Publications by authors named "Vali Imantalab"

10 Publications

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Right ventricular dysfunction and associated factors in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting.

ARYA Atheroscler 2019 May;15(3):99-105

Assistant Professor, Department of Cardiac Surgery, School of Medicine, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery is widely accepted as a revascularization method for coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite survival benefit and improvement in quality of life, CABG may impose major morbidities and significant complications. Right ventricle (RV) dysfunction is an important complication that may affect patient's longevity and functional capacity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between RV dysfunction and some invisible parameters like inferior vena cava (IVC) size with physical capacity.

Methods: In this prospective study, 61 eligible CABG candidates were enrolled and RV function was assessed by echocardiographic parameters before CABG and one week and six months after the procedure, using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), Tei Index (TI), peak systolic movement (Sm) (cm/s), and IVC size. Functional capacity was assessed by six-minute walk test (6-MWT) 6 months after CABG.

Results: 58 patients who did not have any perioperative RV dysfunction were remained until the end of study; mean age was 58.2 ± 7.9 years with 68.9% being men, and 3 patients died after CABG. Preoperatively, septal motion, RV indices, and IVC size were normal in all patients. The frequency of RV dysfunction according to abnormal TAPSE index, TI, and peak Sm one week after surgery was 81.0%, 79.0%, and 62.0%, respectively, and 6 months after surgery was 49.0%, 49.0%, and 37.0%, respectively. Mean walked distance in 6-MWT was significantly less in patients with RV dysfunction, older age, and higher number of involved vessels (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The significant reduction in RV function and impairment of exercise capacity after CABG in this study suggests cardiologists to pay more attention to RV assessment in follow-up visits of patients undergoing GABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/arya.v15i3.1765DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6698085PMC
May 2019

Comparing the Effectiveness of Patient Control Analgesia Pump and Bolus Morphine in Controlling Pain After Cardiopulmonary Bypass Graft Surgery.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Oct 14;7(5):e12756. Epub 2017 Oct 14.

Resident of Anesthesia, Anesthesiology and Critical Care Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, Iran.

Background: Postoperative pain is a complex process commonly caused by surgical trauma. It is one of the major concerns of patients undergoing heart surgery. Despite new techniques and modern analgesic treatments, postoperative pain is still one of the most important controversial issues.

Methods: 68 patients scheduled for elective CABG with CPB were included in a prospective, double-blind clinical trial. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received PCA pump including morphine (group P) with underlying infusion of 0.02 mg/kg/Qh, bolus dose of 1 mg, lockout time of 15 minutes, and a maximum of 4 bolus of 0.02 mg/kg for one hour and the other group received morphine bolus (group B). Three patients were excluded from the study, and 33 and 32 patients participated in the groups P and B, respectively. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (nausea and vomiting, GI Bleeding, and hypoxia), level of pain based on VAS, opioid consumption, hemodynamic, and sedation status were measured in both groups.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complication, sedation score, and hemodynamic status in most of the assessment periods. By assessing the pain severity in the groups at different periods, results showed a significant difference between the groups except at enrollment, and a lower severity of pain was noted in the group P compared to the group B. The consumed opioid was significantly higher in the group P than in the group B. However, higher doses of diclofenac and paracetamol were administered in the group B compared to the group P.

Conclusions: Results showed that higher morphine would be used in patients with PCA pump after extubation following heart surgery, and this increased dose of opioid was associated with better pain control and lack of complication. Therefore, PCA pump with underlying infusion could be effectively used in patients undergoing CABG that are directly assessed in intensive care unite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.12756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903217PMC
October 2017

Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane-Sufentanil Anesthesia and Propofol-Sufentanil Anesthesia on Serum Cortisol Levels in Open Heart Surgery with Cardiopulmonary Bypass.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Dec 21;6(6):e42066. Epub 2016 Nov 21.

Department of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Major surgeries such as open-heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass are associated with a complexity of stress response leading to post-operative complications. Studies have confirmed that anesthesia can mitigate the surgically induced stress response.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of propofol and isoflurane, both supplemented with Sufentanil, on the stress response in coronary artery bypass graft surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, using cortisol as a biochemical marker.

Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 72 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass meeting the inclusion criteria. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of isoflurane (n = 36) and propofol (n = 36) both supplemented with sufentanil. Serum cortisol levels were measured and compared between the groups; 30 minutes before the surgery (T0), at the end of the cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), and 24 hours after the surgery (T2).

Results: Compared to the baseline (T0), at the end of cardiopulmonary bypass (T1), both groups demonstrated a decrease in plasma cortisol levels with no statistical significant difference (P = 0.4). At T2 measuring time point, the level of plasma cortisol significantly increased in both groups (P = 0.02), however this increase was less in the Isoflurane group.

Conclusions: In CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass, using plasma cortisol level as a measure, Isoflurane-Sufentanil significantly reduces the stress response to the surgery, when compared to propofol-Sufentanil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.42066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5560634PMC
December 2016

Effect of Selenium on Stress Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial.

Anesth Pain Med 2017 Feb 9;7(1):e43864. Epub 2017 Jan 9.

Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Anesthesiology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: In spite of significant improvements in surgical and anesthetic techniques, acute stress response to surgery remains a main cause of mortality and morbidity in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery patients. Therefore, doing research to find safe and effective modalities with more cardio protective properties seems necessary.

Objectives: In this study, we sought to determine whether intravenous injection of 600 μg Selenium (Se) prior to surgery would limit stress response measured by blood sugar.

Methods: This double blind clinical trial was conducted at a referral center of cardiac surgery affiliated to Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from June 2015 to October 2015. 73 eligible patients candidate for elective isolated CABG surgery were enrolled in the trial. They were randomly allocated to either Se group (n = 36) receiving 600 μg Se prior to surgery or control group (n = 37). Our evaluation was based on blood sugar (BS) which was measured at four point times, including before induction of anesthesia (T0), at the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours (T2) and 48 hours (T3) after surgery.

Results: The data obtained from 73 patients in group S (n = 36) and group C (n = 37) were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding the baseline characteristics. In both groups, a sharp rise in BS levels was observed following CPB (P = 0.0001). Although the trend of BS changes was remarkable in both groups (P = 0.0001), there was no statistically significant difference between the groups at all point times including T0 (P = 0.45), T1 (P = 0.48), T2 (P = 0.92), and T3 (P = 0.42). Within the study time, our patients were monitored for any adverse effect but nothing was observed.

Conclusions: This investigation showed that intravenous single dose of 600 μg Se was safe in CABG patients, but had no positive effect on stress response to surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.43864DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5554419PMC
February 2017

The Effect of Desmopressin on the Amount of Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery with a Cardiopulmonary Bypass Pump After Taking Anti-Platelet Medicine.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Oct 26;6(5):e39226. Epub 2016 Jul 26.

Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is a common surgical intervention at the end-stages of coronary artery occlusion disease. Despite the effectiveness of CABG, it may have particular complications, such as bleeding during and after surgery. So far, there have been many drugs used to reduce bleeding.

Objectives: This study aimed at investigating the effects of desmopressin on the amount of bleeding in patients undergoing CABG with a cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPBP) who were taking anti-platelet medicine.

Methods: One hundred patients scheduled for elective CABG with a CPBP were included in a prospective, placebo-controlled, double-blinded clinical trial study. They were randomly divided into two groups. One group received desmopressin (40 μg) and the other group received a placebo (isotonic saline). Seven patients were excluded from the study, and 47 and 46 patients participated in the desmopressin and control groups, respectively. The methods of monitoring and the anesthetic techniques were similar in both groups, and all surgeries were performed by one surgeon. Variables including age, gender, pump time, aortic clamp time, duration of surgery, complications (e.g., nausea and vomiting, blood pressure changes), the necessity to receive blood products, and coagulation tests (prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, international normalized ratio, and bleeding time) were assessed. Data were statistically analyzed with SPSS software version 17.

Results: There was no significant difference between the groups regarding age, gender, pump time, clamp time, duration of surgery, complications, and the changes in hemoglobin and coagulation test measurements (P > 0.05). No significant difference was noted between the groups regarding the rate of bleeding after surgery (359.3 ± 266.2 in group D vs. 406.3 ± 341.6 in group P (control group); P = 0.208). However, the platelet changes after surgery in both groups were significantly different. The analysis revealed that the rate of thrombocytopenia after surgery was higher in the control group (P = 0.012).

Conclusions: Our study showed that desmopressin could not reduce the amount of blood loss after CABG. Also, desmopressin did not have a significant effect on coagulation status. Therefore, based on the results of our study, it seems that the use of this medication cannot be a helpful for patients with any indication for CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.39226DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5101425PMC
October 2016

Effects of Low-dose Selenium on the Inflammatory Response in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery: A Clinical Trial.

Iran Red Crescent Med J 2016 Aug 18;18(8):e37918. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

MD, Assistant Professor of Anesthesiology, Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, IR Iran.

Background: Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) triggers an inflammatory reaction, leading to the development of myocardial damage and dysfunction. It is suggested that selenium (Se), an essential trace element, has a protective role against oxidative stress. Decreased intraoperative Se levels might be an independent predictive factor for postoperative multiorgan failure. In spite of its proposed advantages, however, the optimal timing and dosage are not well known.

Objectives: To determine whether 600 µg of intravenous Se administration before induction of anesthesia for CABG surgery could attenuate inflammatory reactions in an Iranian population.

Methods: This randomized triple-blind clinical trial took place in the department of cardiac surgery of an academic hospital affiliated with Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS) from May 2015 to September 2015. Eighty-eight eligible patients scheduled for elective on-pump CABG surgery were divided into two groups using randomized fixed quadripartite blocks. They received either an intravenous bolus of 600 µg Se before induction of anesthesia, or normal saline as a placebo. We had four measurement time-points: just before induction of anesthesia (T0), immediately after the end of CPB (T1), 24 hours after surgery (T2), and 48 hours after surgery (T3). Interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Results: Data from a total of 81 patients were analyzed: group S (n = 41) and group C (n = 40). There was no significant difference between the two groups with regard to baseline characteristics. In both groups, CPB caused markedly increased IL-6, TNF-α, and CRP plasma concentrations compared with baseline (P = 0.0001). However, the pattern of changes was not significantly different between group S (P = 0.068) and group C (P = 0.26). The IL-6 and TNF-α change trends were significant in each group (P=0.0001). However, comparing the two groups showed no significant difference. With regard to IL-6, there was no significant difference between the two groups at the time-points of T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056), and the same was found for TNF-α at T1 (P = 0.34), T2 (P = 0.17), and T3 (P = 0.056). With regard to CRP, the trend of the changes was significant in each group (P = 0.0001). However, comparing two groups showed a borderline significant difference between them at T1 (P = 0.039), but not at T2 (P = 0.075) or T3 (P = 0.11).

Conclusions: This study revealed that the administration of 600 μg of intravenous Se immediately before induction of anesthesia was safe, but when compared to a placebo, no predominant clinical effects or modifications in the systemic inflammatory response induced by on-pump CABG were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/ircmj.37918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5070486PMC
August 2016

Comparison of the Effects of Low-Dose Midazolam, Magnesium Sulfate, Remifentanil and Low-Dose Etomidate on Prevention of Etomidate-Induced Myoclonus in Orthopedic Surgeries.

Anesth Pain Med 2016 Apr 2;6(2):e35333. Epub 2016 Apr 2.

Anesthesiology Research Center, Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS), Rasht, Iran.

Background: Etomidate is a potent hypnotic agent with several desirable advantages such as providing a stable cardiovascular profile with minimal respiratory adverse effects and better hemodynamic stability compared with other induction agents. This drug is associated, however, with myoclonic movements which is characterized by a sudden, brief muscle contractions as a disturbing side-effect.

Objectives: The present study was designed to compare the effectiveness of low- dose midazolam, magnesium sulfate, remifentanil and low-dose etomidate to suppress etomidate-induced myoclonus in orthopedic surgery.

Patients And Methods: A double-blind clinical trial study was conducted in an academic hospital from September 2014 to August 2015. Two hundred and eighty-four eligible patients, American society of anesthesiologists class I - II, scheduled for elective orthopedic surgery were randomly allocated into four equal groups (n = 71). They received premedication with intravenous low-dose midazolam 0.015 mg/kg, magnesium sulfate 30 mg/kg, remifentanil 1 μg/kg and low-dose etomidate 0.03 mg/kg two minutes before induction of anesthesia with 0.3 mg/kg intravenous etomidate. Then the incidence and intensity of myoclonus were evaluated on a scale of 0 - 3; 0 = no myoclonus; 1 = mild (movement at wrist); 2 = moderate (movement at arm only, elbow or shoulder); and 3 = severe, generalized response or movement in more than one extremity, within ninety seconds. Any adverse effect due to these premedication agents was recorded.

Results: The incidence and intensity of myoclonus were significantly lower in the low-dose etomidate group. The incidence rates of myoclonus were 51 (71.85%), 61 (85.9%), 30 (42.3%) and 41 (57.7%), and the percentages of patients who experienced grade III of myoclonus were 30 (58.8%), 32 (52.5%), 9 (30%) and 14 (34.1%) in the midazolam, magnesium sulfate, etomidate and remifentanil groups, respectively. The incidence and intensity of myoclonus were significantly lower in the low-dose etomidate group (P = 0.0001). No notable adverse effect was detected in our patients during the study period.

Conclusions: Intravenous etomidate 0.03 mg/kg prior to induction can effectively reduce the incidence and severity of myoclonus linked to etomidate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.35333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4885461PMC
April 2016

Comparing the effects of morphine sulfate and diclofenac suppositories on postoperative pain in coronary artery bypass graft patients.

Anesth Pain Med 2014 Oct 21;4(4):e19423. Epub 2014 Sep 21.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Simple and efficient way of pain management after Coronary Artery Bypass Graft (CABG) surgery is an important aspect of patients' care.

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effects of morphine and diclofenac suppositories on postoperative pain management.

Patients And Methods: In this double-blinded clinical trial study, 120 patients aged 30-65 years old, undergone CABG, were equally divided into two groups of A (morphine) and B (diclofenac). All patients were anesthetized with intravenous fentanyl 10 μg/kg, etomidate 0.2 mg/kg and cisatracurium 0.2 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with oxygen 50% and air 50%, propofol 50 μg/kg/min, fentanyl 1-2 μg/kg/h and atracurium 0.6 mg/kg/h. Analgesics were administered after the operation at intensive care unit (ICU) and Visual Analogue Score (VAS) was evaluated in both groups in 4-hour intervals after extubation for 24 hours. After extubation in case of VAS > 3, morphine suppository 10 mg (group A) or diclofenac suppository 50 mg (group B) was administered for patients.

Results: No significant statistical relationship was found between the two groups regarding gender, age, BMI, paracetamol consumption, length of operation time, cardiopulmonary bypass pump (CPB) time, and stay time at ICU (P Value ≥ 0.05). Total dosage of used morphine was 22 ± 8.3 mg in each patient and total dosage of used diclofenac was 94 ± 32.01 mg. Average variation of VAS at measured intervals was significant (P Value ≤ 0.0001), but these variations were not significantly different when comparing the two groups (P Value = 0.023).

Conclusions: Both morphine and diclofenac suppositories reduced pain significantly and similarly after CABG surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.19423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4205802PMC
October 2014

Propofol is Effective to Depress Fentanyl-Induced Cough during Induction of Anesthesia.

Anesth Pain Med 2013 26;2(4):170-3. Epub 2013 Mar 26.

Anesthesiology Department, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.

Background: Various attempts have been made to reduce the incidence of fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction. We hypothesized that an appropriate dose of propofol might suppress fentanyl-induced cough.

Objectives: A study had been designed to observe the effects of propofol on a fentanyl-induced cough during anesthesia induction.

Patients And Methods: We performed a randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of the pre-emptive use of minimal dose intravenous propofol (20 mg) on the incidence of cough caused by a larger bolus of intravenous fentanyl. Group 1 patients were given fentanyl at a dosage of 4 µg/kg. Group 2 received 4µg/kg fentanyl and 20 mg propofol. The two groups were evaluated in 0, 5 and 10 second intervals following the injection of fentanyl.

Results: Mean age, weight, and, height was 35 ± 10.45, 67.99 ± 10.92, and 165.33 ± 31.84 respectively. The incidence of fentanyl induced cough was 29 (74.4%) in placebo group compared with 10 (25.6%) in the propofol group. There was a significant difference in the incidence and severity of cough between group 1 and 2 (P < 0.0001). This study also showed that propofol could decrease cough incidence in patients who smoke.

Conclusions: Priming dose of propofol (20mg) one minute prior to fentanyl injection was effective in suppressing a fentanyl-induced cough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/aapm.8383DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3821139PMC
November 2013

A comparative study of cardioprotective effect of three anesthetic agents by measuring serum level of troponin-T after coronary artery bypass grafting.

Int Cardiovasc Res J 2012 Sep 15;6(3):70-4. Epub 2012 Sep 15.

Department of Burn Surgery, Motahari Burn Hospital, Rasht University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.

Background: Cardiac surgery is associated with some degree of myocardial injury. Preconditioning first described in 1986 was pharmacologic and non- pharmacologic. Among the long list of anesthetic drugs, isoflurane as an inhaling agent along with midazolam and propofol as injectable substances have been documented to confer some preconditioning effects on myocardium.

Objectives: In this study cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) ,as a reliable marker, was used for evaluating myocardial injury.

Methods: This prospective double blind study was comprised of 60 patients scheduled for CABG and were randomly assigned into three groups who received infusion of propofol or midazolam or isoflorane. Surgical procedures and anesthetics were similar for 3 groups. cTnT measured preoperatively and at 12, 24 and 36hr after arrival in ICU.

Results: There were no statistically significant differences in mean cTnT levels between three groups in the preoperative period and 12-24 hours after arrival in ICU. However, mean cTnT in 3 groups at 36 hours after arrival in ICU were different (P< 0.013) and cTnT level was significantly higher in midazolam group (P<0.001) and lowest in isoflurane group (P=0.002).

Conclusion: There were significant differences on cTnT levels between anesthetic groups of isofluran, midazolam and propofol at 36 hr after surgery. Preconditioning effect of isoflurane was higher than the other two groups.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3987406PMC
September 2012