Publications by authors named "Vasiliy Kozlov"

9 Publications

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Nephrometric score based on 3D modeling (3D nephrometry score) for the probability prediction of intra- and postoperative complications for kidney surgery.

Urologia 2021 Aug 2:3915603211036427. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Institute for Urology and Human Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Aim: The purpose of the study is the development and evaluation of the informativeness of the author's 3D nephrometric score application to predict the probability of intraoperative and postoperative complications in kidney operations.

Material And Methods: The study includes 264 patients who underwent surgical treatment of renal tumors, before that CT and 3D modeling were carried out. All patients underwent an analysis of the surgical intervention complexity on the C-index, PADUA, R.E.N.A.L., and developed 3D nephrometric score. To determine the set of variables that allow to classify patients, the method of discriminant analysis was used to predict the nature, volume of blood loss, duration of ischemia, and the number of complications. The sensitivity and specificity of the predictors were estimated with the help of ROC analysis.

Results: Indicators have been established to classify patients according to the probability of complications, the amount of blood loss and the duration of ischemia during surgery for kidney cancer. We have created linear models that predict the development of bleeding during surgery, the volume of blood loss of more than 200 ml and the duration of ischemia more than 20 min, as well as the likelihood of complications using discriminant functions. The proposed author's nephrometric score exceeds the capabilities of C-index, PADUA, R.E.N.A.L in many ways in blood loss and time of ischemia predicting, which allows us to recommend it for the assessment of resectability in kidney operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03915603211036427DOI Listing
August 2021

Prospective Single-Center Study of SuperPulsed Thulium Fiber Laser in Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery: Initial Clinical Data.

Urol Int 2021 Jun 16:1-7. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russian Federation.

Introduction: The objective of this study was to present our clinical experience of using the thulium fiber laser in retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS).

Methods: A prospective clinical study performed after the IRB approval (Sechenov University, Russia). Patients with stones <30 mm were treated with SuperPulsed thulium fiber laser (SP TFL) (NTO IRE-Polus, Russia) through a 200-μm-diameter fiber. Stone size, density, the duration of the operation, and laser on time (LOT) were measured. Based on the surgeon's feedback, retropulsion and intraoperative visibility were also assessed (Likert scale). Stone-free rates (SFRs) were assessed with a low-dose CT scan 90 days after the operation.

Results: Between January 2018 and December 2019, 153 patients (mean age 54 ± 2.8 years) underwent RIRS with SP TFL (mean stone density 1,020 ± 382 HU). Median stone volume was 279.6 (139.4-615.8) mm3. Median LOT was 2.8 (IQR 1.6-6.6) min with median total energy for stone ablation 4.0 (IQR 2.1-7.17) kJ, median ablation speed was 1.7 (1.0-2.8) mm3/s, median ablation efficacy was 13.3 (7.3-20.9) J/mm3, and energy consumption was 170.3 (59.7-743.3) J/s. Overall, the SFR (at 3 months) was 89%. The overall complication rate was 8.4%. Retropulsion was present in 23 (15.1%) patients. Visibility was estimated as optimal in most patients, with poor visibility reported in only 13 (8.5%) patients.

Conclusion: The SP TFL is a safe and efficient tool in lithotripsy, irrespective of the stone type and density. Retropulsion is minimal and visibility is maintained with SP TFL. Nonetheless, further clinical studies are needed to ensure optimal comparison with conventional holmium:YAG lithotripsy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516933DOI Listing
June 2021

A systematic review and meta-analysis of Histoscanning™ in prostate cancer diagnostics.

World J Urol 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Bolshaya Pirogovskaya str. 2 bld. 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia.

Context: The value of Histoscanning™ (HS) in prostate cancer (PCa) imaging is much debated, although it has been used in clinical practice for more than 10 years now.

Objective: To summarize the data on HS from various PCa diagnostic perspectives to determine its potential.

Materials And Methods: We performed a systematic search using 2 databases (Medline and Scopus) on the query "Histoscan*". The primary endpoint was HS accuracy. The secondary endpoints were: correlation of lesion volume by HS and histology, ability of HS to predict extracapsular extension or seminal vesicle invasion.

Results: HS improved cancer detection rate "per core", OR = 16.37 (95% CI 13.2; 20.3), p < 0.0001, I = 98% and "per patient", OR = 1.83 (95% CI 1.51; 2.21), p < 0.0001, I = 95%. The pooled accuracy was markedly low: sensitivity - 0.2 (95% CI 0.19-0.21), specificity - 0.12 (0.11-0.13), AUC 0.12. 8 of 10 studiers showed no additional value for HS. The pooled accuracy with histology after RP was relatively better, yet still very low: sensitivity - 0.56 (95% CI 0.5-0.63), specificity - 0.23 (0.18-0.28), AUC 0.4. 9 of 12 studies did not show any benefit of HS.

Conclusion: This meta-analysis does not see the incremental value in comparing prostate Histoscanning with conventional TRUS in prostate cancer screening and targeted biopsy. HS proved to be slightly more accurate in predicting extracapsular extension on RP, but the available data does not allow us to draw any conclusions on its effectiveness in practice. Histoscanning is a modification of ultrasound for prostate cancer visualization. The available data suggest its low accuracy in screening and detecting of prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00345-021-03684-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Endoscopic lithotripsy with a SuperPulsed thulium-fiber laser for ureteral stones: A single-center experience.

Int J Urol 2021 03 30;28(3):261-265. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Objectives: To estimate the efficacy and safety of SuperPulsed thulium-fiber laser ureteral lithotripsy and to identify optimal laser settings.

Methods: Patients with solitary stones were prospectively included. Lithotripsy was performed with a SuperPulsed thulium-fiber laser (NTO IRE-Polus, Fryazino, Russia) using a rigid ureteroscope 7.5 Ch (Richard Wolf, Knittlingen, Germany). We analyzed the efficacy of lithotripsy by measuring total energy required for stone disintegration, "laser-on" time, ablation speed, ablation efficacy, and energy consumption. Stone retropulsion and visibility were assessed using a three-point Likert scale. Complications were assessed using the Clavien-Dindo classification system.

Results: A total of 149 patients were included. The mean stone density was 985 ± 360 Hounsfield units, the median (interquartile range) stone volume was 179 (94-357) mm . The median (interquartile range) total energy was 1 (0.4-2) kJ, and laser-on time 1.2 (0.5-2.7) min. The median (interquartile range) stone ablation speed was 140 (80-279) mm /min, energy for ablation of 1 mm was 5.6 (3-9.9) J/mm and energy consumption was 0.9 (0.6-1) J/min. A correlation was found between retropulsion and the energy used (r = 0.5, P < 0.001). Multivariable analysis showed energy to be a predictor of increased retropulsion (odds ratio 65.7, 95% confidence interval 1.6-2774.1; P = 0.028). No predictors for worse visibility were identified.

Conclusion: The SuperPulsed thulium-fiber laser provides effective and safe lithotripsy during ureteroscopy regardless of stone density. Fiber diameter and laser frequency do not influence visibility or safety. Optimal laser settings are 0.5 J × 30 Hz for fragmentation and 0.15 J × 100 Hz for dusting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iju.14443DOI Listing
March 2021

Active Surveillance for Intermediate-Risk Prostate Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Current Protocols and Outcomes.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2020 12 22;18(6):e739-e753. Epub 2020 May 22.

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Introduction: Current guidelines allow active surveillance for intermediate-risk prostate cancer patients but do not provide comprehensive recommendations for selection. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes for active surveillance in intermediate- and low-risk groups.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search of intermediate-risk localized prostate cancer patients undergoing active surveillance using 3 literature search engines (Medline, Web of Science, and Scopus) over the past 10 years. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients who remain under surveillance. Secondary outcomes included cancer-specific survival, overall survival, and metastasis-free survival. For articles including both low- and intermediate-risk patients undergoing active surveillance, comparisons between the two groups were made.

Results: The proportion of patients who remained on active surveillance was comparable between the low- and intermediate-risk groups after 10 and 15 years' follow-up (odds ratio [OR], 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.83-1.14; and OR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.65-1.13). Cancer-specific survival was worse in the intermediate-risk group after 10 years (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.31-0.69) and 15 years (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.2-0.58). The overall survival rate showed no statistical difference at 5 years' follow-up (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.45-1.57) but was worse in the intermediate-risk group after 10 years (OR, 0.43; 95% CI, 0.35-0.53). Metastases-free survival did not significantly differ after 5 years (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.2-1.53) and was worse in the intermediate-risk group after 10 years (OR, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.28-0.77).

Conclusion: Active surveillance could be offered to patients with intermediate-risk prostate cancer. However, they should be informed of the need for regular monitoring and the possibility of discontinuation as a result of a higher rate of progression. Available data indicate that 5-year survival rates between intermediate- and low-risk patients do not differ; 10-year survival rates are worse. To assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of active surveillance, it is necessary to develop unified algorithms for patient selection and management, and to prospectively conduct studies with long-term surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clgc.2020.05.008DOI Listing
December 2020

Dual-Energy Computed Tomography for Stone Type Assessment: A Pilot Study of Dual-Energy Computed Tomography with Five Indices.

J Endourol 2020 09 28;34(9):893-899. Epub 2020 May 28.

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

To assess the efficacy of dual-energy CT (DECT) in predicting the composition of urinary stones with a single index (dual energy ratio [DER]) and five indices. Patients undergoing DECT before active urolithiasis treatment were prospectively enrolled in the study. Predictions of stone composition were made based on discriminant analysis with a single index (DER) and five indices (stone density at 80 and 135 kV, Zeff [the effective atomic number of the absorbent material] of the stone, DER, dual-energy index [DEI] and dual-energy difference [DED]). After extraction, stone composition was evaluated by means of physicochemical analyses (X-ray phase analysis, electron microscopy, wet chemistry techniques, and infrared spectroscopy). A total of 91 patients were included. For calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones, the sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy of DECT with one index (DER) were 83.3%, 89.8%, and 86.8%, respectively; for calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) and calcium phosphate stones-88.2%, 92.9%, and 91.2%, respectively; for uric acid stones-0%, 98.8% and 97.8%, respectively; for struvite stones-60%, 95.3%, and 93.4%, respectively. Discriminant analysis with five indices yielded the following sensitivity, specificity, and overall accuracy: 95.2%, 89.8%, and 92.3% for COM stones, 85.3%, 96.4%, and 92.3% for COD stones, and 100% in all three categories for both uric acid and struvite stones. DECT is a promising tool for stone composition assessment. It allowed for evaluation of chemical composition of all stone types with specificity and accuracy ranging from 85% to 100%. Five DECT indices have shown much better diagnostic accuracy compared to a single DECT index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2020.0243DOI Listing
September 2020

Retrospective Assessment of Endoscopic Enucleation of Prostate Complications: A Single-Center Experience of More Than 1400 Patients.

J Endourol 2020 02;34(2):192-197

Institute for Urology and Reproductive Health, Sechenov University, Moscow, Russia.

Endoscopic enucleation of the prostate (EEP) is a safe method of treating benign prostatic hyperplasia, regardless of prostate volume and type of applied energy. To date, however, there has been no study that examines complication rates with respect to the type of applied energy. This study aims to address this problem by providing a retrospective analysis of >1400 patients who have undergone prostate enucleation. We performed a retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing EEP between 2013 and 2018 at a single tertiary institution. This analysis included patients who had undergone one of three forms of EEP: holmium laser enucleation of the prostate (HoLEP), thulium fiber laser enucleation of the prostate (ThuFLEP), or monopolar enucleation of the prostate (MEP). We compared intraoperative and early postoperative complications, as well as complications at 3 and 6 months follow-up. A total of 1413 patients were included in this study; 36% patients underwent HoLEP, 57.5% had ThuFLEP, and 6.5% MEP. The most frequent complication in the early postoperative period was a mild fever (2.76% of the cases). The morcellation was delayed to a separate stage because of intensive hemorrhaging in 1.4% of the cases. Bladder tamponade was found in 1.1% of the cases. We found no correlation between complication rate and either prostate volume or energy source. Stress urinary incontinence was found in 3.9% of patients at 3 months and in only 1.4% of patients at 6 months after the operation. Urethral stricture at 6 months after the surgery was found in 1.4% of patients, whereas bladder neck sclerosis was found in only 0.9% of these cases. No significant difference was observed between these complication frequencies and any preoperative factors or energy source. All EEP types are safe with equal rates of complications intraoperatively, postoperatively, and at 6 months follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/end.2019.0630DOI Listing
February 2020

Effect of essential amino acid кetoanalogues and protein restriction diet on morphogenetic proteins (FGF-23 and Кlotho) in 3b-4 stages chronic кidney disease patients: a randomized pilot study.

Clin Exp Nephrol 2018 Dec 11;22(6):1351-1359. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University (Sechenov University), Trubetskaya str. 8, bld.2, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation.

Background: A low protein diet (LPD) with essential amino acid ketoanalogue supplementation (KA) may contribute in improving of chronic kidney disease (CKD), while the exact mechanisms of KA's effect are not established yet. We have conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled comparative study of LPD + KA and LPD alone in relation to serum Klotho, FGF-23 levels in CKD patients.

Methods: 79 non-diabetic CKD 3b-4 stage patients, compliant with LPD diet (0.6 g/kg of body weight/day), had been selected. The patients were randomized into two groups. The first group (42 patients) received LPD + КA. The second group (37 patients) continued the LРD alone. In addition to routine tests, serum Klotho, FGF-23 levels, as well as bioimpedance analysis, sphygmography (stiffness (augmentation) indices (AI), central (aortal) blood pressure) with a «SphygmaCor» device; echocardiography (valvular calcification score (VCS) and LVMMI), were performed.

Results: There were body mass indices' decrease (p = 0.046), including muscle body mass in men (p = 0.027) and woman (p = 0.044) in the LPD group to the end of study (14th month). In addition, lower FGF-23 (p = 0.029), and higher sKlotho (p = 0.037) were detected in the LPD + KA group compared to the LPD one. The increase in AI (p = 0.034), VCS (p = 0.048), and LVMMI (p = 0.023) was detected more often in the LPD group at the end of study.

Conclusion: LPD + KA provides support for nutrition status and contributes to more efficient correction of FGF-23 and Klotho abnormalities that may result in cardiovascular calcification and cardiac remodeling decreasing in CKD. At the same time, a prolonged LPD alone may lead to malnutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10157-018-1591-1DOI Listing
December 2018
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