Publications by authors named "Vanisree Mulabagal"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Co-Delivery of Hispolon and Doxorubicin Liposomes Improves Efficacy Against Melanoma Cells.

AAPS PharmSciTech 2020 Nov 4;21(8):304. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, 36849, USA.

Hispolon is a small molecular weight polyphenol that has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative activities. Our recent study has demonstrated hispolon as a potent apoptosis inducer in melanoma cell lines. Doxorubicin is a broad spectrum first-line treatment for various kinds of cancers. In this study, co-delivery of doxorubicin and hispolon using a liposomal system in B16BL6 melanoma cell lines for synergistic cytotoxic effects was investigated. Liposomes were prepared using a lipid film hydration method and loaded with doxorubicin or hispolon. The formulations were characterized for particle size distribution, release profile, and encapsulation efficiency (EE). In addition, in vitro cytotoxicity, in vitro cell apoptosis, and cellular uptake were evaluated. Liposomes exhibited small particle size (mean diameter ~ 100 nm) and narrow size distribution (polydispersity index (< 0.2) and high drug EE% (> 90%). The release from liposomes showed slower release compared to free drug solution as an additional time required for the release of drug from the liposome lipid bilayer. Liposome loaded with doxorubicin or hispolon exhibited significantly higher cytotoxicity against B16BL6 melanoma cells as compared to doxorubicin solution or hispolon solution. Likewise, co-delivery of hispolon and doxorubicin liposomes showed two-fold and three-fold higher cytotoxicity, as compared to hispolon liposomes or doxorubicin liposomes, respectively. In addition, co-delivery of doxorubicin and hispolon in liposomes enhanced apoptosis more than the individual drugs in the liposome formulation. In conclusion, the co-delivery of hispolon and doxorubicin could be a promising therapeutic approach to improve clinical outcomes against melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-020-01846-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Stability-indicating HPLC method for acyclovir and lidocaine in topical formulations.

Biomed Chromatogr 2020 Mar 12;34(3):e4751. Epub 2020 Jan 12.

Department of Drug Discovery and Development, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, USA.

A simple, rapid and accurate stability-indicating HPLC assay was developed for the determination of acyclovir and lidocaine in topical formulations. Chromatographic separation of acyclovir and lidocaine was achieved using a reversed-phase C column and a gradient mobile phase (20 mm ammonium acetate pH 3.5 in water and acetonitrile). The degradation products of acyclovir and lidocaine in the samples were analyzed by ultra performance liquid chromatography-time of flight mass spectrometry. The HPLC method successfully resolved the analytes from the impurities and degradation products in the topical formulation. Furthermore, the method detected the analytes from the human skin leachables following the extraction of the analytes in the skin homogenate samples. The method showed linearity over wide ranges of 5-500 and 10-200 μg/ml for acyclovir and lidocaine in the topical product, respectively, with a correlation coefficient (r ) >0.9995. The relative standard deviations for precision, repeatability, and robustness of the method validation assays were <2%. The skin extraction efficiency for acyclovir and lidocaine was 92.8 ± 0.7% and 91.3 ± 3.2%, respectively, with no interference from the skin leachables. Thus, simultaneous quantification of acyclovir and lidocaine in the topical formulations was achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.4751DOI Listing
March 2020

A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method for quantitation of phytoestrogens and the distribution of enterolactone in an Alabama estuary.

Chemosphere 2019 Dec 27;237:124472. Epub 2019 Jul 27.

Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA. Electronic address:

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are natural or synthetic compounds that can interfere with the endocrine systems of humans and wildlife. EDCs can pass through wastewater treatment systems, or run off from urban areas or agricultural operations, into natural water bodies, exposing resident and migratory organisms to complex EDC mixtures. Some phytoestrogenic polyphenolics (PEPP) are known or suspected EDCs; however, their contribution to total EDC burden in natural surface water systems is largely unknown. We describe a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible quantitative method for analysis of 15 PEPP in estuarine sediment and water, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The method provides excellent peak resolution, peak separation, and rapid run times (method separation/total run time: 8/12.5 min). With two exceptions, spiking experiments demonstrated that the percent recoveries for target PEPP in sediment and water samples were within acceptable analytical validation limits. LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.004 to 0.010 ng/injection and 0.013-0.032 ng/injection, respectively. The validated method was used for PEPP analysis of sediment and water samples collected from 11 locations within the Perdido Bay estuary in coastal Alabama. No PEPP above the LOD were detected in sediment samples. The mammalian-derived lignin enterolactone was observed at low concentrations in water throughout the estuary, and significantly, at elevated concentrations at two locations associated with small-scale septic systems (3.66 ± 0.27 ng L and 4.01 ± 0.33 ng L) and a large wastewater treatment system (4.56 ± 0.24 ng L and 5.69 ± 0.43 ng L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.124472DOI Listing
December 2019

A rapid UHPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous quantitation of 23 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in estuarine water.

Talanta 2018 Dec 24;190:95-102. Epub 2018 Jul 24.

Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, United States. Electronic address:

Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) represent a large group of synthetic organic compounds which, as a result of their unique chemical properties, render them extremely recalcitrant to environmental degradation. Research concerning the environmental, ecological, and human health effects of PFAS has focused on long aliphatic chain (> C7) compounds having no ether bonds. For new, less studied, or previously unknown PFAS (≤ C7 with ether bonds), there is little to no information about their environmental behavior, transport, fate, exposure, and toxicological effects. LC-MS/MS has proven effective for detection and quantitation of some PFAS, however, straightforward analytical methods for simultaneous trace quantitation of broad mixtures of PFAS in varied complex environmental media, available to a wide range of researchers and also suitable for routine monitoring, remain critical needs. Here we describe a simple, rapid, sensitive, and reproducible quantitative analytical method for trace analysis and monitoring of 23 PFAS in estuarine water, using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The developed MRM method allows simultaneous trace quantitation of a broad mixture of PFAS, including 13 perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids, 8 perfluoroalkyl sulfonates, and 2 short-chain perfluoroethers. The method provides better peak resolution and peak separation, and shorter run times (method separation/total run time: 6/8 min) compared to those of existing analytical methods. Percent recoveries for the validated method ranged from 78.54 to 112.61. LOD and LOQ values ranged from 0.48 to 1.68 pg/injection and 1.71 to 5.40 pg/injection, respectively. The validated method was used for quantitative PFAS analysis of estuarine water samples collected from 16 locations within the Perdido Bay estuary in coastal Alabama.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.07.053DOI Listing
December 2018

An ultrahigh-performance chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry quantitative method for trace analysis of potential endocrine disrupting steroid hormones in estuarine sediments.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2017 Mar;31(5):419-429

Department of Civil Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

Rationale: Estuaries are dynamic ecosystems, providing vital habitat for unique organisms of great ecological and commercial importance. The influx of natural and synthetic steroid hormones into estuaries poses risks to these organisms and to broader ecosystem health. However, detecting these trace level pollutants in estuarine water and sediment requires improved analytical techniques.

Methods: We describe an optimized ultrahigh-performance chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS) method for simultaneous quantitation of four classes of steroid hormones (estrogens, glucocorticoids, androgens and progestins) in sediment samples collected from an Alabama estuary. Sediment samples were homogenized using Hydromatrix (HM) sorbent and extracted with methanol and water (70%, v/v). Centrifuged extracts were purified using an Agilent Bond Elut QuEChERS dispersive-SPE kit to eliminate interfering substances that could negatively influence the ionization process. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Poroshell 120 Phenyl-Hexyl column using an Agilent 1290 Infinity II UHPLC pump. Quantitation was carried out using an Agilent triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with a JetStream/ESI source in dual mode.

Results: Chromatographic separation and better peak resolution were accomplished on an Agilent Poroshell 120 Phenyl-Hexyl column using a binary gradient method with a mobile phase consisting of 1 mM ammonium fluoride in water and a mixture of methanol/acetonitrile. A dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method was developed by optimizing various MS parameters. The method was used to analyze target steroid hormones in estuarine sediments. A total of ten steroid hormones were detected at trace amounts in estuarine sediments.

Conclusions: The optimized analytical method described here involves reasonably simple sample preparation and simultaneous trace level quantitation of four classes (estrogens, glucocorticoids, androgens and progestins) of steroid hormones in a single experimental run. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7807DOI Listing
March 2017

Blood Glucose-lowering Effect of T. procumbens L.: A Pilot Clinical Study in Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes.

Phytother Res 2015 Sep 22;29(9):1404-1411. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Boshell Diabetes and Metabolic Diseases Research Program, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36830, USA.

Traditional knowledge, in vitro studies, and studies using animal models suggest that Tridax procumbens L. exhibits blood glucose-lowering properties and antiinflammatory effects. In this study, we evaluated the blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens supplementation in individuals with type 2 diabetes. An extract (asava) of T. procumbens L. was prepared following Ayurveda guidelines. Chemical and microbial analyses indicated presence of phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids, and absence of microbial contamination, aflatoxins, heavy metals, and pesticide residues. A chemical fingerprint of T. procumbens L. asava, developed using Ultra high pressure liquid chromatography/electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MS) in negative mode, suggest the presence of several compounds including polyphenols. T. procumbens asava demonstrated strong total antioxidant capacity, Fe reducing potential, Fe chelation, H O scavenging activity, and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. We recruited 20 type 2 diabetic individuals from Kolhapur, India. Participants received 15 mL of T. procumbens asava, twice daily, for 4 weeks, while continuing their prescribed antidiabetic medications. Fasting blood glucose decreased by 11% in men (p < 0.01) and 20% in women (p < 0.05), and post-prandial blood glucose concentrations were lowered by 26% in men (p < 0.001) and 29% in women (p < 0.001) following 4 weeks of asava supplementation. No adverse events or side effects were reported. This is the first clinical study demonstrating a significant blood glucose-lowering effect of T. procumbens asava in type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5394DOI Listing
September 2015

Design, synthesis and in vitro cell-based evaluation of the anti-cancer activities of hispolon analogs.

Bioorg Med Chem 2015 May 21;23(9):2148-2158. Epub 2015 Mar 21.

Department of Biomedical Sciences, CVMNAH, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, AL, USA.

Phytochemicals play an important role in cancer therapy. Hispolon and 26 of its analogs (9 known and 17 new) were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activities in a panel of six independent human cancer cell lines using the in vitro cell-based MTT assay. Among the hispolon analogs tested, compound VA-2, the most potent overall, produced its most significant effect in the colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 (IC₅₀ 1.4 ± 1.3 μM) and S1 (IC₅₀ 1.8 ± 0.9 μM) compared to its activity in the normal HEK293/pcDNA3.1 cell line (IC₅₀ 15.8±3.7 μM; p<0.01 for each comparison). Based on our results, VA-2 was about 9- to 11-times more potent in colon cancer cells and 2- to 3-times more potent in prostate cancer cells compared to HEK293/pcDNA3.1 cells. Morphological analysis of VA-2 showed significant reduction of cell number, while the cells' sizes were also markedly increased and were obvious at 68 h of treatment with 1 μM in HCT-116 (colon) and PC-3 (prostate) cancer cells. A known analog, compound VA-4, prepared by simple modifications on the aromatic functional groups of hispolon, inhibited prostate and colon cancer cell lines with IC₅₀ values <10 μM. In addition, hispolon isoxazole and pyrazole analogs, VA-7 and VA-15 (known), respectively, have shown significant activity with the mean ICv values in the range 3.3-10.7 μM in all the cancer cell lines tested. Activity varied among the analogs in which aromatic functional groups and β-diketone functional groups are modified. But the activity of analogs VA-16 to VA-27 was completely lost when the side chain double-bond was hydrogenated indicating the crucial role of this functionality for anticancer activity. Furthermore, many of the compounds synthesized were not substrates for the ABCB1-transporter, the most common cause of multidrug resistance in anti-cancer drugs, suggesting they may be more effective anticancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2015.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4398655PMC
May 2015

Stability-indicating HPLC assay for lysine-proline-valine (KPV) in aqueous solutions and skin homogenates.

Biomed Chromatogr 2015 May 9;29(5):716-21. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL, 36849, USA.

A simple, sensitive and stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay method was developed and validated for a bioactive peptide, lysine-proline-valine (KPV) in aqueous solutions and skin homogenates. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase Phenomenex C18 column (4.6 × 250 mm, packed with 5 µm silica particles) with a gradient mobile phase consisting of 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water (A) and 0.1% TFA in acetonitrile (B). The proposed HPLC method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision, linearity, repeatability, limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ). The calibration curve was linear with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9999. Relative standard deviation values of accuracy and precision experiments were <2. The LOD and LOQ of KPV were 0.01 and 0.25 µg/mL, respectively. Under stress conditions (acid, alkali and hydrogen peroxide) KPV yielded lys-pro-diketopiperazine as major degradation product, which was identified by flow injection MS analysis. The developed HPLC method was found to be efficient in separating the active peptide from its degradation products generated under various stress conditions. Also, the validated method was able to separate KPV from other peaks arising from endogenous components of the skin homogenate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.3347DOI Listing
May 2015

Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry based fingerprinting analysis and mass profiling of Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials.

Food Chem 2012 Sep 27;134(2):1156-64. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, 4306B Walker Building, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

Chemical fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify biologically active compounds in botanical dietary supplements is gaining much attention in recent years. Euterpe oleracea (açaí) has been reported to be rich in health-beneficial chemical constituents. We have developed LC/MS based fingerprinting and mass profiling methods to identify fatty acids, anthocyanins and non-anthocyanin polyphenols in three processed raw materials; non-organic açaí powder (ADSR-1), raw-organic açaí powder (ADSR-2) and freeze-dried açaí powder (ADSR-3) that are used in the preparation of botanical dietary supplements. For LC/MS analysis of fatty acids and non-anthocyanin polyphenols, the açaí samples were extracted sequentially with dichloromethane followed by methanol. To study fingerprinting analysis of anthocyanins, açaí samples were extracted with acidic methanol-water. The LC separation of fatty acids, non-anthocyanin polyphenols and anthocyanins in açaí raw materials was achieved using a C18 column with a gradient mobile phase consisting of solvents A (0.1% formic acid in water), and B (0.1% formic acid in methanol). MS experiments were carried out with negative and positive mode electrospray ionization. LC/MS analysis of dichloromethane extracts of (ADSR-1), (ADSR-2) and (ADSR-3) açaí powders have shown to contain fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid, and oleic acid. Whereas, the fingerprinting analysis of methanol extracts of ADSR-1, ADSR-2 and ADSR-3 led to the identification of phenolic acids, anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin polyphenols. The results from our study may be useful for the authentication and quality assessment of açaí dietary supplement raw materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.02.123DOI Listing
September 2012

Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in Euterpe oleracea (açaí) dietary supplement raw materials and capsules by Q-TOF liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

Pharm Biol 2012 Oct 20;50(10):1289-96. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA

Context: Euterpe oleracea Mart. (Arecaceae) fruits and their dietary supplements are gaining much popularity internationally. Anthocyanins and their aglycons are responsible for the dense color of açaí fruit and are associated with a wide spectrum of health promoting effects.

Objective: Quantitative analysis of anthocyanins in açaí dietary supplement raw materials; processed açaí powder (ADSR-1), organic açaí powder (ADSR-2), and nonorganic açaí powder (ADSR-3) by quadrupole-time-of-flight liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (Q-TOF LC/MS) have been reported in this study.

Materials And Methods: The chromatographic separation for anthocyanins was achieved using a C-18 column with a gradient of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in methanol and acetonitrile (50:50, v/v). MS and MS/MS experiments were carried out on an electrospray ionization-Q-TOF LC/MS.

Results: Except for ASDR-2, all the açaí samples were found to have cyanidin 3-glucoside (1), cyanidin 3-sambubioside (2), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (3), and peonidin 3-rutinoside (4). ASDR-2 contained anthocyanins 1 and 3. Among the açaí samples quantified, ADSR-3 showed higher concentration of anthocyanins compared to other raw materials and capsules tested in this study.

Discussion And Conclusion: The anthocyanins 1-4 present in ADSR-3 were 27.13 ± 0.37, 1.76 ± 0.04, 31.07 ± 0.49, and 3.46 ± 0.08 mg/100 g dry wt, respectively. The LOQ values for anthocyanins 1-4 were in the range of 2.44-9.76 ng/mL. Accuracy of the method was assessed by performing a recovery experiments. The intraday and interday variations (RSDs) were <10%. This is the first report on quantitation of anthocyanins in açaí dietary supplement raw materials and capsules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2012.674141DOI Listing
October 2012

Stemodin-derived analogues with lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzymes and human tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activities.

Phytochemistry 2011 Dec 21;72(18):2361-8. Epub 2011 Sep 21.

Department of Chemistry, The University of the West Indies, Mona, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

A series of analogues, derived from the antiviral and cytotoxic diterpene stemodin, were prepared and evaluated for their lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclooxygenase enzyme-1 (COX-1) and -2 (COX-2), and tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Oxidation of stemodin produced stemodinone, which was then converted to stemod-12-en-2-one. Reaction of the latter under Petrow conditions (bromine; silver acetate/pyridine) yielded mainly dibrominated abeo-stachanes. Solvolysis of the dibromo compounds gave products of hydrolysis, some with rearranged skeleta. In the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay three of the compounds exhibited prominent activity. Interestingly, all the analogues showed higher COX-1 enzyme inhibition than COX-2. Although a few of the diterpenes limited the growth of some human tumour cell lines, most compounds induced proliferation of such cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.08.024DOI Listing
December 2011

Identification of oleamide in Guatteria recurvisepala by LC/MS-based Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase ligand binding method.

Planta Med 2011 Oct 12;77(15):1749-53. Epub 2011 May 12.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama, USA.

Our current research on applications of mass spectrometry to natural product drug discovery against malaria aims to screen plant extracts for new ligands to Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase (PfTrxR) followed by their identification and structure elucidation. PfTrxR is involved in the antioxidant defense and redox regulation of the parasite and is validated as a promising target for therapeutic intervention against malaria. In the present study, detannified methanol extracts from Guatteria recurvisepala, Licania kallunkiae, and Topobea watsonii were screened for ligands to PfTrxR using ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based binding experiments. The PfTrxR ligand identified in the extract of Guatteria recurvisepala displayed a relative binding affinity of 3.5-fold when incubated with 1 μM PfTrxR. The ligand corresponding to the protonated molecule m/z 282.2792 [M+ H]+ was eluted at a retention time of 17.95 min in a 20-min gradient of 95% B consisting of (A) 0.1%formic acid in 95% H₂O-5% ACN, and (B) 0.1% formic acid in 95% ACN-5% H₂O in an LC-QTOF-MS.Tandem MS of the protonated molecule m/z 282.2792 [M + H]+, C₁₈H₃₆NO (DBE: 2; error: 1.13 ppm) resulted in two daughter ions m/z 265.2516[M + H-NH₃]+ (DBE: 3; error: 0.35 ppm) and m/z 247.2405 [M + H-NH₃-H₂O] +, (DBE: 4; error:2.26 ppm). The PfTrxR ligand was identified as oleamide and confirmed by comparison of the retention time, molecular formula, accurate mass,and double bond equivalence with the standard oleamide. This is the first report on the identification of oleamide as a PfTrxR ligand from Guatteria recurvisepala R. E. Fr. and the corresponding in vitro activity against P. falciparum strain K1 (IC₅₀ 4.29 μg/mL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0030-1271080DOI Listing
October 2011

Screening of natural compounds for ligands to PfTrxR by ultrafiltration and LC-MS based binding assay.

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2011 May 3;55(2):265-71. Epub 2011 Feb 3.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, Auburn University, 4306B Walker Building, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

In our study, we have screened 133 structurally diverse natural compounds from the MEGx® collection of AnalytiCon Discovery and three synthetic hispolone analogs for binding affinity to Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin reductase (PfTrxR) using an ultrafiltration (UF) and liquid chromatography (LC/MS) based ligand-binding assay newly developed in our laboratory. PfTrxR catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin (PfTrx) protein. In reduced form, PfTrx is essentially involved in the antioxidative defense and redox regulation of P. falciparum. Nine compounds (yohimbine (1), catharanthine (2), vobasine (3), gnetifolin E (4), quinidine N-oxide (5), 11-hydroxycoronaridine (6), hispolone (7), hispolone methyl ether (8), and hernagine (9)) displayed binding affinity for PfTrxR at 1μM. The ranking order of compound's binding affinities for PfTrxR is 7>6>2>4>5>8>1>9>3. On the other hand, compounds 6, 7, 2 and 8 demonstrated specific binding to the active site of PfTrxR, when ligands were tested in an equimolar mixture of 1 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2011.01.033DOI Listing
May 2011

Development of an ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) based ligand-binding assay and an LC/MS based functional assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase.

Anal Chem 2010 May;82(9):3616-21

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, 4306B Walker Building, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849, USA.

Shikimate kinase (SK) and other enzymes in the shikimate pathway are potential targets in the discovery of antimicrobial agents. In the current study, an ultrafiltration-liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UF-LC/MS) ligand based binding assay and an LC/MS based functional assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis shikimate kinase (MtSK) were developed. Compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were tested for MtSK (1 microM) at a concentration of 1 microM. In order to evaluate the MtSK inhibitory activity, compounds 1-4 were tested at concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1 microM, and the enzymatic activity was assessed by quantifying shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) by LC/MS after 60 min incubation with 2 mM shikimic acid as a substrate. The EC(50) values of compounds 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 0.30, 0.24, 0.07, and 0.18 microM, respectively. The ligands and the S3P were analyzed using positive and negative electrospray LC/MS, respectively. The calibration curve for S3P was prepared with concentrations ranging from 4 to 125 microg/mL, and the lower detection limit (LOD) of S3P was identified as 1.95 microg/mL (9.75 ng on-column). This is the first application of UF-LC/MS and LC/MS in the development of ligand-binding and functional assays, respectively as a useful approach to screen MtSK inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac902849gDOI Listing
May 2010

Development of binding assays to screen ligands for Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin and glutathione reductases by ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2010 Apr 6;878(13-14):987-93. Epub 2010 Mar 6.

Department of Pharmacal Sciences, Harrison School of Pharmacy, 4306B Walker Building, Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849, USA.

To identify potential lead compounds for malaria drug discovery, ultrafiltration and liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UF and LC/MS) based binding assays were developed for the first time for Plasmodium falciparum thioredoxin (PfTrxR) and glutathione (PfGR) reductases. In the binding assays, curcuminoids (bis-demethoxycurcumin 1, demethoxycurcumin 2, and curcumin 3) were used to study the binding affinity for PfTrxR and PfGR enzymes. The optimum binding was observed when the curcumimoids mixture (1 microM) was incubated with 1 microM PfTrxR and 0.5 microM PfGR enzymes separately for 60 min at 25 degrees C. The peak areas of the ligands in the chromatogram corresponding to incubation with active PfTrxR and PfGR enzymes increased by 1.6- and 2.0-fold respectively compared to the chromatogram of test compounds incubated with denatured enzymes. Further, binding assay experiments were carried out for compound 2 under non-competitive and competitive incubation conditions with 1 microM PfTrxR and 0.5 microM PfGR enzymes, separately. The binding affinity of compound 2 was higher for both the enzymes under non-competitive incubation conditions. To validate the binding assay developed, we have tested bis-2,4-dinitrophenyl sulfide (4) which is reported as an inhibitor of PfTrxR and PfGR enzymes. Compound 4 showed greater binding affinity for both enzymes under competitive incubation conditions. The relative peak area of compound 4 increased by 3.2- and 6-fold when incubated with active PfTrxR (1 microM) and PfGR (0.5 microM) enzymes respectively compared to the peak areas of the compound in control experiments. The current method developed has a potential for automated high-throughput screening to rapidly determine the binding affinity of ligands for these enzymes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2010.02.030DOI Listing
April 2010

Inhibition of lipid peroxidation, cyclooxygenase enzyme and human tumor cell proliferation by compounds in herbal water.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2009 Sep;53(9):1177-86

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

A powdered mixture of dried herbs, "Panamrutham", is sold in India for the preparation of "herbal drinking water". The hot water extract of this herbal mixture gave lipid peroxidation (LPO), cyclo-oxygenase (COX-1 and -2) enzyme and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities between 25 and 250 microg/mL. The bioassay-guided purification of the water extract afforded a novel compound (1), along with phenolics (2, 4, 6, and 7) and sesquiterpenoids (3 and 5). The isolates were evaluated for LPO, COX-1 and -2 enzyme and human tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. At 25 microg/mL, compounds 1-7 inhibited LPO by 22-73% and COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 3-14% and 14-74%, respectively. Compounds 5 and 6 at 25 microg/mL showed growth inhibition of colon, gastric, lung, breast and central nervous system human tumor cell lines by 60 and 67, 43 and 60, 24 and 64, 34 and 65, 6 and 27%, respectively. Compounds 2, 4 and 7 displayed weak or moderate growth inhibition of colon, gastric and breast human tumor cell lines. This is the first report on the LPO inhibitory activities of compounds 1 and 3-7 and the COX and tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities of compounds 1, 3-5 and 7.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200800545DOI Listing
September 2009

Health-Beneficial Phenolic Aldehyde in Antigonon leptopus Tea.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2011 20;2011:601249. Epub 2010 Oct 20.

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, USA.

Tea prepared from the aerial parts of Antigonon leptopus is used as a remedy for cold and pain relief in many countries. In this study, A. leptopus tea, prepared from the dried aerial parts, was evaluated for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) enzyme inhibitory activities. The tea as a dried extract inhibited LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by 78%, 38% and 89%, respectively, at 100 μg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract yielded a selective COX-2 enzyme inhibitory phenolic aldehyde, 2,3,4-trihydroxy benzaldehyde. Also, it showed LPO inhibitory activity by 68.3% at 6.25 μg/mL. Therefore, we have studied other hydroxy benzaldehydes and their methoxy analogs for LPO, COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes inhibitory activities and found that compound 1 gave the highest COX-2 enzyme inhibitory activity as indicated by a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) at 9.7 μg/mL. The analogs showed only marginal LPO activity at 6.25 μg/mL. The hydroxy analogs 6, 7 and 9 showed 55%, 61% and 43% of COX-2 inhibition at 100 μg/mL. However, hydroxy benzaldehydes 3 and 12 showed selective COX-1 inhibition while compounds 4 and 10 gave little or no COX-2 enzyme inhibition at 100 μg/mL. At the same concentration, compounds 14, 21 and 22 inhibited COX-1 by 83, 85 and 70%, respectively. Similarly, compounds 18, 19 and 23 inhibited COX-2 by 68%, 72% and 70%, at 100 μg/mL. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from A. leptopus tea with selective COX-2 enzyme and LPO inhibitory activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3136713PMC
August 2012

Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries.

J Agric Food Chem 2009 Feb;57(4):1239-46

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Cherries contain bioactive anthocyanins that are reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and antiobese properties. The present study revealed that red sweet cherries contained cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanin (>95%). The sweet cherry cultivar "Kordia" (aka "Attika") showed the highest cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside content, 185 mg/100 g fresh weight. The red sweet cherries "Regina" and "Skeena" were similar to "Kordia", yielding cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside at 159 and 134 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The yields of cyanidin-3-O-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were 57 and 19 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Balaton" and 21 and 6.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Montmorency", respectively, in addition to minor quantities of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The water extracts of "Kordia", "Regina", "Glacier" and "Skeena" sweet cherries gave 89, 80, 80 and 70% of lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition, whereas extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" were in the range of 38 to 58% at 250 microg/mL. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the yellow sweet cherry "Rainier" containing beta-carotene, ursolic, coumaric, ferulic and cafeic acids inhibited LPO by 78 and 79%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL. In the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory assay, the red sweet cherry water extracts inhibited the enzymes by 80 to 95% at 250 microg/mL. However, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "Rainier" and "Gold" were the most active against COX-1 and -2 enzymes. Water extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 84, and 91 and 77, and 87%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf8032039DOI Listing
February 2009

Withanolide sulfoxide from Aswagandha roots inhibits nuclear transcription factor-kappa-B, cyclooxygenase and tumor cell proliferation.

Phytother Res 2009 Jul;23(7):987-92

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food, Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA.

Investigation of the methanol extract of Aswagandha (Withania somnifera) roots for bioactive constituents yielded a novel withanolide sulfoxide compound (1) along with a known withanolide dimer ashwagandhanolide (2) with an S-linkage. The structure of compound 1 was established by extensive NMR and MS experiments. Compound 1 was highly selective in inhibiting cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) enzyme by 60% at 100 microm with no activity against COX-1 enzyme. The IC(50) values of compound 1 against human gastric (AGS), breast (MCF-7), central nervous system (SF-268) and colon (HCT-116) cancer cell lines were in the range 0.74-3.63 microm. Both S-containing dimeric withanolides, 1 and 2, completely suppressed TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation when tested at 100 microm. The isolation of a withanolide sulfoxide from W. somnifera roots and its ability to inhibit COX-2 enzyme and to suppress human tumor cell proliferation are reported here for the first time. In addition, this is the first report on the abrogation of TNF-induced NF-kappaB activation for compounds 1 and 2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2736DOI Listing
July 2009

Non-nutritive functional agents in rattan-shoots, a food consumed by native people in the Philippines.

Food Chem 2008 Oct 18;110(4):991-6. Epub 2008 Mar 18.

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA. Electronic address:

The tender shoots of Calamus ornatus, one of the food items consumed by the native people, Kanawan Aytas, in the Bataan region of the Philippines, have not been studied before. A bioassay-guided investigation of its methanolic extract afforded non-nutritive functional agents (NFAs), steroidal saponins 1-3, along with its aglycone (4). The NFAs 1-4 inhibited cyclooxygenase enzymes, COX-1 and -2, by 47%, 43%, 33%, and 53% and 71%, 75%, 78%, and 73%, respectively, at 28.2, 24.2, 21.2 and 60.4μM. Treatment of breast (MCF-7), CNS (SF-268), lung (NCI-H460), colon (HCT-116) and gastric (AGS) cancer cell lines with the extract at 100μg/ml reduced cell proliferation. Similarly, the pure NFAs 2 and 3 reduced the cell viability of breast, CNS, lung, colon and gastric cancer cell lines by 37.5%, 22.4%, 53.3%, 58.2%, 40.3% and 29.8%, 21.3%, 45.6%, 37.1%, 25.0%, respectively, at 24.2 and 21.2μM. The 50% reduction in cell viability (IC50) concentrations of 2 and 3 against these cancer cell lines were 8.8, 6.1, 7.5, 23.8, 12.1 and 3.8, 7.1, 3.3, 14.3, 12.1μM, respectively. This is the first report on the isolation of steroidal saponins from C. ornatus shoots and their antiinflammatory and tumor cell proliferation inhibitory activities. Therefore, our results suggest that the Kanawan Aytas may yield health benefits from rattan-shoots in their diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.03.015DOI Listing
October 2008

Cultivars of apple fruits that are not marketed with potential for anthocyanin production.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Oct 7;55(20):8165-9. Epub 2007 Sep 7.

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

The red coloration of apple skin is mainly due to anthocyanins that are reported to possess health benefits. The aim of the present study was to determine the anthocyanin content in three underutilized Malus pumila Mill cultivars, Cranberry, Kerr, and Niedzwetzkyana, and confirm their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Our analysis revealed that the three cultivars studied contained primarily cyanidin-3-O-glucosyl rutinoside (1) at >99%. The anthocyanin was purified by C-18 medium pressure liquid chromatography and characterized by NMR spectral methods. The quantification of anthocyanins in M. pumila cultivars revealed that Cranberry, Kerr, and Niedzwetzkyana contained 1.12, 0.55, and 0.36 mg/g of fresh weight of 1, respectively. The lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cyclooxygenase enzyme (COX) inhibitory activities of 1 in water were compared with the activities of cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside (2) and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (3) found in cherries and berries. There is a significant increase in LPO and COX enzyme-inhibitory activities of anthocyanin when tested in water compared to using dimethylsulfoxide as the carrier. The LPO inhibition of anthocyanins 1, 2, and 3 were 53.3, 68.3, and 87.9, respectively, at a 0.25 microM concentration. They inhibited the COX-1 enzyme by 42.7, 45.2, and 50.4 and COX-2 by 52.7, 61.5, and 68.5, respectively, at 5 microM. The LPO inhibitory values for commercial standards, BHA, BHT, and TBHQ, were 85, 89, and 94%, respectively at 1 microM. Similarly, positive controls aspirin, celecoxib, and robecoxib inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 68.6, 40.7, and 0% and 26.6, 72.2, and 92.4%, respectively, at 60, 26, and 32 nM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf0718300DOI Listing
October 2007

Ashwagandhanolide, a bioactive dimeric thiowithanolide isolated from the roots of Withania somnifera.

J Nat Prod 2006 Dec;69(12):1790-2

Laila Research Center, Unit I, Phase III, Jawahar Autonagar, Vijayawada 520 007, India.

A new dimeric withanolide, ashwagandhanolide (1), was isolated from the roots of an Ayurvedic medicinal herb, Withania somnifera. A detailed spectroscopic evaluation revealed its identity as a dimer with an unusual thioether linkage. Compound 1 displayed growth inhibition against human gastric (AGS), breast (MCF-7), central nervous system (SF-268), colon (HCT-116), and lung (NCI H460) cancer cell lines, with IC50 values in the range 0.43-1.48 microg/mL. In addition, it inhibited lipid peroxidation and the activity of the enzyme cyclooxygenase-2 in vitro.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/np060147pDOI Listing
December 2006

Impact of alkyl esters of caffeic and ferulic acids on tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzyme, and lipid peroxidation.

J Agric Food Chem 2006 Jul;54(15):5375-81

Bioactive Natural Products and Phytoceuticals, Department of Horticulture and National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824, USA.

The antioxidant ferulic and caffeic acid phenolics are ubiquitous in plants and abundant in fruits and vegetables. We have synthesized a series of ferulic and caffeic acid esters and tested for tumor cell proliferation, cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX-1 and -2) and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities in vitro. In the tumor cell proliferation assay, some of these esters showed excellent growth inhibition of colon cancer cells. Among the phenolics esters assayed, compounds 10 (C12-caffeate), 11 (C16-caffeate), 21 (C8-ferulate), and 23 (C12-ferulate) showed strong growth inhibition with IC50 values of 16.55, 13.46, 18.67, and 7.57 microg/mL in a breast cancer cell line; 9.65, 7.45, 17.05, and 4.35 microg/ mL in a lung cancer cell line; 5.78, 3.5, 4.29, and 2.46 microg/mL in a colon cancer cell line; 12.04, 12.21, 14.63, and 8.09 microg/ mL in a central nervous system cancer cell line; and 8.62, 7.76, 11.0, and 5.37 in a gastric cancer cell line. In COX enzyme inhibitory assays, ferulic and caffeic acid esters significantly inhibited both COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes. Caffeates 5-10 (C4-C12), inhibited COX-1 enzyme between 50% and 90% and COX-2 enzyme by about 70%, whereas ferulates 15-21 (C3-C8) inhibited COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes by 85-95% 25 microg/mL. Long-chain caffeates 11-14 (C16-C22) and short-chain ferulates 15-20 (C3-C5) were the most active in lipid peroxidation inhibition and showed 60-70% activity at 5 microg/mL concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf060899pDOI Listing
July 2006

Triterpenoid glycosides from Bacopa monnieri.

Phytochemistry 2005 Dec 15;66(23):2719-28. Epub 2005 Nov 15.

Laila Impex Research Center, Unit I, Phase III, Jawahar Autonagar, Vijayawada 520 007, India.

Two triterpenoid glycosides have been isolated along with 10 known saponins from Bacopa monnieri. Structures of the compounds have been elucidated as 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] jujubogenin (1) and 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl] pseudojujubogenin (2) by high resolution NMR spectral data and chemical correlations. Further, the chemical compositions of bacosides A and B have been delineated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.09.016DOI Listing
December 2005

Bioguided fractionation and isolation of free radical scavenging components from in vitro propagated chinese medicinal plants Dendrobium tosaense Makino and Dendrobium moniliforme SW.

J Agric Food Chem 2004 Nov;52(23):6916-9

Department of Agronomy, Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station, TARI, Chiayi, Taiwan.

This study was performed to investigate the free radical scavenging active components from in vitro propagated medicinal herbs of the genus Dendrobium, namely, Dendrobium tosaense Makino and Dendrobium moniliforme SW, using a 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical antioxidative assay. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half-strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by reculturing on full-strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose, and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. Extracts were prepared from plants grown in the greenhouse for a period of 6 months. Methanolic extracts of D. tosaense and D. moniliforme scavenged DPPH at 95.9 and 83.4%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL. Therefore, methanolic solubles of D. tosaense and D. moniliforme were subjected to bioguided fractionation and separation by column chromatographic methods individually. After chromatographic separation of these crude extracts, the obtained fractions (Dm 1, Dm 2, Dm 3, Dt 1, Dt 2, and Dt 3) were tested for their activity. Among them, fractions Dm 2 and Dt 1 showed significant antioxidant activity by DPPH radical antioxidative assay. Active fractions were purified further by column chromatography and resulted in identification of the antioxidant components alkyl ferulates from D. moniliforme and quercetin from D. tosaense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf040017rDOI Listing
November 2004

In vitro propagation by asymbiotic seed germination and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity studies of tissue culture raised plants of three medicinally important species of dendrobium.

Biol Pharm Bull 2004 May;27(5):731-5

Department of Agronomy, Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural Research Institute, Taiwan.

A simple and efficient plant propagation system has been developed by asymbiotic germination of seeds in three medicinally important Dendrobium species, namely, Dendrobium tosaense, Dendrobium moniliforme, and Dendrobium linawianum. Plants obtained from natural habitats were grown in the greenhouse. The flowers were hand pollinated. Seeds of the capsules derived after 12 weeks of hand-pollination germinated asymbiotically (50-74%) on half strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium with 3% sucrose and solidified with 0.9% Difco agar. Active growth in the germinated seedlings was achieved by re-culturing on full strength MS basal medium supplemented with 8% banana homogenate, 8% potato homogenate, 8% coconut water, 1.5% sucrose and 0.9% Difco agar. Healthy plantlets, transferred to plastic trays containing moss or moss and tree fern, successfully acclimatized (84-100%) in the greenhouse. A marked varied response was observed in the free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extracts of in vitro propagated plants, on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical using a UV spectrophotometer assay. Methanolic extracts were prepared by dissolving the powdered plant material, obtained from six months old in vitro propagated plants, each about 5 g, in boiling methanol. The percentage of scavenging effect of D. tosaense extract was 95.9% at 0.4 mg/ml concentration, whereas D. monoliforme, and D. linawianum extracts scavenged 83.4% and 92.3%, respectively, at a concentration of 0.4 mg/ml. All the extracts scavenged DPPH radical significantly in a concentration dependent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.27.731DOI Listing
May 2004

Micropropagation of Polygonum multiflorum THUNB and quantitative analysis of the anthraquinones emodin and physcion formed in in vitro propagated shoots and plants.

Biol Pharm Bull 2003 Oct;26(10):1467-71

Department of Agronomy, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan.

An efficient and rapid protocol for in vitro induction and complete plant regeneration of Polygonum multiflorum THUNB has been developed. Nodal explants were grown in vitro on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium containing different concentrations of alpha-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and benzyladenine (BA). The nodal explants (97%) produced multiple shoots (4.7 shoots per explant) on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg/l NAA and 2.0 mg/l BA after 6 weeks of culture. Eighty-eight percent to 100% of the shoots (1.0 cm in length) elongated (about 3.02-4.28 cm) and rooted on MS basal medium supplemented with NAA or indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All the rooted shoots were transferred to pots containing autoclaved soil, vermiculite, and peat moss (1 : 1 : 1). The plantlets were successfully acclimatized under greenhouse conditions with high humidity before transferring to the field. The anthraquinone contents were determined using HPLC. Analysis revealed that the contents of the major medicinal compounds-emodin and physcion in the 6 weeks old in vitro grown shoots and three month old in vitro propagated plants grown in greenhouse were higher than those of the marketed crude drug (processed underground or stem parts of P. multiflorum).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.1467DOI Listing
October 2003

Isolation and quantitative analysis of cryptotanshinone, an active quinoid diterpene formed in callus of Salvia miltiorrhiza BUNGE.

Biol Pharm Bull 2003 Jun;26(6):845-8

Department of Agronomy, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan.

Effect of N(6)-benzyladenine (BA) on tanshinone formation in callus cultures of Salvia miltiorrhiza was examined in an attempt to increase the productivity of the medicinal compound, cryptotanshinone. Primary callus was induced by culturing leaf explants on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg l(-1) of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in darkness. The callus proliferated further on MS basal medium containing 1.0 mg l(-1) 2,4-D and 0.5 mg l(-1) BA and was analyzed for cryptotanshinone by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC results indicated that it contained small amounts of cryptotanshinone (0.26+/-0.05 mg/g dry wt). Omission of 2,4-D from the medium resulted in a marked increase in the content of cryptotanshinone in callus. The HPLC analysis revealed that the content of cryptotanshinone in the callus cultured on the MS basal medium supplemented with 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mg l(-1) of BA was significantly higher than the marketed crude drug (processed underground parts of S. miltiorrhiza). Maximum yield of cryptotanshinone (4.59+/-0.09 mg/g dry wt) was observed in the callus cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 0.2 mg l(-1) BA for 60 d. Cryptotanshinone was isolated from callus through silica gel column chromatography followed by preparative TLC and characterized based on NMR and mass spectral data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.26.845DOI Listing
June 2003

Fungichromin: a substance from Streptomyces padanus with inhibitory effects on Rhizoctonia solani.

J Agric Food Chem 2003 Jan;51(1):95-9

Department of Plant Pathology, National Chung-Hsing University, Taichung, 402, Taiwan.

Streptomyces padanus strain PMS-702 is an antagonist of Rhizoctonia solani AG-4, the causal agent of damping-off of cabbage. Treatment of cabbage seeds with the culture filtrate of S. padanus strain PMS-702 was effective in reducing the incidence of damping-off of cabbage. The major active ingredient from the culture filtrate of S. padanus strain PMS-702 was purified by silica gel column chromatography and identified as the polyene macrolide, fungichromin, by NMR and mass spectral data. Bioassay studies showed that fungichromin had a strong antifungal activity against R. solani AG-4, and its minimum inhibitory concentration (over 90% inhibition) was found to be 72 microg/mL. This is the first report of fungichromin from S. padanus as an active ingredient for the control of Rhizoctonia damping-off of cabbage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025879bDOI Listing
January 2003