Publications by authors named "Vanessa M Hirsch"

85 Publications

From Capsids to Complexes: Expanding the Role of TRIM5α in the Restriction of Divergent RNA Viruses and Elements.

Viruses 2021 03 10;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Rockville, MD 20894, USA.

An evolutionary arms race has been ongoing between retroviruses and their primate hosts for millions of years. Within the last century, a zoonotic transmission introduced the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus, to the human population that has claimed the lives of millions of individuals and is still infecting over a million people every year. To counteract retroviruses such as this, primates including humans have evolved an innate immune sensor for the retroviral capsid lattice known as TRIM5α. Although the molecular basis for its ability to restrict retroviruses is debated, it is currently accepted that TRIM5α forms higher-order assemblies around the incoming retroviral capsid that are not only disruptive for the virus lifecycle, but also trigger the activation of an antiviral state. More recently, it was discovered that TRIM5α restriction is broader than previously thought because it restricts not only the human retroelement LINE-1, but also the tick-borne flaviviruses, an emergent group of RNA viruses that have vastly different strategies for replication compared to retroviruses. This review focuses on the underlying mechanisms of TRIM5α-mediated restriction of retroelements and flaviviruses and how they differ from the more widely known ability of TRIM5α to restrict retroviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v13030446DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7998678PMC
March 2021

CD4 receptor diversity represents an ancient protection mechanism against primate lentiviruses.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar;118(13)

Lukuru Wildlife Research Foundation, Tshuapa-Lomami-Lualaba Project, BP 2012, Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Infection with human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV/SIV) requires binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) to the host protein CD4 on the surface of immune cells. Although invariant in humans, the Env binding domain of the chimpanzee CD4 is highly polymorphic, with nine coding variants circulating in wild populations. Here, we show that within-species CD4 diversity is not unique to chimpanzees but found in many African primate species. Characterizing the outermost (D1) domain of the CD4 protein in over 500 monkeys and apes, we found polymorphic residues in 24 of 29 primate species, with as many as 11 different coding variants identified within a single species. D1 domain amino acid replacements affected SIV Env-mediated cell entry in a single-round infection assay, restricting infection in a strain- and allele-specific fashion. Several identical CD4 polymorphisms, including the addition of -linked glycosylation sites, were found in primate species from different genera, providing striking examples of parallel evolution. Moreover, seven different guenons ( spp.) shared multiple distinct D1 domain variants, pointing to long-term trans-specific polymorphism. These data indicate that the HIV/SIV Env binding region of the primate CD4 protein is highly variable, both within and between species, and suggest that this diversity has been maintained by balancing selection for millions of years, at least in part to confer protection against primate lentiviruses. Although long-term SIV-infected species have evolved specific mechanisms to avoid disease progression, primate lentiviruses are intrinsically pathogenic and have left their mark on the host genome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2025914118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8020793PMC
March 2021

A Potent anti-Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Neutralizing Antibody Induction Associated with a Germline Immunoglobulin Gene Polymorphism in Rhesus Macaques.

J Virol 2021 Jan 13. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

AIDS Research Center, National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Tokyo, Japan

Virus infection induces B cells with a wide variety of B cell receptor (BCR) repertoires. Patterns of induced BCR repertoires are different in individuals, while the underlying mechanism causing this difference remains largely unclear. In particular, the impact of germ line BCR immunoglobulin (Ig) gene polymorphism on B cell/antibody induction has not fully been determined. In the present study, we found a potent antibody induction associated with a germ line BCR Ig gene polymorphism. B404-class antibodies, which were previously reported as potent anti-simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) neutralizing antibodies using the germ line VH3.33 gene-derived Ig heavy chain, were induced in five of 10 rhesus macaques after SIVsmH635FC infection. Investigation of VH3.33 genes in B404-class antibody inducers ( = 5) and non-inducers ( = 5) revealed association of B404-class antibody induction with a germ line VH3.33 polymorphism. Analysis of reconstructed antibodies indicated that the VH3.33 residue 38 is the determinant for B404-class antibody induction. B404-class antibodies were induced in all the macaques possessing the B404-associated VH3.33 allele, even under undetectable viremia. Our results show that a single nucleotide polymorphism in germ line VH genes could be a determinant for induction of potent antibodies against virus infection, implying that germ line VH-gene polymorphisms can be a factor restricting effective antibody induction or responsiveness to vaccination. Vaccines against a wide variety of infectious diseases have been developed mostly to induce antibodies targeting pathogens. However, small but significant percentage of people fail to mount potent antibody responses after vaccination, while the underlying mechanism of host failure in antibody induction remains largely unclear. In particular, the impact of germ line B cell receptor (BCR)/antibody immunoglobulin (Ig) gene polymorphism on B cell/antibody induction has not fully been determined. In the present study, we found a potent anti-simian immunodeficiency virus neutralizing antibody induction associated with a germ line BCR/antibody Ig gene polymorphism in rhesus macaques. Our results demonstrate that a single nucleotide polymorphism in germ line Ig genes could be a determinant for induction of potent antibodies against virus infection, implying that germ line BCR/antibody Ig gene polymorphisms can be a factor restricting effective antibody induction or responsiveness to vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02455-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092685PMC
January 2021

Budding of a Retrovirus: Some Assemblies Required.

Viruses 2020 10 20;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 20.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Rockville, MD 20894, USA.

One of the most important steps in any viral lifecycle is the production of progeny virions. For retroviruses as well as other viruses, this step is a highly organized process that occurs with exquisite spatial and temporal specificity on the cellular plasma membrane. To facilitate this process, retroviruses encode short peptide motifs, or L domains, that hijack host factors to ensure completion of this critical step. One such cellular machinery targeted by viruses is known as the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRTs). Typically responsible for vesicular trafficking within the cell, ESCRTs are co-opted by the retroviral Gag polyprotein to assist in viral particle assembly and release of infectious virions. This review in the Viruses Special Issue "The 11th International Retroviral Nucleocapsid and Assembly Symposium", details recent findings that shed light on the molecular details of how ESCRTs and the ESCRT adaptor protein ALIX, facilitate retroviral dissemination at sites of viral assembly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12101188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7589157PMC
October 2020

Epigenetic silencing of CD4 expression in nonpathogenic SIV infection in African green monkeys.

JCI Insight 2020 09 17;5(18). Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Barrier Immunity Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, Division of Intramural Research.

African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural hosts of SIV that postthymically downregulate CD4 to maintain a large population of CD4-CD8aa+ virus-resistant cells with Th functionality, which can result in AGMs becoming apparently cured of SIVagm infection. To understand the mechanisms of this process, we performed genome-wide transcriptional analysis on T cells induced to downregulate CD4 in vitro from AGMs and closely related patas monkeys and T cells that maintain CD4 expression from rhesus macaques. In T cells that downregulated CD4, pathway analysis revealed an atypical regulation of the DNA methylation machinery, which was reversible when pharmacologically targeted with 5-aza-2 deoxycytidine. This signature was driven largely by the dioxygenase TET3, which became downregulated with loss of CD4 expression. CpG motifs within the AGM CD4 promoter region became methylated during CD4 downregulation in vitro and were stably imprinted in AGM CD4-CD8aa+ T cells sorted directly ex vivo. These results suggest that AGMs use epigenetic mechanisms to durably silence the CD4 gene. Manipulation of these mechanisms could provide avenues for modulating SIV and HIV-1 entry receptor expression in hosts that become progressively infected with SIV, which could lead to novel therapeutic interventions aimed to reduce HIV viremia in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.139043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7526541PMC
September 2020

SIV infection duration largely determines broadening of neutralizing antibody response in macaques.

J Clin Invest 2020 10;130(10):5413-5424

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

The development of broadly neutralizing antibodies (BNAbs) in HIV infection is a result of long-term coevolutionary interaction between viruses and antibodies. Understanding how this interaction promotes the increase of neutralization breadth during infection will improve the way in which AIDS vaccine strategies are designed. In this paper, we used SIV-infected rhesus macaques as a model to study the development of neutralization breadth by infecting rhesus macaques with longitudinal NAb escape variants and evaluating the kinetics of NAb response and viral evolution. We found that the infected macaques developed a stepwise NAb response against escape variants and increased neutralization breadth during the course of infection. Furthermore, the increase of neutralization breadth correlated with the duration of infection but was independent of properties of the inoculum, viral loads, or viral diversity during infection. These results imply that the duration of infection was the main factor driving the development of BNAbs. These data suggest the importance of novel immunization strategies to induce effective NAb response against HIV infection by mimicking long-term infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI139123DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524488PMC
October 2020

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Memory CD4 T Cells Infiltrate to the Site of Infected Macrophages in the Neuroparenchyma of a Chronic Macaque Model of Neurological Complications of AIDS.

mBio 2020 04 21;11(2). Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID/NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected nonhuman primates can serve as a relevant model for AIDS neuropathogenesis. Current SIV-induced encephalitis (SIVE)/neurological complications of AIDS (neuroAIDS) models are generally associated with rapid progression to neuroAIDS, which does not reflect the tempo of neuroAIDS progression in humans. Recently, we isolated a neuropathogenic clone, SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757), obtained from an SIV-infected rhesus macaque (RM). CL757 causes a more protracted progression to disease, inducing SIVE in 50% of inoculated animals, with high cerebral spinal fluid viral loads, multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs), and perivascular lymphocytic cuffing in the central nervous system (CNS). This latter finding is reminiscent of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) encephalitis in humans but not generally observed in rapid progressor animals with neuroAIDS. Here, we studied which subsets of cells within the CNS were targeted by CL757 in animals with neurological symptoms of SIVE. Immunohistochemistry of brain sections demonstrated infiltration of CD4 T cells (CD4) and macrophages (MΦs) to the site of MNGCs. Moreover, an increase in mononuclear cells isolated from the brain tissues of RMs with SIVE correlated with increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) viral load. Subset analysis showed a specific increase in brain CD4 memory T cells (Br-mCD4), brain-MΦs (Br-MΦs), and brain B cells (Br-B cells). Both Br-mCD4s and Br-MΦs harbored replication-competent viral DNA, as demonstrated by virus isolation by coculture. However, only in animals exhibiting SIVE/neuroAIDS was virus isolated from Br-MΦs. These findings support the use of CL757 to study the pathogenesis of AIDS viruses in the central nervous system and indicate a previously unanticipated role of CD4s cells as a potential reservoir in the brain. While the use of combination antiretroviral therapy effectively suppresses systemic viral replication in the body, neurocognitive disorders as a result of HIV infection of the central nervous system (CNS) remain a clinical problem. Therefore, the use of nonhuman primate models is necessary to study mechanisms of neuropathogenesis. The neurotropic, molecular clone SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757) results in neuroAIDS in 50% of infected rhesus macaques approximately 1 year postinfection. Using CL757-infected macaques, we investigate disease progression by examining subsets of cells within the CNS that were targeted by CL757 and could potentially serve as viral reservoirs. By isolating mononuclear cells from the brains of SIV-infected rhesus macaques with and without encephalitis, we show that immune cells invade the neuroparenchyma and increase in number in the CNS in animals with SIV-induced encephalitis (SIVE). Of these cells, both brain macrophages and brain memory CD4 T cells harbor replication-competent SIV DNA; however, only brain CD4 T cells harbored SIV DNA in animals without SIVE. These findings support use of CL757 as an important model to investigate disease progression in the CNS and as a model to study virus reservoirs in the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00602-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7175093PMC
April 2020

SIV-specific CD8+ T cells are clonotypically distinct across lymphoid and mucosal tissues.

J Clin Invest 2020 02;130(2):789-798

Barrier Immunity Section, Laboratory of Viral Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA.

CD8+ T cell responses are necessary for immune control of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). However, the key parameters that dictate antiviral potency remain elusive, conceivably because most studies to date have been restricted to analyses of circulating CD8+ T cells. We conducted a detailed clonotypic, functional, and phenotypic survey of SIV-specific CD8+ T cells across multiple anatomical sites in chronically infected rhesus macaques with high (>10,000 copies/mL plasma) or low burdens of viral RNA (<10,000 copies/mL plasma). No significant differences in response magnitude were identified across anatomical compartments. Rhesus macaques with low viral loads (VLs) harbored higher frequencies of polyfunctional CXCR5+ SIV-specific CD8+ T cells in various lymphoid tissues and higher proportions of unique Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes in the mesenteric lymph nodes relative to rhesus macaques with high VLs. In addition, public Gag-specific CD8+ T cell clonotypes were more commonly shared across distinct anatomical sites than the corresponding private clonotypes, which tended to form tissue-specific repertoires, especially in the peripheral blood and the gastrointestinal tract. Collectively, these data suggest that functionality and tissue localization are important determinants of CD8+ T cell-mediated efficacy against SIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI129161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994127PMC
February 2020

TRIM5α Restricts Flavivirus Replication by Targeting the Viral Protease for Proteasomal Degradation.

Cell Rep 2019 06;27(11):3269-3283.e6

Innate Immunity and Pathogenesis Section, Laboratory of Virology, Rocky Mountain Laboratories (RML), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Hamilton, MT 59840, USA. Electronic address:

Tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) is a cellular antiviral restriction factor that prevents early events in retrovirus replication. The activity of TRIM5α is thought to be limited to retroviruses as a result of highly specific interactions with capsid lattices. In contrast to this current understanding, we show that both human and rhesus macaque TRIM5α suppress replication of specific flaviviruses. Multiple viruses in the tick-borne encephalitis complex are sensitive to TRIM5α-dependent restriction, but mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever, dengue, and Zika viruses, are resistant. TRIM5α suppresses replication by binding to the viral protease NS2B/3 to promote its K48-linked ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Importantly, TRIM5α contributes to the antiviral function of IFN-I against sensitive flaviviruses in human cells. Thus, TRIM5α possesses remarkable plasticity in the recognition of diverse virus families, with the potential to influence human susceptibility to emerging flaviviruses of global concern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2019.05.040DOI Listing
June 2019

Control of Heterologous Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIV Infection by DNA and Protein Coimmunization Regimens Combined with Different Toll-Like-Receptor-4-Based Adjuvants in Macaques.

J Virol 2018 08 17;92(15). Epub 2018 Jul 17.

Human Retrovirus Section, Vaccine Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, USA

We developed a method of simultaneous vaccination with DNA and protein resulting in robust and durable cellular and humoral immune responses with efficient dissemination to mucosal sites and protection against simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. To further optimize the DNA-protein coimmunization regimen, we tested a SIV-based vaccine formulated with either of two Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) ligand-based liposomal adjuvant formulations (TLR4 plus TLR7 [TLR4+7] or TLR4 plus QS21 [TLR4+QS21]) in macaques. Although both vaccines induced humoral responses of similar magnitudes, they differed in their functional quality, including broader neutralizing activity and effector functions in the TLR4+7 group. Upon repeated heterologous SIV challenge, a trend of delayed viral acquisition was found in vaccinees compared to controls, which reached statistical significance in animals with the TRIM-5α-resistant (TRIM-5α R) allele. Vaccinees were preferentially infected by an SIV transmitted/founder virus carrying neutralization-resistant A/K mutations at residues 45 and 47 in Env, demonstrating a strong vaccine-induced sieve effect. In addition, the delay in virus acquisition directly correlated with SIV-specific neutralizing antibodies. The presence of mucosal V1V2 IgG binding antibodies correlated with a significantly decreased risk of virus acquisition in both TRIM-5α R and TRIM-5α-moderate/sensitive (TRIM-5α M/S) animals, although this vaccine effect was more prominent in animals with the TRIM-5α R allele. These data support the combined contribution of immune responses and genetic background to vaccine efficacy. Humoral responses targeting V2 and SIV-specific T cell responses correlated with viremia control. In conclusion, the combination of DNA and gp120 Env protein vaccine regimens using two different adjuvants induced durable and potent cellular and humoral responses contributing to a lower risk of infection by heterologous SIV challenge. An effective AIDS vaccine continues to be of paramount importance for the control of the pandemic, and it has been proven to be an elusive target. Vaccine efficacy trials and macaque challenge studies indicate that protection may be the result of combinations of many parameters. We show that a combination of DNA and protein vaccinations applied at the same time provides rapid and robust cellular and humoral immune responses and evidence for a reduced risk of infection. Vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies and Env V2-specific antibodies at mucosal sites contribute to the delay of SIV acquisition, and genetic makeup (TRIM-5α) affects the effectiveness of the vaccine. These data are important for the design of better vaccines and may also affect other vaccine platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00281-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052320PMC
August 2018

Truncating the gp41 Cytoplasmic Tail of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Decreases Sensitivity to Neutralizing Antibodies without Increasing the Envelope Content of Virions.

J Virol 2018 02 17;92(3). Epub 2018 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

An incomplete understanding of native human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) envelope glycoproteins (Envs) impedes the development of structural models of Env and vaccine design. This shortcoming is due in part to the low number of Env trimers on virus particles. For SIV, this low expression level can be counteracted by truncating the cytoplasmic tail (CT) of Env. CT truncation has been shown to increase Env incorporation into the virion and is commonly used in vaccine and imaging studies, but its effects on viral antigenicity have not been fully elucidated. To study the effects of a CT truncation of Env in viruses in similar genetic contexts, we introduced stop codons into the CT of a SIVsmE660 molecular clone and two neutralizing antibody (NAb) escape variants. These viruses shared 98% sequence identity in Env but were characterized as either tier 1 (sensitive to neutralization), tier 2 (moderately resistant to neutralization), or tier 3 (resistant to neutralization). However, the introduction of premature stop codons in Env at position Q741/Q742 converted all three transfection-derived viruses to a tier 3-like phenotype, and these viruses were uniformly resistant to neutralization by sera from infected macaques and monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). These changes in neutralization sensitivity were not accompanied by an increase in either the virion Env content of infection-derived viruses or the infectivity of transfection-derived viruses in human cells, suggesting that CT mutations may result in global changes to the Env conformation. Our results demonstrate that some CT truncations can affect viral antigenicity and, as such, may not be suitable surrogate models of native HIV/SIV Env. Modifications to the SIV envelope protein (Env) are commonly used in structural and vaccine studies to stabilize and increase the expression of Env, often without consideration of effects on antigenicity. One such widespread modification is the truncation of the Env C-terminal tail. Here, we studied the effects of a particular cytoplasmic tail truncation in three SIVsm strains that have highly similar Env sequences but exhibit different sensitivities to neutralizing antibodies. After truncation of the Env CT, these viruses were all very resistant to neutralization by sera from infected macaques and monoclonal antibodies. The viruses with a truncated Env CT also did not exhibit the desired and typical increase in Env expression. These results underscore the importance of carefully evaluating the use of truncated Env as a model in HIV/SIV vaccine and imaging studies and of the continued need to find better models of native Env that contain fewer modifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01688-17DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5774881PMC
February 2018

A SIV molecular clone that targets the CNS and induces neuroAIDS in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2017 Aug 7;13(8):e1006538. Epub 2017 Aug 7.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD, United States of America.

Despite effective control of plasma viremia with the use of combination antiretroviral therapies (cART), minor cognitive and motor disorders (MCMD) persist as a significant clinical problem in HIV-infected patients. Non-human primate models are therefore required to study mechanisms of disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS). We isolated a strain of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), SIVsm804E, which induces neuroAIDS in a high proportion of rhesus macaques and identified enhanced antagonism of the host innate factor BST-2 as an important factor in the macrophage tropism and initial neuro-invasion of this isolate. In the present study, we further developed this model by deriving a molecular clone SIVsm804E-CL757 (CL757). This clone induced neurological disorders in high frequencies but without rapid disease progression and thus is more reflective of the tempo of neuroAIDS in HIV-infection. NeuroAIDS was also induced in macaques co-inoculated with CL757 and the parental AIDS-inducing, but non-neurovirulent SIVsmE543-3 (E543-3). Molecular analysis of macaques infected with CL757 revealed compartmentalization of virus populations between the CNS and the periphery. CL757 exclusively targeted the CNS whereas E543-3 was restricted to the periphery consistent with a role for viral determinants in the mechanisms of neuroinvasion. CL757 would be a useful model to investigate disease progression in the CNS and as a model to study virus reservoirs in the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1006538DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560746PMC
August 2017

Cytotoxic T Cell Functions Accumulate When CD4 Is Downregulated by CD4 T Cells in African Green Monkeys.

J Immunol 2017 06 24;198(11):4403-4412. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Barrier Immunity Section, Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892;

African green monkeys (AGMs) are a natural host of SIV that do not develop simian AIDS. Adult AGMs naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of MHC class II-restricted CD8αα T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4 T cells. In this article, we study the functional profiles and SIV infection status in vivo of CD4 T cells, CD8αα T cells, and CD8αβ T cells in lymph nodes, peripheral blood, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of AGMs and rhesus macaques (in which CD4 downregulation is not observed). We show that, although CD8αα T cells in AGMs maintain functions associated with CD4 T cells (including Th follicular functionality in lymphoid tissues and Th2 responses in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid), they also accumulate functions normally attributed to canonical CD8 T cells. These hyperfunctional CD8αα T cells are found to circulate peripherally, as well as reside within the lymphoid tissue. Due to their unique combination of CD4 and CD8 T cell effector functions, these CD4 CD8αα T cells are likely able to serve as an immunophenotype capable of Th1, follicular Th, and CTL functionalities, yet they are unable to be infected by SIV. These data demonstrate the ambiguity of CD4/CD8 expression in dictating the functional capacities of T cells and suggest that accumulation of hyperfunctional CD8αα T cells in AGMs may lead to tissue-specific antiviral immune responses in lymphoid follicles that limit SIV replication in this particular anatomical niche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1700136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5502537PMC
June 2017

Tissue-resident macrophages can contain replication-competent virus in antiretroviral-naive, SIV-infected Asian macaques.

JCI Insight 2017 02 23;2(4):e91214. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases.

SIV DNA can be detected in lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages of chronically SIV-infected Asian macaques. These macrophages also contain evidence of recently phagocytosed SIV-infected CD4 T cells. Here, we examine whether these macrophages contain replication-competent virus, whether viral DNA can be detected in tissue-resident macrophages from antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-treated animals and humans, and how the viral sequences amplified from macrophages and contemporaneous CD4 T cells compare. In ARV-naive animals, we find that lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages contain replication-competent virus if they also contain viral DNA in ARV-naive Asian macaques. The genetic sequence of the virus within these macrophages is similar to those within CD4 T cells from the same anatomic sites. In ARV-treated animals, we find that viral DNA can be amplified from lymphoid tissue-resident macrophages of SIV-infected Asian macaques that were treated with ARVs for at least 5 months, but we could not detect replication-competent virus from macrophages of animals treated with ARVs. Finally, we could not detect viral DNA in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected individuals who received ARVs for 3 years and had undetectable viral loads. These data demonstrate that macrophages can contain replication-competent virus, but may not represent a significant reservoir for HIV in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.91214DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5313072PMC
February 2017

TRIM5α Resistance Escape Mutations in the Capsid Are Transferable between Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Strains.

J Virol 2016 Dec 28;90(24):11087-11095. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

TRIM5α polymorphism limits and complicates the use of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) for evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine strategies in rhesus macaques. We previously reported that the TRIM5α-sensitive SIV from sooty mangabeys (SIVsm) clone SIVsmE543-3 acquired amino acid substitutions in the capsid that overcame TRIM5α restriction when it was passaged in rhesus macaques expressing restrictive TRIM5α alleles. Here we generated TRIM5α-resistant clones of the related SIVsmE660 strain without animal passage by introducing the same amino acid capsid substitutions. We evaluated one of the variants in rhesus macaques expressing permissive and restrictive TRIM5α alleles. The SIVsmE660 variant infected and replicated in macaques with restrictive TRIM5α genotypes as efficiently as in macaques with permissive TRIM5α genotypes. These results demonstrated that mutations in the SIV capsid can confer SIV resistance to TRIM5α restriction without animal passage, suggesting an applicable method to generate more diverse SIV strains for HIV vaccine studies.

Importance: Many strains of SIV from sooty mangabey monkeys are susceptible to resistance by common rhesus macaque TRIM5α alleles and result in reduced virus acquisition and replication in macaques that express these restrictive alleles. We previously observed that spontaneous variations in the capsid gene were associated with improved replication in macaques, and the introduction of two amino acid changes in the capsid transfers this improved replication to the parent clone. In the present study, we introduced these mutations into a related but distinct strain of SIV that is commonly used for challenge studies for vaccine trials. These mutations also improved the replication of this strain in macaques with the restrictive TRIM5α genotype and thus will eliminate the confounding effects of TRIM5α in vaccine studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01620-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5126367PMC
December 2016

Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections.

J Virol 2016 09 12;90(17):7596-606. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00672-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4988166PMC
September 2016

Enhanced antagonism of BST-2 by a neurovirulent SIV envelope.

J Clin Invest 2016 06 9;126(6):2295-307. Epub 2016 May 9.

Current antiretroviral therapy (ART) is not sufficient to completely suppress disease progression in the CNS, as indicated by the rising incidence of HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) among infected individuals on ART. It is not clear why some HIV-1-infected patients develop HAND, despite effective repression of viral replication in the circulation. SIV-infected nonhuman primate models are widely used to dissect the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis in the CNS. Here, we identified 4 amino acid substitutions in the cytoplasmic tail of viral envelope glycoprotein gp41 of the neurovirulent virus SIVsm804E that enhance replication in macrophages and associate with enhanced antagonism of the host restriction factor BM stromal cell antigen 2 (BST-2). Rhesus macaques were inoculated with a variant of the parental virus SIVsmE543-3 that had been engineered to contain the 4 amino acid substitutions present in gp41 of SIVsm804E. Compared with WT virus-infected controls, animals infected with mutant virus exhibited higher viral load in cerebrospinal fluid. Together, these results are consistent with a potential role for BST-2 in the CNS microenvironment and suggest that BST-2 antagonists may serve as a possible target for countermeasures against HAND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI83725DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4887162PMC
June 2016

Interleukin-2 Therapy Induces CD4 Downregulation, Which Decreases Circulating CD4 T Cell Counts, in African Green Monkeys.

J Virol 2016 06 27;90(12):5750-5758. Epub 2016 May 27.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Unlabelled: African green monkeys (AGMs) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). Because these animals do not develop simian AIDS despite maintaining high viral loads, there is considerable interest in determining how these animals have evolved to avoid SIV disease progression. Unlike nonnatural hosts of SIV, adult AGMs maintain low levels of CD4(+) T cells at steady states and also have a large population of virus-resistant CD8αα T cells that lack CD4 expression despite maintaining T helper cell functionalities. In recent work, we have shown that homeostatic cytokines can induce CD4 downregulation in AGM T cells in vitro Through administering therapeutic doses of recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2) to AGMs, we show here that this mechanism is operative in vivo IL-2 therapy induced transient yet robust proliferation in all major T cell subsets. Within the CD4(+) T cell population, those that were induced into cycle by IL-2 exhibited characteristics of CD4-to-CD8αα conversion. In all animals receiving IL-2, circulating CD4(+) T cell counts and proportions tended to be lower and CD4(-) CD8αα(+) T cell counts tended to be higher. Despite reductions in circulating target cells, the viral load was unaffected over the course of study.

Importance: The data in this study identify that homeostatic cytokines can downregulate CD4 in vivo and, when given therapeutically, can induce AGMs to sustain very low levels of circulating CD4(+) T cells without showing signs of immunodeficiency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00057-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4886792PMC
June 2016

Early short-term treatment with neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies halts SHIV infection in infant macaques.

Nat Med 2016 Apr 21;22(4):362-8. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health and Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.

Prevention of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a major objective where antenatal care is not readily accessible. We tested HIV-1-specific human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (NmAbs) as a post-exposure therapy in an infant macaque model for intrapartum MTCT. One-month-old rhesus macaques were inoculated orally with the simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIVSF162P3. On days 1, 4, 7 and 10 after virus exposure, we injected animals subcutaneously with NmAbs and quantified systemic distribution of NmAbs in multiple tissues within 24 h after antibody administration. Replicating virus was found in multiple tissues by day 1 in animals that were not treated. All NmAb-treated macaques were free of virus in blood and tissues at 6 months after exposure. We detected no anti-SHIV T cell responses in blood or tissues at necropsy, and no virus emerged after CD8(+) T cell depletion. These results suggest that early passive immunotherapy can eliminate early viral foci and thereby prevent the establishment of viral reservoirs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.4063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983100PMC
April 2016

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus SIVagm Efficiently Utilizes Non-CCR5 Entry Pathways in African Green Monkey Lymphocytes: Potential Role for GPR15 and CXCR6 as Viral Coreceptors.

J Virol 2015 Dec 9;90(5):2316-31. Epub 2015 Dec 9.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Unlabelled: African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and infection in these animals is generally nonpathogenic, whereas infection of nonnatural hosts, such as rhesus macaques (RM), is commonly pathogenic. CCR5 has been described as the primary entry coreceptor for SIV in vivo, while human-derived CXCR6 and GPR15 also appear to be used in vitro. However, sooty mangabeys that are genetically deficient in CCR5 due to an out-of-frame deletion are infectible with SIVsmm, indicating that SIVsmm can use alternative coreceptors in vivo. In this study, we examined the CCR5 dependence of SIV strains derived from vervet AGM (SIVagmVer) and the ability of AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 to serve as potential entry coreceptors. We found that SIVagmVer replicated efficiently in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, despite the fact that maraviroc was capable of blocking the CCR5-tropic strains SIVmac239, SIVsmE543-3, and simian-human immunodeficiency virus SHIV-AD8 in RM PBMC. We also found that AGM CXCR6 and AGM GPR15, to a lesser extent, supported entry of pseudotype viruses bearing SIVagm envelopes, including SIVagm transmitted/founder envelopes. Lastly, we found that CCR5, GPR15, and CXCR6 mRNAs were detected in AGM and RM memory CD4(+) T cells. These results suggest that GPR15 and CXCR6 are expressed on AGM CD4(+) T cells and are potential alternative coreceptors for SIVagm use in vivo. These data suggest that the use of non-CCR5 entry pathways may be a common feature of SIV replication in natural host species, with the potential to contribute to nonpathogenicity in these animals.

Importance: African green monkeys (AGM) are natural hosts of SIV, and infection in these animals generally does not cause AIDS, whereas SIV-infected rhesus macaques (RM) typically develop AIDS. Although it has been reported that SIV generally uses CD4 and CCR5 to enter target cells in vivo, other molecules, such as GPR15 and CXCR6, also function as SIV coreceptors in vitro. In this study, we investigated whether SIV from vervet AGM can use non-CCR5 entry pathways, as has been observed in sooty mangabeys. We found that SIVagmVer efficiently replicated in AGM and RM peripheral blood mononuclear cells in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist maraviroc, suggesting that non-CCR5 entry pathways can support SIVagm entry. We found that AGM-derived GPR15 and CXCR6 support SIVagmVer entry in vitro and may serve as entry coreceptors for SIVagm in vivo, since their mRNAs were detected in AGM memory CD4(+) T cells, the preferred target cells of SIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02529-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4810715PMC
December 2015

Coevolutionary dynamics between tribe Cercopithecini tetherins and their lentiviruses.

Sci Rep 2015 Nov 4;5:16021. Epub 2015 Nov 4.

Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6068507, Japan.

Human immunodeficiency virus, a primate lentivirus (PLV), causes AIDS in humans, whereas most PLVs are less or not pathogenic in monkeys. These notions suggest that the co-evolutionary process of PLVs and their hosts associates with viral pathogenicity, and therefore, that elucidating the history of virus-host co-evolution is one of the most intriguing topics in the field of virology. To address this, recent studies have focused on the interplay between intrinsic anti-viral proteins, such as tetherin, and viral antagonists. Through an experimental-phylogenetic approach, here we investigate the co-evolutionary interplay between tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and viral antagonists, Nef and Vpu. We reveal that tribe Cercopithecini tetherins are positively selected, possibly triggered by ancient Nef-like factor(s). We reconstruct the ancestral sequence of tribe Cercopithecini tetherin and demonstrate that all Nef proteins are capable of antagonizing ancestral Cercopithecini tetherin. Further, we consider the significance of evolutionary arms race between tribe Cercopithecini and their PLVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep16021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4631996PMC
November 2015

Down-modulation of primate lentiviral receptors by Nef proteins of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of chimpanzees (SIVcpz) and related SIVs: implication for the evolutionary event at the emergence of SIVcpz.

J Gen Virol 2015 Sep 3;96(9):2867-2877. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Saitama 3220012, Japan.

It has been estimated that human immunodeficiency virus type 1 originated from the zoonotic transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of chimpanzees, SIVcpz, and that SIVcpz emerged by the recombination of two lineages of SIVs in Old World monkeys (SIVgsn/mon/mus in guenons and SIVrcm in red-capped mangabeys) and SIVcpz Nef is most closely related to SIVrcm Nef. These observations suggest that SIVrcm Nef had an advantage over SIVgsn/mon/mus during the evolution of SIVcpz in chimpanzees, although this advantage remains uncertain. Nef is a multifunctional protein which downregulates CD4 and coreceptor proteins from the surface of infected cells, presumably to limit superinfection. To assess the possibility that SIVrcm Nef was selected by its superior ability to downregulate viral entry receptors in chimpanzees, we compared its ability to down-modulate viral receptor proteins from humans, chimpanzees and red-capped mangabeys with Nef proteins from eight other different strains of SIVs. Surprisingly, the ability of SIVrcm Nef to downregulate CCR5, CCR2B and CXCR6 was comparable to or lower than SIVgsn/mon/mus Nef, indicating that ability to down-modulate chemokine receptors was not the selective pressure. However, SIVrcm Nef significantly downregulates chimpanzee CD4 over SIVgsn/mon/mus Nefs. Our findings suggest the possibility that the selection of SIVrcm Nef by ancestral SIVcpz is due to its superior capacity to down-modulate chimpanzees CD4 rather than coreceptor proteins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.000207DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4857453PMC
September 2015

B cell follicle sanctuary permits persistent productive simian immunodeficiency virus infection in elite controllers.

Nat Med 2015 Feb 19;21(2):132-9. Epub 2015 Jan 19.

1] Vaccine and Gene Therapy Institute, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA. [2] Oregon National Primate Research Center, Oregon Health &Science University, Beaverton, Oregon, USA.

Chronic-phase HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication is reduced by as much as 10,000-fold in elite controllers (ECs) compared with typical progressors (TPs), but sufficient viral replication persists in EC tissues to allow viral sequence evolution and induce excess immune activation. Here we show that productive SIV infection in rhesus monkey ECs, but not TPs, is markedly restricted to CD4(+) follicular helper T (TFH) cells, suggesting that these EC monkeys' highly effective SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells can effectively clear productive SIV infection from extrafollicular sites, but their relative exclusion from B cell follicles prevents their elimination of productively infected TFH cells. CD8(+) lymphocyte depletion in EC monkeys resulted in a dramatic re-distribution of productive SIV infection to non-TFH cells, with restriction of productive infection to TFH cells resuming upon CD8(+) T cell recovery. Thus, B cell follicles constitute 'sanctuaries' for persistent SIV replication in the presence of potent anti-viral CD8(+) T cell responses, potentially complicating efforts to cure HIV infection with therapeutic vaccination or T cell immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm.3781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320022PMC
February 2015

TRIM5α restriction affects clinical outcome and disease progression in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected rhesus macaques.

J Virol 2015 Feb 3;89(4):2233-40. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Unlabelled: Tripartite motif-containing protein 5α (TRIM5α) is considered to be a potential target for cell-based gene modification therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In the present study, we used a relevant rhesus macaque model of infection with simian immunodeficiency virus from sooty mangabey (SIVsm) to evaluate the effect of TRIM5α restriction on clinical outcome. For macaques expressing a restrictive TRIM5 genotype, the disease outcomes of those infected with the wild-type TRIM-sensitive SIVsm strain and those infected with a virus with escape mutations in the capsid were compared. We found that TRIM5α restriction significantly delayed disease progression and improved the survival rate of SIV-infected macaques, supporting the feasibility of exploiting TRIM5α as a target for gene therapy against HIV-1. Furthermore, we also found that preservation of memory CD4 T cells was associated with protection by TRIM5α restriction, suggesting memory CD4 T cells or their progenitor cells as an ideal target for gene modification. Despite the significant effect of TRIM5α restriction on survival, SIV escape from TRIM5α restriction was also observed; therefore, this may not be an effective stand-alone strategy and may require combination with other targets.

Importance: Recent studies suggest that it may be feasible not only to suppress viral replication with antiviral drugs but also potentially to eliminate or "cure" human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. One approach being explored is the use of gene therapy to introduce genes that can restrict HIV replication, including a restrictive version of the host factor TRIM5α. TRIM5 was identified as a factor that restricts HIV replication in macaque cells. The rhesus gene is polymorphic, and some alleles are restrictive for primary SIVsm isolates, although escape mutations arise late in infection. Introduction of these escape mutations into the parental virus conferred resistance to TRIM5 on macaques. The present study evaluated these animals for long-term outcomes and found that TRIM5α restriction significantly delayed disease progression and improved the survival rate of SIV-infected macaques, suggesting that this could be a valid gene therapy approach that could be adapted for HIV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02978-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4338887PMC
February 2015

Tissue myeloid cells in SIV-infected primates acquire viral DNA through phagocytosis of infected T cells.

Immunity 2014 Sep;41(3):493-502

Lab of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

The viral accessory protein Vpx, expressed by certain simian and human immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs and HIVs), is thought to improve viral infectivity of myeloid cells. We infected 35 Asian macaques and African green monkeys with viruses that do or do not express Vpx and examined viral targeting of cells in vivo. While lack of Vpx expression affected viral dynamics in vivo, with decreased viral loads and infection of CD4⁺ T cells, Vpx expression had no detectable effect on infectivity of myeloid cells. Moreover, viral DNA was observed only within myeloid cells in tissues not massively depleted of CD4⁺ T cells. Myeloid cells containing viral DNA also showed evidence of T cell phagocytosis in vivo, suggesting that their viral DNA may be attributed to phagocytosis of SIV-infected T cells. These data suggest that myeloid cells are not a major source of SIV in vivo, irrespective of Vpx expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2014.08.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4241569PMC
September 2014

Characterization of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that induces SIV encephalitis in rhesus macaques with high frequency: role of TRIM5 and major histocompatibility complex genotypes and early entry to the brain.

J Virol 2014 Nov 3;88(22):13201-11. Epub 2014 Sep 3.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Unlabelled: Although nonhuman primate models of neuro-AIDS have made tremendous contributions to our understanding of disease progression in the central nervous system (CNS) of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected individuals, each model holds advantages and limitations. In this study, in vivo passage of SIVsmE543 was conducted to obtain a viral isolate that can induce neuropathology in rhesus macaques. After a series of four in vivo passages in rhesus macaques, we have successfully isolated SIVsm804E. SIVsm804E shows efficient replication in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) in vitro and induces neuro-AIDS in high frequencies in vivo. Analysis of the acute phase of infection revealed that SIVsm804E establishes infection in the CNS during the early phase of the infection, which was not observed in the animals infected with the parental SIVsmE543-3. Comprehensive analysis of disease progression in the animals used in the study suggested that host major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) and TRIM5α genotypes influence the disease progression in the CNS. Taken together, our findings show that we have successfully isolated a new strain of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that is capable of establishing infection in the CNS at early stage of infection and causes neuropathology in infected rhesus macaques at a high frequency (83%) using a single inoculum, when animals with restrictive MHC-I or TRIM5α genotypes are excluded. SIVsm804E has the potential to augment some of the limitations of existing nonhuman primate neuro-AIDS models.

Importance: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with a high frequency of neurologic complications due to infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Although the use of antiviral treatment has reduced the incidence of severe complications, milder disease of the CNS continues to be a significant problem. Animal models to study development of neurologic disease are needed. This article describes the development of a novel virus isolate that induces neurologic disease in a high proportion of rhesus macaques infected without the need for prior immunomodulation as is required for some other models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01996-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4249079PMC
November 2014

Homeostatic cytokines induce CD4 downregulation in African green monkeys independently of antigen exposure to generate simian immunodeficiency virus-resistant CD8αα T cells.

J Virol 2014 Sep 2;88(18):10714-24. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA

Unlabelled: African green monkeys (AGMs; genus Chlorocebus) are a natural host of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVAGM). As they do not develop simian AIDS, there is great interest in understanding how this species has evolved to avoid immunodeficiency. Adult African green monkeys naturally have low numbers of CD4 T cells and a large population of major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted CD8α(dim) T cells that are generated through CD4 downregulation in CD4(+) T cells. Mechanisms that drive this process of CD4 downregulation are unknown. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs accelerate CD4-to-CD8αα conversion upon SIV infection and avoid progression to AIDS. The CD4 downregulation induced by SIV infection is not limited to SIV-specific T cells, and vaccination of an adult AGM who had a negligible number of CD4 T cells demonstrated that CD4 downregulation can occur without antigenic exposure. Finally, we show that the T cell homeostatic cytokines interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-7, and IL-15 can induce CD4 downregulation in vitro. These data identify a mechanism that allows AGMs to generate a large, diverse population of T cells that perform CD4 T cell functions but are resistant to SIV infection. A better understanding of this mechanism may allow the development of treatments to induce protective CD4 downregulation in humans.

Importance: Many African primate species are naturally infected with SIV. African green monkeys, one natural host species, avoid simian AIDS by creating a population of T cells that lack CD4, the human immunodeficiency virus/SIV receptor; therefore, they are resistant to infection. However, these T cells maintain properties of CD4(+) T cells even after receptor downregulation and preserve immune function. Here, we show that juvenile AGMs, who have not undergone extensive CD4 downregulation, accelerate this process upon SIV infection. Furthermore, we show that in vivo, CD4 downregulation does not occur exclusively in antigen-experienced T cells. Finally, we show that the cytokines IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15, which induce homeostatic T cell proliferation, lead to CD4 downregulation in vitro; therefore, they can provide signals that lead to antigen-independent CD4 downregulation. These results suggest that if a similar process of CD4 downregulation could be induced in humans, it could provide a cure for AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01331-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4178902PMC
September 2014

Characterization of red-capped mangabey tetherin: implication for the co-evolution of primates and their lentiviruses.

Sci Rep 2014 Jul 2;4:5529. Epub 2014 Jul 2.

Laboratory of Viral Pathogenesis, Institute for Virus Research, Kyoto University, Kyoto 6068507, Japan.

Primate lentiviruses including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs) evolved through the acquisition of antagonists against intrinsic host restriction factors, such as tetherin. It is widely accepted that HIV-1 has emerged by zoonotic transmission of SIV in chimpanzee (SIVcpz), and that SIVcpz Nef protein antagonizes chimpanzee tetherin. Although Nef of SIVcpz shares a common ancestor with that of SIVrcm, an SIV in red-capped mangabey (Cercocebus torquatus), it remains unclear whether SIVrcm Nef can antagonize tetherin of its natural host. In this study, we determine the sequence of red-capped mangabey tetherin for the first time and directly demonstrate that SIVrcm Nef is the bona fide antagonist of red-capped mangabey tetherin. These findings suggest that SIVrcm Nef is the functional ancestor of SIVcpz Nef. Moreover, molecular phylogenetic analyses reveal that tetherins of the genus Cercocebus have experienced adaptive evolution, which is presumably promoted by primate lentiviruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep05529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4078312PMC
July 2014

The canarypox virus vector ALVAC induces distinct cytokine responses compared to the vaccinia virus-based vectors MVA and NYVAC in rhesus monkeys.

J Virol 2014 Feb 20;88(3):1809-14. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Despite the growing use of poxvirus vectors as vaccine candidates for multiple pathogens and cancers, their innate stimulatory properties remain poorly characterized. Here we show that the canarypox virus-based vector ALVAC induced distinct systemic proinflammatory and antiviral cytokine and chemokine levels following the vaccination of rhesus monkeys compared to the vaccinia virus-based vectors MVA and NYVAC. These data suggest that there are substantial biological differences among leading poxvirus vaccine vectors that may influence resultant adaptive immune responses following vaccination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.02386-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3911591PMC
February 2014

TRIM5 alpha drives SIVsmm evolution in rhesus macaques.

PLoS Pathog 2013 22;9(8):e1003577. Epub 2013 Aug 22.

Laboratory of Molecular Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America.

The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5α B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5α allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in macaques expressing two restrictive TRIM5alpha alleles TRIM5(TFP/TFP) or TRIM5(Cyp/TFP). Using this model, we observed that despite an early impact on viremia, SIVsmm overcame TRIM5α restriction at later stages of infection and that increasing viremia was associated with specific amino acid substitutions in capsid. Two amino acid substitutions (P37S and R98S) in the capsid region were associated with escape from TRIM5(TFP) restriction and substitutions in the CypA binding-loop (GPLPA87-91) in capsid were associated with escape from TRIM5(Cyp). Introduction of these mutations into the original SIVsmE543 clone not only resulted in escape from TRIM5α restriction in vitro but the P37S and R98S substitutions improved virus fitness in macaques with homozygous restrictive TRIM(TFP) alleles in vivo. Similar substitutions were observed in other SIVsmm strains following transmission and passage in macaques, collectively providing direct evidence that TRIM5α exerts selective pressure on the cross-species transmission of SIV in primates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1003577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3749954PMC
March 2014