inactive males (age, 38.9 ± 7.3 years; body fat, 31.8 ± 3.9%; peak oxygen uptake, VO, 30.9 ± 4.1 mL/kg/min; all mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to either HIIT10 (48 × 10 s bouts at 100% of peak power [W] with 15 s of recovery) or HIIT60 group (8 × 60 s bouts at 100% W with 90 s of recovery), and subsequently completed eight weeks of training, while maintaining the same diet. Analyses of variance (ANOVA) showed only a main effect of time ( < 0.01) and no group or interaction effects ( > 0.05) in the examined parameters. Total and trunk fat mass decreased by 1.81 kg (90%CI: -2.63 to -0.99 kg; = 0.002) and 1.45 kg (90%CI: -1.95 to -0.94 kg; < 0.001), respectively, while leg lean mass increased by 0.86 kg (90%CI: 0.63 to 1.08 kg; < 0.001), following both HIIT protocols. HIIT increased peak fat oxidation (PFO) (from 0.20 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.08 g/min, = 0.001), as well as fat oxidation over a wide range of submaximal exercise intensities, and shifted PFO to higher intensity (from 33.6 ± 4.6 to 37.6 ± 6.7% VO, = 0.039). HIIT, irrespective of protocol, improved VO by 20.0 ± 7.2% ( < 0.001), while blood lactate at various submaximal intensities decreased by 20.6% ( = 0.001). In conclusion, both HIIT protocols were equally effective in improving regional body composition and fat oxidation during exercise in obese men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13041096DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8066011PMC
March 2021

Vitamin D status, vitamin D intake, and sunlight exposure in adults adhering or not to periodic religious fasting for decades.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 17:1-8. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

We investigated whether periodic abstinence from foods of animal origin and a conservative lifestyle, with reduced sunlight exposure, affect vitamin D status. In a cross-sectional design, we measured the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and assessed dietary vitamin D intake and sunlight exposure in 200 adults adhering to religious fasting for decades and in 200 non-fasters, with no differences between groups in bone mineral density. Fasters showed lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration than non-fasters in winter and spring. Vitamin D intake and some indices of sunlight exposure (including two related to winter and spring) were lower in fasters, and 378 of the 400 participants exhibited vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. In conclusion, individuals following a religious lifestyle had lower vitamin D intake, sunlight exposure and, at times, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration than controls, although these differences did not impact bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2021.1887821DOI Listing
February 2021

Editorial: Predicting Individual Responses to Exercise Interventions.

Front Physiol 2020 23;11:559878. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.559878DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785981PMC
December 2020

Dietary protein intake from different animal and plant sources plays a minor role in the bone health of adults with or without intermittent fasting for decades.

Int J Food Sci Nutr 2021 Aug 7;72(5):704-712. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

We examined whether bone health is related to protein intake from different sources by utilising a distinct, rare dietary pattern: avoidance of animal foods for approximately half of the year according to Christian Orthodox Church fasting. Four-hundred adults, of whom 200 had been following religious fasting for a median of 15 years and 200 were non-fasters, underwent anthropometry, measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC), and completed a food frequency questionnaire. Groups did not differ significantly in anthropometric measures, BMD, or BMC. Fasters had higher consumption of seafood and lower consumption of red meat, poultry-eggs, dairy products, and grains-cereals than non-fasters. Protein intake from these food groups exhibited similar differences; overall, fasters had lower protein intake than non-fasters. BMD and BMC were positively, though weakly, correlated with red meat and poultry-egg consumption. Thus, protein intake seems to play a minor (if any) role in bone health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09637486.2020.1856795DOI Listing
August 2021

Effects of Aging, Long-Term and Lifelong Exercise on the Urinary Metabolic Footprint of Rats.

Metabolites 2020 Nov 25;10(12). Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Life expectancy has risen in the past decades, resulting in an increase in the number of aged individuals. Exercise remains one of the most cost-effective treatments against disease and the physical consequences of aging. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of aging, long-term and lifelong exercise on the rat urinary metabolome. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into four equal groups: exercise from 3 to 12 months of age (A), lifelong exercise from 3 to 21 months of age (B), no exercise (C), and exercise from 12 to 21 months of age (D). Exercise consisted in swimming for 20 min/day, 5 days/week. Urine samples collection was performed at 3, 12 and 21 months of life and their analysis was conducted by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate analysis of the metabolite data did not show any discrimination between groups at any of the three aforementioned ages. However, multivariate analysis discriminated the three ages clearly when the groups were treated as one. Univariate analysis showed that training increased the levels of urinary amino acids and possibly protected against sarcopenia, as evidenced by the higher levels of creatine in the exercising groups. Aging was accompanied by decreased levels of urinary amino acids and signs of increased glycolysis. Concluding, both aging and, to a lesser degree, exercise affected the rat urinary metabolome, including metabolites related to energy metabolism, with exercise showing a potential to mitigate the consequences of aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo10120481DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7760742PMC
November 2020

Low-Volume Sprint Interval Swimming Is Sufficient to Increase Blood Metabolic Biomarkers in Master Swimmers.

Res Q Exerc Sport 2020 Oct 21:1-7. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki.

: Sprint interval exercise is a time-efficient way of inducing beneficial adaptations. However, little is known about its minimal effective volume, especially in swimming. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the effects of two sprint interval swimming sets of different low volumes on blood biomarkers. : Twenty-one master swimmers [11 females aged 38.5 (8.5) years, 10 males aged 42.7 (5.7) years] completed two freestyle swimming sets of 4 × 50 m and 4 × 25 m at maximal intensity and a work-to-rest ratio of 1:1, on different days, in random and counterbalanced order. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after and one hour after exercise for determination of a number of biochemical parameters. : Swimming speed was higher in the 4 × 25-m set. Lactate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and reduced glutathione increased immediately post-exercise, while uric acid increased 1 h post-exercise ( < .05). All aforementioned biomarkers, excluding glucagon, increased more with the 4 × 50-m set, compared to the 4 × 25-m set ( < .05). Session rating of perceived exertion was higher after the 4 × 50-m set ( = .011). : Both sprint interval swimming sets elicited increases in blood biomarkers in master swimmers. The set of higher volume elicited greater increases in most of the biochemical markers studied but also in subjective load. Thus, although the set of higher volume was more efficient in perturbing blood biomarkers, even the very low-volume set induced metabolic stress that may trigger adaptive mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2020.1832183DOI Listing
October 2020

Response of Blood Biomarkers to Sprint Interval Swimming.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2020 Sep 22;15(10):1442-1447. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Purpose: To evaluate and compare the effects of 2 sprint interval training (SIT) sets of different distances on biochemical markers indicative of metabolism, stress, and antioxidant capacity in competitive swimmers and, to investigate the potential influence of gender on these markers.

Methods: Twenty-four adolescent, well-trained swimmers (12 men and 12 women) participated in the study. In a random and counterbalanced order, the swimmers completed 2 SIT sets (8 × 50 m and 8 × 25 m) in freestyle with maximal intensity on different days. Work-to-rest ratio was 1:1 in both sets. Blood samples were drawn preexercise, immediately postexercise, and 1 hour postexercise to evaluate the effects of the SIT sets on a number of biochemical parameters.

Results: Swimming speed was higher at 8 × 25 m. The 2 SIT sets induced significant increases in lactate, glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, and uric acid (P ≤ .001). No differences in these parameters were found between sets, except for irisin (higher in 8 × 50 m; P = .02). Male swimmers were faster and had higher lactate and uric acid concentrations, as well as lower reduced glutathione concentration, than female swimmers (P < .01).

Conclusions: The 2 swimming SIT sets induced increases in most of the biochemical markers studied. The 2-fold difference between sets in distance did not differentiate the effects of sprint interval exercise on most biochemical parameters. Thus, low-volume SIT sets seem to be effective stimuli for competitive swimmers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2019-0747DOI Listing
September 2020

Caffeine supplementation is ergogenic in soccer players independent of cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular fitness levels.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2020 Jun 8;17(1):31. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Human Performance Laboratory, Department of Life & Health Sciences, University of Nicosia, 46 Makedonitissas Ave., P.O. Box 24005, 1700, Nicosia, Cyprus.

Background: Equivocal findings examining the influence of caffeine on performance and biological responses to exercise may be due to inter-individual variability in cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular fitness. This study examined whether the effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise performance and biological responses to prolonged intermittent exercise to exhaustion depend on cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular fitness.

Methods: Twenty male soccer players, separated according to either cardiorespiratory fitness (high vs medium) or neuromuscular fitness (high vs medium) underwent two trials simulating the cardiovascular demands of a soccer game to exhaustion on treadmill after ingesting either caffeine (6 mg∙kg) or placebo. Physical performance, cardiorespiratory and metabolic parameters and blood metabolites were evaluated.

Results: Time to exhaustion (719 ± 288 vs 469 ± 228 s), jump height (42.7 ± 4.2 vs 38.6 ± 4.4 cm), heart rate (163 ± 12 vs 157 ± 13 b∙min), mean arterial blood pressure (98 ± 8 vs 92 ± 10 mmHg), plasma glucose (5.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.3 ± 0.6 mmol∙l) and lactate (3.3 ± 1.2 vs 2.9 ± 1.2 mmol∙l) were higher, while rating of perceived exertion (12.6 ± 1.7 vs 13.3 ± 1.6) was lower with caffeine vs placebo (p < 0.01), independent of cardiorespiratory or neuromuscular fitness level. Reaction time; plasma glycerol, non-esterified fatty acids and epinephrine; carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates; and energy expenditure were not affected by caffeine (p > 0.05).

Conclusions: Caffeine was effective in improving endurance and neuromuscular performance in athletes with either high or medium cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular fitness. Cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular fitness do not appear to modulate the ergogenic effects of caffeine supplementation in well-trained athletes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12970-020-00360-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282184PMC
June 2020

Effects of lifelong exercise and aging on the blood metabolic fingerprint of rats.

Biogerontology 2020 10 29;21(5):577-591. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sports Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Regular exercise is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, as it helps maintain a healthy weight and reduces the risk of chronic diseases. We explored the effects of lifelong exercise and aging on rat metabolism through a metabolomics approach. Thirty-six rats were divided into four equal groups: exercise during the 1st half of life (3-12 months), lifelong exercise (3-21 months), no exercise, and exercise during the 2nd half of life (12-21 months). Exercise consisted in swimming for 20 min, five times a week. Blood samples collected at 3, 12, and 21 months of life were analysed by H NMR spectroscopy. The groups that exercised during the 2nd half of life weighed less than the groups that did not. Exercise had an orexigenic effect during the 1st half and an anorexigenic effect during the 2nd half. Multivariate analysis showed a clear discrimination between ages when groups were treated as one and between the exercising and non-exercising groups at 12 months. Univariate analysis showed many effects of aging and some effects of exercise on metabolites involved in carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. Especially during the 1st half, exercise had anabolic effects, whereas aging had catabolic effects on amino acid metabolism. In two cases (glycine and succinate), exercise (especially during the 1st half) mitigated potentially harmful effects of aging. The higher values of succinate and the lower values of lactate during the 1st half in the exercising groups suggest increased oxidative metabolism. In conclusion, moderate-intensity exercise for life or half-life had strong and potentially healthful effects on body weight and (partly) appetite, as well as on some blood metabolites. The effects of aging on the rat blood metabolome seemed to be stronger than those of exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10522-020-09871-1DOI Listing
October 2020

High-Intensity Functional Training Improves Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Neuromuscular Performance Without Inflammation or Muscle Damage.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Feb 27. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.

Posnakidis, G, Aphamis, G, Giannaki, CD, Mougios, V, Aristotelous, P, Samoutis, G, and Bogdanis, GC. High-intensity functional training improves cardiorespiratory fitness and neuromuscular performance without inflammation or muscle damage. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-We examined the effects of high-intensity functional training (HIFT) on cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular performance, as well as on inflammatory and muscle damage markers. Thirteen physically active healthy volunteers (aged 28.3 ± 3.8 years, 5 men and 8 women) underwent 8 weeks of a group HIFT program performed 3 times per week. Each session consisted of 4 rounds of a 9-exercise circuit (30-second exercise and 15-second recovery). During the first and last weeks of training, venous blood was sampled daily to monitor changes in serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK). After 8 weeks of HIFT, body fat decreased by 0.64 ± 1.01 kg (p = 0.041), maximal oxygen uptake improved by 1.9 ± 2.2 ml·kg·min (p = 0.009), countermovement jump by 2.6 ± 1.5 cm (p = 0.001), bench press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) by 4.5 ± 3.8 kg (p = 0.001), maximum number of bench press repetitions at 65% 1RM by 4 ± 5 repetitions (p = 0.03), and abdominal muscle endurance by 6 ± 4 repetitions (p < 0.001). In both week 1 and week 8 of training, CK increased mildly in the morning after the first session of the week (main effect for day, p = 0.008), whereas no significant changes were observed in CRP (p = 0.31). During week 8, CK on all days was ∼32% lower compared with week 1 (160 vs. 235 U·L; main effect of week 1 vs. week 8, p = 0.027), whereas CRP remained unchanged (p = 0.225). This HIFT program was effective in improving cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular physical fitness without causing significant inflammation or muscle damage in physically active subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003516DOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of exercise on key pharmacokinetic parameters related to metformin absorption in healthy humans: A pilot study.

Scand J Med Sci Sports 2020 May 5;30(5):858-864. Epub 2020 Feb 5.

Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Exercise is widely accepted as having therapeutic effects; thus, it is important to know whether it interacts with medications. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the effect of high-intensity interval exercise (known to have antidiabetic action) on key pharmacokinetic parameters related to absorption of metformin (the first-line medication against type 2 diabetes). Ten healthy men participated in two sessions, spaced one to two weeks apart in random, counterbalanced order. In both sessions, participants received 1000 mg of metformin orally, 1-1.5 hours after breakfast. Then, they either ran for 60 minutes at alternating intensity, starting at 40 minutes after metformin administration, and rested without food consumption over the next 3 hours or they rested without food consumption during the entire testing period. Venous blood samples were collected before and at 0.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, and 4.5 hours after metformin administration for metformin determination by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Capillary blood samples were also collected for lactate and glucose measurements. Data from the two sessions were compared through Wilcoxon or Student's t test, as appropriate. Maximum plasma concentration of metformin (C ) was higher at exercise compared to rest (P = .059). Time to reach C (T ) decreased with exercise (P = .009), and the area under the metformin concentration vs time curve was higher at exercise (P = .047). The addition of exercise to metformin administration did not cause hypoglycemia or lactic acidosis. In conclusion, our results provide the first evidence that pharmacokinetic values related to metformin absorption are affected by exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sms.13628DOI Listing
May 2020

Bone status of young adults with periodic avoidance of dairy products since childhood.

Eur J Pediatr 2020 Apr 23;179(4):645-651. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Proper nutrition throughout childhood and adolescence is crucial for normal bone development. We investigated whether adherence to Christian Orthodox Church fasting is characterized by periodic avoidance of animal foods (including dairy products), since childhood affects stature or bone health in young adults. This cross-sectional study included 200 healthy men and women, aged 18-35, of whom 100 had been following religious fasting for a median of 14 years, starting at the age of 10, and 100 were non-fasters. Measurements included body height; bone mineral density and bone mineral content at the lumbar spine, right hip, left hip, right femoral neck, and left femoral neck; prevalence of bone fracture; serum biochemical parameters; food and nutrient intake; and physical activity and smoking habits. Fasters did not differ from non-fasters in anthropometric measures (including height), bone mineral density and content, or prevalence of low bone mineral density at any of the five sites measured; number of bone fractures; or serum calcium or 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations (P > 0.05). Fasters had lower daily calcium and protein intakes, as well as lower dairy consumption than non-fasters. Groups did not differ in physical activity, and fasters smoked less than non-fasters.Conclusion: Despite lower calcium intake and lower dairy product consumption, individuals adhering to religious fasting since childhood did not differ in height, bone mineral density and content, or prevalence of fractures from controls. Therefore, periodic abstention from dairy and, generally, animal products since childhood does not seem to compromise bone health in young adults.What is Known: • Bone health is an important determinant of overall health and longevity. • Proper nutrition throughout childhood and adolescence is crucial for normal bone development. • Adequate intake of dairy products is considered important due to their high calcium content.What is New: • Young adults with limited calcium intake and dairy product consumption, due to adherence to the fasting rules of the Christian Orthodox Church since childhood, do not differ in height or indices of bone health from non-fasting controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00431-019-03542-1DOI Listing
April 2020

Correction to: Effect of periodic abstinence from dairy products for approximately half of the year on bone health in adults following the Christian Orthodox Church fasting rules for decades.

Arch Osteoporos 2019 Nov 14;14(1):108. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

The original version of this article, published on 27 June 2019, unfortunately contained a mistake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-019-0636-8DOI Listing
November 2019

Loss of CD36 protects against diet-induced obesity but results in impaired muscle stem cell function, delayed muscle regeneration and hepatic steatosis.

Acta Physiol (Oxf) 2020 03 1;228(3):e13395. Epub 2019 Nov 1.

Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Centre for Atherothrombosis & Metabolic Disease, Hull York Medical School, University of Hull, Hull, UK.

Aim: The prevalence of obesity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases including impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Since skeletal muscle regenerative capacity is regulated by satellite cells, we aimed to investigate whether a high-fat diet impairs satellite cell function and whether this is linked to fatty acid uptake via CD36. We also aimed to determine whether loss of CD36 impacts on muscle redox homeostasis and skeletal muscle regenerative capacity.

Methods: We studied the impact of a high-fat diet and CD36 deficiency on murine skeletal muscle morphology, redox homeostasis, satellite cell function, bioenergetics and lipid accumulation in the liver. We also determined the effect of CD36 deficiency on skeletal muscle regeneration.

Results: High-fat diet increased body weight, intramuscular lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in wild-type mice that were significantly mitigated in CD36-deficient mice. High-fat diet and CD36 deficiency independently attenuated satellite cell function on single fibres and myogenic capacity on primary satellite cells. CD36 deficiency resulted in delayed skeletal muscle regeneration following acute injury with cardiotoxin. CD36-deficient and wild-type primary satellite cells had distinct bioenergetic profiles in response to palmitate. High-fat diet induced hepatic steatosis in both genotypes that was more pronounced in the CD36-deficient mice.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates that CD36 deficiency protects against diet-induced obesity, intramuscular lipid deposition and oxidative stress but results in impaired muscle satellite cell function, delayed muscle regeneration and hepatic steatosis. CD36 is a key mediator of fatty acid uptake in skeletal muscle, linking obesity with satellite cell function and muscle regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apha.13395DOI Listing
March 2020

Effect of periodic abstinence from dairy products for approximately half of the year on bone health in adults following the Christian Orthodox Church fasting rules for decades.

Arch Osteoporos 2019 06 27;14(1):68. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Social Medicine, Preventive Medicine and Nutrition, Medical School, University of Crete, Heraklion, Greece.

Christian Orthodox Church (COC) fasting is characterized by periodic abstinence from animal foods (including dairy products). We found that, despite this, older individuals adhering to COC fasting for decades did not differ in bone mineral density, bone mineral content, or prevalence of osteoporosis at five sites from non-fasting controls.

Purpose: The present observational study investigated whether adherence to COC fasting, characterized by periodic abstinence from animal foods (including dairy products), affects bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in older individuals.

Methods: Participants were 200 men and women, of whom 100 had been following the fasting rules of the COC for a median of 31 years and 100 were non-fasters, all aged 50 to 78 years. Participants underwent measurements of bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) at the lumbar spine, right hip, left hip, right femoral neck, and left femoral neck; completed a 3-day food intake record and food frequency questionnaire; and provided blood samples for biochemical measurements.

Results: Fasters did not differ from non-fasters in demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures, BMD, BMC, or prevalence of osteopenia or osteoporosis at any of the five sites measured (P > 0.05). Fasters had lower daily calcium intake than non-fasters (median 532 vs 659 mg, P = 0.010), daily protein intake (0.67 vs 0.71 g/kg, P = 0.028), and consumption of dairy and soy products (10.3 vs 15.3 servings per week, P < 0.001). Groups did not differ in serum calcium, vitamin D, or urea concentrations.

Conclusions: Despite lower calcium intake and lower consumption of dairy and soy products, older individuals adhering to COC fasting did not differ in BMD, BMC, or prevalence of osteoporosis from controls. Thus, periodic abstinence from dairy and, generally, animal products does not seem to compromise bone health in older individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11657-019-0625-yDOI Listing
June 2019

Comparison of the Serum Metabolic Fingerprint of Different Exercise Modes in Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

Metabolites 2019 Jun 15;9(6). Epub 2019 Jun 15.

School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Exercise plays a beneficial role in the treatment of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Metabolomics can provide new insights and facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human serum metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on exercise mode or the presence of MetS. Twenty-three sedentary men (nine with MetS and fourteen healthy) completed four trials: Resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Blood samples were collected pre-exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 h post-exercise for targeted metabolomic analysis in serum by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode. The largest changes from baseline were found in the immediate post-exercise samples. RE caused the strongest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. Unlike previous results in urine, no valid model could separate the two groups in serum. Exercise exerted a beneficial effect on prominent serum biomarkers of metabolic risks, such as branched-chain amino acids, alanine, acetylcarnitine, choline, and betaine. These findings contribute to the ongoing research efforts to map the molecular responses to exercise and to optimize exercise guidelines for individuals at cardiometabolic risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo9060116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6631338PMC
June 2019

Caffeine Supplementation: Ergogenic in Both High and Low Caffeine Responders.

Int J Sports Physiol Perform 2019 May 10;14(5):650-657. Epub 2018 Dec 10.

Inconsistent results among studies examining the effects of caffeine on exercise performance are potentially due to interindividual variability in biological responses to caffeine ingestion. The aims, therefore, of the present study were to identify high and low caffeine responders and compare the influence of caffeine on exercise performance and biological responses between groups during a simulated soccer-game protocol on treadmill. : Well-trained soccer players were distinguished as high (n = 11) and low (n = 9) caffeine responders based on resting blood pressure, plasma glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid, and epinephrine responses to caffeine. Participants underwent 2 simulated soccer-game protocols on a treadmill after caffeine (6 mg·kg) or placebo ingestion. Exercise performance and several biological responses were evaluated. Exercise performance did not differ between the high and low responders to caffeine ( > .05). However, time to fatigue (high, caffeine: 797 [201] s vs placebo: 487 [258] s; low, caffeine: 625 [357] s vs placebo 447 [198] s) and countermovement jump (high, caffeine: 42.1 [5.5] cm vs placebo: 40.5 [5.7] cm; low, caffeine: 41.0 [3.8] cm vs placebo: 38.8 [4.6] cm) improved with caffeine relative to placebo ( < .001). Rating of perceived exertion was lower ( < .001) in high (13.4 [2.3]) than in low responders (14.3 [2.4]) with caffeine ingestion. Caffeine improved aerobic endurance and neuromuscular performance in well-trained soccer players regardless of their responsiveness to caffeine at rest. Since no changes in substrate utilization were found with caffeine supplementation, performance improvements could be attributed to positive effects on the central nervous system and/or neuromuscular function, although the precise mechanism remains unclear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2018-0238DOI Listing
May 2019

Exercise in the management of obesity.

Metabolism 2019 03 29;92:163-169. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Laboratory of Evaluation of Human Biological Performance, School of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Electronic address:

Obesity is a multifactorial disease with increasing incidence and burden on societies worldwide. Obesity can be managed through everyday behavioral changes involving energy intake and energy expenditure. Concerning the latter, there is strong evidence that regular exercise contributes to body weight and fat loss, maintenance of body weight and fat reduction, and metabolic fitness in obesity. Appropriate exercise programs should ideally combine large negative energy balance, long-term adherence, and beneficial effects on health and well-being. Endurance training appears to be the most effective in this respect, although resistance training and high-intensity interval training play distinct roles in the effectiveness of exercise interventions. With weight regain being so common, weight loss maintenance is probably the greatest challenge in the successful treatment of obesity. There is an established association between higher levels of physical activity and greater weight loss maintenance, based on the abundance of evidence from prospective observational studies and retrospective analyses. However, proving a causative relationship between exercise and weight loss maintenance is difficult at present. Exercise has the potential to alleviate the health consequences of obesity, even in the absence of weight loss. All in all, exercise constitutes an indispensable, yet often underestimated, tool in the management of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2018.10.009DOI Listing
March 2019

Attenuation of oxidative stress-induced lesions in skeletal muscle in a mouse model of obesity-independent hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis through the inhibition of Nox2 activity.

Free Radic Biol Med 2018 12 17;129:504-519. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Centre for Atherothrombotic & Metabolic Disease, Hull York Medical School, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Obesity leading to hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis is recognised to induce morphological and metabolic changes in many tissues. However, hyperlipidaemia can occur in the absence of obesity. The impact of the latter scenario on skeletal muscle and liver is not understood sufficiently. In this regard, we used the Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE) mouse model, an established model of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis, that does not become obese when subjected to a high-fat diet, to determine the impact of Western-type diet (WD) and ApoE deficiency on skeletal muscle morphological, metabolic and biochemical properties. To establish the potential of therapeutic targets, we further examined the impact of Nox2 pharmacological inhibition on skeletal muscle redox biology. We found ectopic lipid accumulation in skeletal muscle and the liver, and altered skeletal muscle morphology and intramuscular triacylglycerol fatty acid composition. WD and ApoE deficiency had a detrimental impact in muscle metabolome, followed by perturbed gene expression for fatty acid uptake and oxidation. Importantly, there was enhanced oxidative stress in the skeletal muscle and development of liver steatosis, inflammation and oxidative protein modifications. Pharmacological inhibition of Nox2 decreased reactive oxygen species production and protein oxidative modifications in the muscle of ApoE mice subjected to a Western-type diet. This study provides key evidence to better understand the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle in the context of hyperlipidaemia and atherosclerosis and identifies Nox2 as a potential target for attenuating oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in a mouse model of obesity-independent hyperlipidaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2018.10.422DOI Listing
December 2018

Effects of sprint interval exercise dose and sex on circulating irisin and redox status markers in adolescent swimmers.

J Sports Sci 2019 Apr 11;37(7):827-832. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

a School of Physical Education and Sport Science , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thermi, Thessaloniki , Greece.

Irisin and redox status markers seem to share common pathways of exercise-induced upregulation. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of sprint interval swimming exercise dose and sex on the circulating levels of irisin and redox status markers in adolescent swimmers. Sixteen male and 16 female adolescent swimmers completed two sets of 4 × 50 m maximal freestyle swimming with a send-off time of 90 s, separated by 10 min of passive recovery. Venous blood samples were obtained pre-exercise (Pre), after the first set (Post1) and after the second set (Post2). Males had higher irisin levels than females. Reduced glutathione (GSH, μmol g Hb) increased from 8.6 (2.2) [pooled males and females, mean (SD) throughout] at Pre to 9.4 (2.1) at Post1 and Post2. Total antioxidant capacity (μmol DPPH mL) increased from 0.89 (0.17) at Post1 to 0.94 (0.16) at Post2. 8-hydroxy-2´-deoxyguanosine (ng mL) increased from 20.9 (6.9) at Pre and 21.5 (7.1) at Post1 to 25.0 (10.9) at Post2. Overall, sprint interval swimming exercise induced small but potentially effective changes in the studied parameters. Exercise dose influenced the GSH and 8-OHdG responses, and sex affected irisin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2018.1530056DOI Listing
April 2019

Physiology of Activins/Follistatins: Associations With Metabolic and Anthropometric Variables and Response to Exercise.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2018 10;103(10):3890-3899

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Context: Clinical trials are evaluating the efficacy of inhibitors of the myostatin pathway in neuromuscular and metabolic diseases. Activins and follistatins are major regulators of the myostatin pathway, but their physiology in relation to metabolic and anthropometric variables and in response to exercise remains to be fully elucidated in humans.

Objective: We investigated whether concentrations of circulating activin A, activin B, follistatin, and follistatin-like 3 (FSTL3) are associated with anthropometric and metabolic variables and whether they are affected by exercise.

Design: Activin A, activin B, follistatin, and FSTL3 were measured in (1) 80 subjects divided according to age (young vs old) and fitness status (active vs sedentary) before and after exercise at 70% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), followed by 90% of VO2max until exhaustion; and (2) 23 subjects [9 healthy and 14 with metabolic syndrome (MetS)] who completed four sessions: no exercise, high-intensity interval exercise, continuous moderate-intensity exercise, and resistance exercise for up to 45 minutes.

Results: At baseline, follistatin and FSTL3 concentrations were positively associated with age, fat percentage, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Follistatin was positively associated with serum cholesterol (P = 0.005), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.01), triglycerides (P = 0.033), and blood pressure (P = 0.019), whereas activin A and activin B were higher in physically active participants (P = 0.056 and 0.029, respectively). All exercise types increased the levels of all hormones ∼10% to 21% (P = 0.034 for activin B, P < 0.001 for the others) independent of the presence of MetS.

Conclusion: Concentrations of circulating activins and follistatins are associated with metabolic parameters and increase after 45 minutes of exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2018-01056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6179167PMC
October 2018

Metabolomics in Human Acute-Exercise Trials: Study Design and Preparation.

Methods Mol Biol 2018 ;1738:279-287

School of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.

Metabolomics can be of great value in the study of exercise metabolism. However, because of the high intraindividual and interindividual biological variability of the human metabolome, special considerations should be taken into account when designing an acute-exercise metabolomic study. To study different exercise parameters, e.g., different exercise modes, intensities, etc., a crossover study design, where each participant acts as their own control, is preferable to a parallel design, one involving different groups of participants. Moreover, the study should include a no exercise, control trial. Before each trial, participants should follow carefully designed preparatory steps to control for possible confounding factors, i.e., maintain repeatable and constant conditions for all individual trials of the study to minimize variation due to factors other than the one(s) being studied. This chapter focuses on the design of human metabolomic studies, where the intervention is an acute metabolic challenge, such as an exercise bout or a test meal, and presents some basic steps for screening potential participants, performing preliminary tests, preparing for the trial day, and performing the trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4939-7643-0_19DOI Listing
January 2019

Diurnal variation and reliability of the urine lactate concentration after maximal exercise.

Chronobiol Int 2018 01 27;35(1):24-34. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

a School of Physical Education and Sport Science , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki , Greece.

The postexercise urine lactate concentration is a novel valid exercise biomarker, which has exhibited satisfactory reliability in the morning hours under controlled water intake. The aim of the present study was to investigate the diurnal variation of the postexercise urine lactate concentration and its reliability in the afternoon hours. Thirty-two healthy children (11 boys and 21 girls) and 23 adults (13 men and 10 women) participated in the study. All participants performed two identical sessions of eight 25 m bouts of maximal freestyle swimming executed every 2 min with passive recovery in between. These sessions were performed in the morning and afternoon and were separated by 3-4 days. Adults performed an additional afternoon session that was also separated by 3-4 days. All swimmers drank 500 mL of water before and another 500 mL after each test. Capillary blood and urine samples were collected before and after each test for lactate determination. Urine creatinine, urine density and body water content were also measured. The intraclass correlation coefficient was used as a reliability index between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as between the afternoon test and retest. Swimming performance and body water content exhibited excellent reliability in both children and adults. The postexercise blood lactate concentration did not show diurnal variation, showing a good reliability between the morning and afternoon tests, as well as high reliability between the afternoon test and retest. The postexercise urine density and lactate concentration were affected by time of day. However, when lactate was normalized to creatinine, it exhibited excellent reliability in children and good-to-high reliability in adults. The postexercise urine lactate concentration showed high reliability between the afternoon test and retest, independent of creatinine normalization. The postexercise blood and urine lactate concentrations were significantly correlated in all cases, attesting to the validity of urine lactate as an index of anaerobic metabolism. We conclude that urine lactate, after normalization to creatinine, could be used in training practice either in the morning or in the afternoon. Further research is needed to assess the applicability of this novel exercise biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07420528.2017.1380037DOI Listing
January 2018

Increased Triacylglycerol Lipase Activity in Adipose Tissue of Lean and Obese Men During Endurance Exercise.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2017 11;102(11):3945-3952

School of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece 54124.

Context: Although there is increasing information on the mechanism of lipolysis in adipose tissue, the effect of exercise on individual factors of lipolysis is less well understood.

Objective: We compared changes in adipose-tissue triacylglycerol lipase activity and gene expression of adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), monoacylglycerol lipase, perilipin 1, and comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) during exercise between lean and obese men.

Design And Participants: Seven lean and nine obese men cycled for 30 minutes at a heart rate of 130 to 140 beats per minute. At baseline and 5, 10, 20, and 30 minutes of exercise, we sampled subcutaneous adipose tissue for triacylglycerol lipase activity and mRNA determination, and blood for glycerol, nonesterified fatty acid, glucose, lactate, insulin, and catecholamine determination.

Setting: The study was conducted at a university research unit.

Results: Triacylglycerol lipase activity increased at 10 minutes of exercise in the lean men and returned to baseline at 20 and 30 minutes. In the obese men, it was higher than baseline at 10, 20, and 30 minutes and higher than the corresponding values in the lean men at 20 and 30 minutes. No changes in mRNA levels were found during exercise, but the obese men had lower mRNA levels of ATGL, HSL, and CGI-58 compared with the lean men.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest different patterns of lipolytic stimulation during endurance exercise between lean and obese men. Differences in lipolytic rates seem to be due to differences in protein amount or activity, not mRNA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2017-00168DOI Listing
November 2017

Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

Metabolites 2017 Jan 26;7(1). Epub 2017 Jan 26.

School of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, = 9, and Healthy, = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/metabo7010005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5372208PMC
January 2017

Improved reliability of the urine lactate concentration under controlled hydration after maximal exercise.

Biomarkers 2017 Nov 10;22(7):614-620. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

a Department of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki , Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki , Greece.

Context: Urine lactate may be a novel biomarker of lactate production capacity but its reliability has been unsatisfactory so far.

Objective: To compare the reliability of urine lactate between controlled hydration and no hydration after maximal exercise.

Material And Methods: Athletes performed swimming exercise four times: two followed by consumption of 1 L of water and two followed by no water intake. Blood and urine lactate was measured.

Results: The reliability of urine lactate was good and similar to that in blood only after controlled hydration. Blood and urine lactate were correlated under both hydration conditions.

Discussion And Conclusion: Controlled hydration after exercise provides satisfactory reliability of urine lactate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1354750X.2016.1252963DOI Listing
November 2017

A novel bioanalytical method based on UHPLC-HRMS/MS for the quantification of oleuropein in human serum. Application to a pharmacokinetic study.

Biomed Chromatogr 2016 Dec 24;30(12):2016-2023. Epub 2016 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis Zografou, 15771, Athens, Greece.

A highly sensitive, rapid and specific ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography, coupled to negative electrospray ionization high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, method was developed and validated in order to investigate the absorption of dietary oleuropein (OE) in human subjects. Serum samples were collected at predefined time points, after oral administration of an olive leaf extract enriched in OE (204.4 mg OE per capsule) to two subjects. Subsequently, samples were analyzed by the developed method after a simple solid-phase extraction step. Chromatographic separation was operated with aqueous formic acid, 0.1% (v/v), and acetonitrile following a gradient program at a flow rate of 0.45 mL/min in an RP-C (50 × 2.1 mm, 1.9 μm) column with a total run time of 2.7 min. The method was validated and successfully applied to the determination of OE in human serum, with the pharmacokinetic analysis of the data revealing a biphasic response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.3779DOI Listing
December 2016

Exercise-induced oxidatively damaged DNA in humans: evaluation in plasma or urine?

Biomarkers 2016 5;21(3):204-7. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

a School of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Thessaloniki , Greece.

Physical exercise can induce oxidative damage in humans. 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) is a widely known biomarker of DNA oxidation, which can be determined in blood and urine. The aim of the present study was to compare these two biological fluids in terms of which is more suitable for the estimation of the oxidative damage of DNA by measuring the concentration of 8-OHdG one hour after maximal exercise by enzyme immunoassay. The concentration of 8-OHdG increased with exercise only in plasma (p < 0.001), and values differed between exercise tests in both plasma and urine (p < 0.05). In conclusion, plasma appears to be more sensitive to exercise-induced 8-OHdG changes than urine and, hence, a more appropriate medium for assessing oxidative damage of DNA, although the poor repeatability of the measurement needs to be addressed in future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1354750X.2015.1134667DOI Listing
December 2016

Reliability of urine lactate as a novel biomarker of lactate production capacity in maximal swimming.

Biomarkers 2016 5;21(4):328-34. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

a School of Physical Education and Sport Science at Thessaloniki, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , Greece.

Context: Postexercise urine lactate may be a novel biomarker of lactate production capacity during exercise.

Objective: To evaluate the reliability and utility of the urine lactate concentration after maximal swimming trials between different training protocols (6 × 50 m and 3 × 100 m) and training states (active and nonactive swimmers).

Materials And Methods: Lactate and creatinine were determined by spectrophotometry in blood and urine.

Results: Blood and urine lactate concentrations were correlated in-between training protocols and in participants of different training states. The reliability of the urine lactate concentration was moderate for one of the training protocols and good or moderate for the two training states. Additionally, it was lower than that of the blood lactate concentration, and did not improve after normalizing to the urine creatinine concentration.

Discussion And Conclusion: Although promising as a biomarker of lactate production capacity, urine lactate requires further research to improve its reliability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1354750X.2016.1138323DOI Listing
February 2017

Monitoring the Response of the Human Urinary Metabolome to Brief Maximal Exercise by a Combination of RP-UPLC-MS and (1)H NMR Spectroscopy.

J Proteome Res 2015 Nov 12;14(11):4610-22. Epub 2015 Oct 12.

School of Chemistry, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki , 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece.

The delineation of exercise biochemistry by utilizing metabolic fingerprinting has become an established strategy. We present a combined RP-UPLC-MS and (1)H NMR strategy, supplemented by photometric assays, to monitor the response of the human urinary metabolome to short maximal exercise. Seventeen male volunteers performed two identical sprint sessions on separate days, consisting of three 80 m maximal runs. Using univariate and multivariate analyses, we followed the fluctuation of 37 metabolites at 1, 1.5, and 2 h postexercise. 2-Hydroxyisovalerate, 2-hydroxybutyrate, 2-oxoisocaproate, 3-methyl-2-oxovalerate, 3-hydroxyisobutyrate, 2-oxoisovalerate, 3-hydroxybutyrate, 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, alanine, pyruvate, and fumarate increased 1 h postexercise and then returned toward baseline. Lactate and acetate were higher than baseline at 1 and 1.5 h. Hypoxanthine and inosine remained above baseline throughout the postexercise period. Urate decreased at 1 h and increased at 1.5 h before returning to baseline. Valine, isoleucine, succinate, citrate, trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, tyrosine, and formate decreased at 1 h and/or 1.5 h postexercise and then returned to baseline. Creatinine gradually decreased over the sampling period. Glycine, 4-aminohippurate, and hippurate remained below baseline throughout the postexercise period. Our findings show that even one-half minute of maximal exercise elicited major perturbations in human metabolism, several of which persisted for at least 2 h.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jproteome.5b00470DOI Listing
November 2015
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