Publications by authors named "Valerio Ghezzi"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Perseverative Cognition in the Positive Valence Systems: An Experimental and Ecological Investigation.

Brain Sci 2021 Apr 30;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Perseverative cognition (PC) is a transdiagnostic risk factor that characterizes both hypo-motivational (e.g., depression) and hyper-motivational (e.g., addiction) disorders; however, it has been almost exclusively studied within the context of the negative valence systems. The present study aimed to fill this gap by combining laboratory-based, computational and ecological assessments. Healthy individuals performed the Probabilistic Reward Task (PRT) before and after the induction of PC or a waiting period. Computational modeling was applied to dissociate the effects of PC on reward sensitivity and learning rate. Afterwards, participants underwent a one-week ecological momentary assessment of daily PC occurrence, as well as anticipatory and consummatory reward-related behavior. Induction of PC led to increased response bias on the PRT compared to waiting, likely due to an increase in learning rate but not in reward sensitivity, as suggested by computational modeling. In daily-life, PC increased the discrepancy between expected and obtained rewards (i.e., prediction error). Current converging experimental and ecological evidence suggests that PC is associated with abnormalities in the functionality of positive valence systems. Given the role of PC in the prediction, maintenance, and recurrence of psychopathology, it would be clinically valuable to extend research on this topic beyond the negative valence systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci11050585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8147166PMC
April 2021

The impact of emotional contagion on workplace safety: Investigating the roles of sleep, health, and production pressure.

Curr Psychol 2021 Mar 18:1-15. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi, 78, 00185 Rome, Italy.

Using emotional contagion theory and the Job Demands-Resources model as a theoretical foundation, we tested the proposition that higher levels of contagion of anger (i.e., a demand) vs. higher levels of contagion of joy (i.e., a resource) will be associated respectively with more vs. fewer sleep disturbances and health problems, which in turn are related to more workplace accidents and injuries. Moreover, we examined the moderating impact of production pressure (i.e., a contextual demand) on the relationship between emotional contagion and employee poor sleep and health. Data from 1000 employees in Italy showed that the conditional indirect effects of contagion of anger, but not of joy, on accidents and injuries via sleep and health problems were intensified as levels of production pressure increased. Furthermore, contagion of anger was positively associated with both sleep disturbances and health problems whereas contagion of joy was negatively related to only sleep disturbances. These findings suggest that the effect of anger that employees absorb during social interactions at work likely persists when coming at home and represents an emotional demand that impairs the physiological functions that regulate restorative sleep and energies recharging; and, this effect is even stronger among employees who perceived higher levels of organizational production pressure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01616-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7972334PMC
March 2021

Effects of Presleep Cognitive Intrusions on Subjective Sleep and Next-Day Cognitive Performance in Insomnia.

Behav Ther 2020 09 12;51(5):688-699. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Sapienza University of Rome.

Presleep cognitive intrusions about next-day activities, or proprioceptive and environmental stimuli, are thought to trigger insomnia in neurocognitive models. Recent research showed that intrusive cognitions at bedtime may interact with sleep in influencing next-day emotional functioning; their effects on cognitive functioning, however, is largely unknown. We tested the effects of presleep cognitive intrusions on subjective sleep and next-day cognitive performance in 80 participants, either with chronic insomnia or good sleepers. Presleep intrusions were inspected using a validated questionnaire and sleep was assessed with a sleep diary. Cognitive functioning the following morning was measured using a task-switching paradigm assessing executive functions. Structural equation modeling with manifest variables (i.e., path analysis) shows that presleep cognitive intrusions predicted increased sleep onset latency and wake after sleep onset, and lowered sleep efficiency. Moreover, task-switching accuracy was independently predicted by presleep cognitive intrusions in the previous night in those with insomnia but not in controls, beyond the effects of trait anxiety, task-switching components, and previous night's sleep. Findings confirm detrimental effects of presleep intrusions on sleep continuity and suggest the presence of links between presleep conscious activity and next-day executive performance in patients with insomnia, with the need to better elucidate potential mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2019.09.003DOI Listing
September 2020

Economic stress, emotional contagion and safety outcomes: A cross-country study.

Work 2020 ;66(2):421-435

Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: Economic instability produced by financial crises can increase employment-related (i.e., job insecurity) and income-related (i.e., financial stress) economic stress. While the detrimental impact of job insecurity on safety outcomes has been extensively investigated, no study has examined the concurrent role of financial stress let alone their emotion-related predictors.

Objective: The present cross-country research sought to identify the simultaneous effects of affective job insecurity and financial stress in predicting employee safety injuries and accidents under-reporting, and to examine the extent to which emotional contagion of positive/negative emotions at work contribute to the level of experienced economic stress.

Methods: We performed multi-group measurement and structural invariance analyses.

Results: Data from employees in the US (N = 498) and Italy (N = 366) suggest that financial stress is the primary mediator between emotional contagion and poor safety outcomes. Moreover, greater anger-contagion predicted higher levels of financial strain and job insecurity whereas greater joy-contagion predicted reduced economic stress.

Conclusions: Our findings support the relevance of considering the concurrent role of income-and employment-related stressors as predictors of safety-related outcomes. Theoretical and practical implications for safety are discussed in light of the globally increasing emotional pressure and concerns of income- and employment-related economic stress in today's workplace, particularly given the recent pandemic spread of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/WOR-203182DOI Listing
August 2020

The Interplay among Age and Employment Status on the Perceptions of Psychosocial Risk Factors at Work.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 21;17(10). Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza-University of Rome, 00146 Rome, Italy.

While the role of individual differences in shaping primary appraisals of psychosocial working conditions has been well investigated, less is known about how objective characteristics of the employee profile (e.g., age) are associated with different perceptions of psychosocial risk factors. Moreover, previous research on the link between employment status (i.e., work contract) and such perceptions has provided mixed results, leading to contradictory conclusions. The present study was conducted on a nationally representative sample of theItalian employed workforce surveyed with computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) methodology. The principal aim of the study is to bridge this gap in the extant literature by investigating the interplay between two key characteristics of the employee profile (i.e., age and work contract) in shaping employees' perceptions of psychosocial risk factors. Given the disparate literature scenario on the interplay between age and employment status in shaping primary appraisals of psychosocial stressors, we formulated and compared multiple competitive informative hypotheses. Consistent with the principles of the conservation of resources (COR) theory, we found that older contingent employees reported a higher level of psychosocial risk than their permanent peers who, in turn, were more vulnerable than middle-aged and younger workers (regardless of their employment status). These results highlight the importance of simultaneously assessing multipleobjective variables of the employee profile (i.e., age and employment status) which may act to shape subjective perceptions of psychosocial risk factors for work-related stress. Given our findings, employers and policy makers should consider older contingent employees as one of the workforce sub-populationsmost vulnerable to negative work environments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103611DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277292PMC
May 2020

Multilevel Job Demands and Resources: Cross-level Effects of Competing Organizational Facet-Specific Climates on Risky Safety Behaviors.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 17;17(10). Epub 2020 May 17.

Department of Psychology and Sapienza, University of Rome, 00146 Rome, Italy.

Both individual demands (i.e., workload) and organizational demands and resources (i.e., production pressure and safety climates) may affect the likelihood that employees undertake risky safety behaviors in different ways. Adopting an organizational multilevel perspective, the aim of the present research was fourfold: 1) to examine the impact of individual-level job demands (i.e., workload) on the enactment of risky safety behaviors; 2) to evaluate the effects of coexisting and competing organizational facet-specific climates (i.e., for safety and for production pressure) on the above outcome; 3) to assess their cross-level interactions with individual job demands, and 4) to test the interaction among such organizational demands and resources in shaping risky behaviors. A series of multilevel regression models tested on surveydata from 1375 employees nested within 33 organizations indicated that high workload increases the likelihood of employees enacting risky safety behaviors, while organizational safety and production pressure climates showed significant and opposite direct effects on this safety outcome. Moreover, organizational safety climate significantly mitigated the effect of individual job demands on risky safety behaviors, while organizational production pressure climate exacerbated this individual-level relationship. Finally, organizational safety climate mitigates the cross-level direct effect of organizational production pressure climate on the enactment of risky safety behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103496DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7277467PMC
May 2020

Reliability, Validity and Empirical Dimensionality of the Minnesota Nurses' Perceptions of Nursing Diagnoses Scale Among Italian Nursing Students.

J Nurs Meas 2020 08 20;28(2):354-369. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention. University of Rome "Tor Vergata," Italy.

Background And Purpose: Perceptions toward nursing diagnosis (ND) may represent core drivers of its adoption within clinical practice. Few studies have investigated perceptions toward ND within nursing academic contexts. The study was conducted to validate the Italian version of the Minnesota Nurses' Perceptions of Nursing Diagnoses (MNPND) scale on a sample of Italian nursing students and explore the psychometric structure of perceptions in a sample drawn from this population.

Methods: A cross-sectional survey with an online self-administered questionnaire was used. The study used exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA).

Results: A three-factorstructure was obtained from parallel analysis and EFA. This was confirmed using CFA; fit statistics: MLRχ² = 230.150, <. 001; CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.05 [90% CI = 0.041-0.064]; SRMR = 0.056).

Conclusions: The MNPND scale is a useful instrument to measure nursing students' perceptions of ND.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/JNM-D-18-00100DOI Listing
August 2020

BIS and BAS Sensitivities at Different Levels of Personality Description: A Latent-Variable Approach with Self- and Informant-Ratings.

J Pers Assess 2021 Mar-Apr;103(2):246-257. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

City University of London, London, UK.

We examine the structural overlap of the Behavioral Inhibition System (BIS) and the Behavioral Approach System (BAS) with Stability and Plasticity, the two higher-order factors encompassing the Big Five. Carver and White's BIS/BAS and the Big Five Inventory were administered to a sample of 330 adults, serving both as targets and informants. Self- and other-ratings were modeled by using the Correlated Trait-Correlated Method model. BIS and BAS correlated highly with metatraits, after method variance and measurement error were partialled out: BIS was positively related to Stability, while BAS was positively related to Plasticity and negatively related to Stability. After the higher-order factors were controlled, the BIS was highly and positively related to Emotional stability, whereas the BAS had a small but significant relationship with Extraversion. Findings are discussed with regard to the most appropriate level of generality/specificity at which the personality correlates of BIS and BAS can be investigated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223891.2020.1743709DOI Listing
June 2021

Assessing the Risk of Stress in Organizations: Getting the Measure of Organizational-Level Stressors.

Front Psychol 2019 20;10:2776. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL), Rome, Italy.

Great Britain's Health and Safety Executive (HSE) developed the Management Standards Indicator Tool to help organizations to assess and monitor organizational risks of work-related stress through surveying employees about the psychosocial risks for stress in their jobs. The use of employee-level data for deriving an organizational-level measure of psychosocial risks assumes that the constructs have equivalent meanings at different levels. However, this isomorphic condition has never been tested and this study fills this gap. Using data collected by the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL) from 66,188 employees nested in 775 organizations, we demonstrate that the organizational-level measure representing the seven dimensions of the Management Standards Indicator Tool is equivalent, though not identical, to the individual-level measure. This implies that the organizational level is not a mirror of the aggregation of the individual level, and that the risk of work-related stress in an organization may derive not simply from bottom-up processes, but may be generated by top-down influences (e.g., organizational policies). Interventions may then be meaningfully targeted at the organizational level in the expectation that they will reduce the risk of work-related stress among the entire workforce, the valid measurement of which can be performed through the HSE's Management Standards Indicator Tool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6932998PMC
December 2019

Do Temporary Workers More Often Decide to Work While Sick? Evidence for the Link between Employment Contract and Presenteeism in Europe.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 05 27;16(10). Epub 2019 May 27.

Institute of Medical Sociology, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, University of Duesseldorf, 40225 Duesseldorf, Germany.

European employees are increasingly likely to work in cases of illness (sickness presenteeism, SP). Past studies found inconsistent evidence for the assumption that temporary workers decide to avoid taking sick leave due to job insecurity. A new measure to identify decision-based determinants of SP is presenteeism propensity (PP), which is the number of days worked while ill in relation to the sum of days worked while ill and days taken sickness absence. We investigated the link between employment contract and PP using cross-sectional data from 20,240 employees participating in the 2015 European Working Conditions Survey. Workers were grouped by type and duration of employment contract. The link between contract and PP was estimated using a multilevel Poisson model adjusted for socio-demographical, occupational and health-related covariates. We found that European employees worked 39% of the days they were ill. In contrast to previous studies, temporary workers were significantly more likely to decide for presenteeism than permanent workers were, especially when the contract was limited to less than 1 year. Controlling for perceived job insecurity did just marginally attenuate this association. Presenteeism was also more common among young and middle-aged workers; however, we did not find a significant interaction between contract and age affecting presenteeism. In conclusion, the employment contract is an important determinant of presenteeism. Our results give reason to believe that temporary workers show increased attendance behavior independent of job insecurity, because they are less likely to have access to social protection in case of illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16101868DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6572370PMC
May 2019

Cognitive failures in response to emotional contagion: Their effects on workplace accidents.

Accid Anal Prev 2019 Apr 12;125:165-173. Epub 2019 Feb 12.

Sapienza University of Rome, Via dei Marsi, 78, 00185, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

The purpose of this study was to examine contagion of positive and negative emotions among employees as an antecedent of cognitive failures and subsequent workplace accidents. Using emotional contagion theory and the neural model of emotion and cognition, we tested the proposition that higher contagion of anger (i.e., a negative emotion accompanied by dysfunctional cognition) would be associated with greater cognitive failures, whereas higher contagion of joy (i.e., a positive emotion accompanied by pleasant information processing, attention and positive cognition) would be associated with fewer cognitive failures. In turn, cognitive failures were predicted to be related to higher rates of subsequent workplace accidents. Using a two-wave lagged design, anonymous survey data collected from N = 390 working adults in the U.S. supported the hypothesized mediation model. Specifically, emotional contagion of anger positively predicted cognitive failures, whereas emotional contagion of joy negatively predicted cognitive failures. Furthermore, cognitive failures positively predicted experienced accidents and fully mediated the relationship between contagion of joy/anger and experienced accidents. These findings suggest that lapses in cognitive functioning may be prevented by positive emotions (and enhanced by negative emotions) that employees absorb during social interactions at work and represent a more proximal source of accidents in comparison to emotions. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed in light of the globally rising rates of workplace accidents and related costs for safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2019.01.018DOI Listing
April 2019

Assessing Objective and Verifiable Indicators Associated With Work-Related Stress: Validation of a Structured Checklist for the Assessment and Management of Work-Related Stress.

Front Psychol 2018 4;9:2424. Epub 2018 Dec 4.

Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Italian National Workers Compensation Authority, Rome, Italy.

Risk assessment represents an essential part of any successful intervention in health and safety at work. The most prominent European methodologies propose multi-method approaches for identifying the risks associated with work-related stress. Nevertheless, the most widely used method is the self-administered questionnaire. By adapting the UK Management Standards approach, the Italian National Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL) developed a checklist for the assessment of objective and verifiable indicators of work-related stress. This checklist is filled in by a steering group composed of homogenous groups of workers. Through a web-platform developed by INAIL, a considerable amount of data over the last 5 years has been collected throughout Italy. The aims of this study are to examine the psychometric properties as well as the practical validity of the checklist in a wide sample of Italian companies. The sample comprised 5,301 homogeneous groups of workers nested within 1,631 organizations. The checklist measures two main areas: (1) the organizational indicators of work-related stress (sentinel events) and (2) four and six factors related respectively to content and context of work. Multilevel and multivariate analyses revealed that the checklist shows adequate factor structure and criterion validity. Results also demonstrate that small companies and the public and healthcare sector show higher risk levels. These results support the use of the checklist as a structured and generalizable tool for assessing and monitoring the risks associated with work-related stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02424DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6288307PMC
December 2018

Machiavellian Ways to Academic Cheating: A Mediational and Interactional Model.

Front Psychol 2018 14;9:695. Epub 2018 May 14.

Centre for Staff and Educational Development, University of East Anglia, Norwich, United Kingdom.

Academic cheating has become a pervasive practice from primary schools to university. This study aims at investigating this phenomenon through a nomological network which integrates different theoretical frameworks and models, such as trait and social-cognitive theories and models regarding the approaches to learning and contextual/normative environment. Results on a sample of more than 200 Italian university students show that the Amoral Manipulation facet of Machiavellianism, Academic Moral Disengagement, Deep Approach to Learning, and Normative Academic Cheating are significantly associated with Individual Academic Cheating. Moreover, results show a significant latent interaction effect between Normative Academic Cheating and Amoral Manipulation Machiavellianism: "amoral Machiavellians" students are more prone to resort to Academic Cheating in contexts where Academic Cheating is adopted as a practice by their peers, while this effect is not significant in contexts where Academic Cheating is not normative. Results also show that Academic Moral Disengagement and Deep Approach to learning partially mediate the relationship between Amoral Manipulation and Academic Cheating. Practical implications of these results are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5960691PMC
May 2018

Translation and Testing of the Italian Version of FAMCARE-2: Measuring Family Caregivers' Satisfaction With Palliative Care.

J Fam Nurs 2017 May 16;23(2):252-272. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

1 Campus Bio-Medico University, Rome, Italy.

Family satisfaction is an important outcome of palliative care and is a critical measure for health care professionals to address when assessing quality of care. The FAMCARE-2 is a widely used measure of family satisfaction with the health care received by both patient and family in palliative care. In this study, a team of Italian researchers culturally adapted the FAMCARE-2 to the Italian language and psychometrically tested the instrument by measuring satisfaction of 185 family caregivers of patients admitted into two palliative care services. FAMCARE-2 showed excellent levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's α coefficient = .96) and test-retest reliability ( r = .98, p < .01). The confirmatory factor analysis showed a single-factor structure with good fit. Satisfaction levels were significantly correlated with family caregivers being females with less education, patient length of care, and place of assistance and death. This scale can help health care professionals identify which aspects of care need improvement and enable family caregivers to manage their challenging role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1074840717697538DOI Listing
May 2017

Development and psychometric testing of a new instrument to measure the caring behaviour of nurses in Italian acute care settings.

J Adv Nurs 2017 Dec 15;73(12):3178-3188. Epub 2017 Aug 15.

Health Professions Direction, Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome, Italy.

Aim: To develop and psychometrically test the Italian-language Nurse Caring Behaviours Scale, a short measure of nurse caring behaviour as perceived by inpatients.

Background: Patient perceptions of nurses' caring behaviours are a predictor of care quality. Caring behaviours are culture-specific, but no measure of patient perceptions has previously been developed in Italy. Moreover, existing tools show unclear psychometric properties, are burdensome for respondents, or are not widely applicable.

Design: Instrument development and psychometric testing.

Method: Item generation included identifying and adapting items from existing measures of caring behaviours as perceived by patients. A pool of 28 items was evaluated for face validity. Content validity indexes were calculated for the resulting 15-item scale; acceptability and clarity were pilot tested with 50 patients. To assess construct validity, a sample of 2,001 consecutive adult patients admitted to a hospital in 2014 completed the scale and was split into two groups. Reliability was evaluated using nonlinear structural equation modelling coefficients. Measurement invariance was tested across subsamples.

Results: Item 15 loaded poorly in the exploratory factor analysis (n = 983) and was excluded from the final solution, positing a single latent variable with 14 indicators. This model fitted the data moderately. The confirmatory factor analysis (n = 1018) returned similar results. Internal consistency was excellent in both subsamples. Full scalar invariance was reached, and no significant latent mean differences were detected across subsamples.

Conclusion: The new instrument shows reasonable psychometric properties and is a promising short and widely applicable measure of inpatient perceptions of nurse caring behaviours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jan.13384DOI Listing
December 2017

Psychometric Characteristics of a New Scale for Measuring Self-efficacy in the Regulation of Gambling Behavior.

Front Psychol 2017 20;8:1025. Epub 2017 Jun 20.

Department of Developmental and Social Psychology, Sapienza University of RomeRome, Italy.

Since its introduction in 1977, self-efficacy has proven to be a fundamental predictor of positive adjustment and achievement in many domains. In problem gambling studies, self-efficacy has been defined mainly as an individual's ability to avoid gambling in risky situations. The interest in this construct developed mainly with regard to treatment approaches, where abstinence from gambling is required. Very little is known, however, regarding self-efficacy as a protective factor for problem gambling. This study aims to fill this gap, proposing a new self-efficacy scale which measures not only the ability to restrain oneself from gambling but also the ability to self-regulate one's gambling behavior. Two studies were conducted in which the data from two Italian prevalence surveys on problem gambling were considered. A total of about 6,000 participants were involved. In the first study, the psychometric characteristics of this new self-efficacy scale were investigated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. The results indicated the presence of two different factors: self-efficacy in self-regulating gambling behavior and self-efficacy in avoiding risky gambling behavior. The second study confirmed the replicability of the two-factor solution and displayed high correlations among these two self-efficacy dimensions and different measures of gambling activities as well as other psychological variables related to gambling (gambling beliefs, gambling motivation, risk propensity, and impulsiveness). The results of logistic regression analyses showed the particular importance of self-regulating gaming behavior in explaining problem gambling as measured by Problem Gambling Severity Index and South Oaks Gambling Screen, thus proving the role of self-efficacy as a pivotal protective factor for problem gambling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5477641PMC
June 2017

Academic dishonesty among Italian nursing students: A longitudinal study.

Nurse Educ Today 2017 Mar 18;50:57-61. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome "Tor Vergata", Rome, Italy.

Considering the ethical issues related to nursing and that Ethics is an integral part of the nursing education in the degree course, one would suppose that academic dishonesty might be less frequent in nursing students than in students of other disciplines. However, several studies show that this trend of deceitful behaviour seems to be similar among the university nursing students and those of other disciplines. The aim of this study is to investigate the phenomenon of academic dishonesty in the classroom from a longitudinal perspective within a cohort of Italian nursing students. A non-experimental longitudinal design was used. All nursing students were recruited from the Nursing Science Bachelor Degree Program of a big Italian university in the centre of Italy and participants were part of an ongoing longitudinal research project which started in 2011 on nursing students' wellbeing. The results show that students get accustomed to taking academically deceitful actions. They come to consider their behaviours acceptable and normal, thereby stabilizing them, which increases the probability of stabilizing subsequent deceitful behaviours. The stability through time of academic cheating behaviours committed during higher education, within the study's timeframe, provides important perspectives into the establishment of rigorous standards of ethical and moral behaviours by the students.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2016.12.013DOI Listing
March 2017

Disentangling the roles of safety climate and safety culture: Multi-level effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance.

Accid Anal Prev 2017 Feb 22;99(Pt A):77-89. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Sapienza - University of Rome, Italy.

Despite increasing attention to contextual effects on the relationship between supervisor enforcement and employee safety compliance, no study has yet explored the conjoint influence exerted simultaneously by organizational safety climate and safety culture. The present study seeks to address this literature shortcoming. We first begin by briefly discussing the theoretical distinctions between safety climate and culture and the rationale for examining these together. Next, using survey data collected from 1342 employees in 32 Italian organizations, we found that employee-level supervisor enforcement, organizational-level safety climate, and autocratic, bureaucratic, and technocratic safety culture dimensions all predicted individual-level safety compliance behaviors. However, the cross-level moderating effect of safety climate was bounded by certain safety culture dimensions, such that safety climate moderated the supervisor enforcement-compliance relationship only under the clan-patronage culture dimension. Additionally, the autocratic and bureaucratic culture dimensions attenuated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and compliance. Finally, when testing the effects of technocratic safety culture and cooperative safety culture, neither safety culture nor climate moderated the relationship between supervisor enforcement and safety compliance. The results suggest a complex relationship between organizational safety culture and safety climate, indicating that organizations with particular safety cultures may be more likely to develop more (or less) positive safety climates. Moreover, employee safety compliance is a function of supervisor safety leadership, as well as the safety climate and safety culture dimensions prevalent within the organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aap.2016.11.012DOI Listing
February 2017

Nursing Student Self-efficacy in Psychomotor Skills: Findings From a Validation, Longitudinal, and Correlational Study.

Nurse Educ 2016 Nov/Dec;41(6):E1-E6

Authors Affiliations: PhD Candidate (Ms Bulfone) Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy; Lecturer in Organisational Behaviour (Dr Fida), Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome (Dr Ghezzi); Nursing School Coordinator (Dr Macale), Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vegata, Rome; Nursing Director (Dr Sili), Tor Vergata University Hospital, Rome; Associate Professor (Ms Alvaro), Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome; and Associate Professor (Ms Palese), Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, University of Udine, Italy.

Student perceptions of self-efficacy (SE) prevent stress and burnout and improve engagement in nursing education, thus increasing learning outcomes. The study aims were to (1) validate a scale measuring nursing SE in psychomotor skills (NSE-PS), (2) describe changes in NSE-PS over time, and (3) explore NSE-PS correlations with burnout and engagement. A total of 1117 nursing students participated. A significant increase in the NSE-PS scores over the years has emerged; in addition, all NSE-PS dimensions were correlated negatively with burnout and positively with engagement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNE.0000000000000285DOI Listing
April 2017

Patterns of Self-care in Adults With Heart Failure and Their Associations With Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics, Quality of Life, and Hospitalizations: A Cluster Analysis.

J Cardiovasc Nurs 2017 Mar/Apr;32(2):180-189

Ercole Vellone, PhD, RN Research Fellow, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Roberta Fida, PhD Lecturer in organizational behavior, Norwich Business School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK. Valerio Ghezzi, PhD Department of Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. Fabio D'Agostino, PhD, RN Research Fellow, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Valentina Biagioli, MSN, RN PhD Student, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Marco Paturzo, MSN, RN PhD Student, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Anna Strömberg, PhD, RN Professor, Department of Medicine and Care and Department of Cardiology, University of Linköping, Sweden. Rosaria Alvaro, MSN, RN Associate Professor, Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Italy. Tiny Jaarsma, PhD, RN Professor, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, University of Linköping, Norrköping, Sweden.

Background: Self-care is important in heart failure (HF) treatment, but patients may have difficulties and be inconsistent in its performance. Inconsistencies in self-care behaviors may mirror patterns of self-care in HF patients that are worth identifying to provide interventions tailored to patients.

Objectives: The aims of this study are to identify clusters of HF patients in relation to self-care behaviors and to examine and compare the profile of each HF patient cluster considering the patient's sociodemographics, clinical variables, quality of life, and hospitalizations.

Methods: This was a secondary analysis of data from a cross-sectional study in which we enrolled 1192 HF patients across Italy. A cluster analysis was used to identify clusters of patients based on the European Heart Failure Self-care Behaviour Scale factor scores. Analysis of variance and χ test were used to examine the characteristics of each cluster.

Results: Patients were 72.4 years old on average, and 58% were men. Four clusters of patients were identified: (1) high consistent adherence with high consulting behaviors, characterized by younger patients, with higher formal education and higher income, less clinically compromised, with the best physical and mental quality of life (QOL) and lowest hospitalization rates; (2) low consistent adherence with low consulting behaviors, characterized mainly by male patients, with lower formal education and lowest income, more clinically compromised, and worse mental QOL; (3) inconsistent adherence with low consulting behaviors, characterized by patients who were less likely to have a caregiver, with the longest illness duration, the highest number of prescribed medications, and the best mental QOL; (4) and inconsistent adherence with high consulting behaviors, characterized by patients who were mostly female, with lower formal education, worst cognitive impairment, worst physical and mental QOL, and higher hospitalization rates.

Conclusion: The 4 clusters identified in this study and their associated characteristics could be used to tailor interventions aimed at improving self-care behaviors in HF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/JCN.0000000000000325DOI Listing
February 2018

Psychometric evaluation of the Positions on Nursing Diagnosis scale.

Appl Nurs Res 2016 Feb 8;29:e1-6. Epub 2015 Apr 8.

Department of Biomedicine and Prevention, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy.

Aim: To study the psychometric properties of the Positions on Nursing Diagnosis (PND) scale.

Background: The PND is a scale to measure nurses' attitudes toward nursing diagnosis. In previous studies, reliability of the scale was supported but its construct validity is still unclear with studies reporting both one-factor and three-factor models.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a convenience sample of 262 nurses enrolled from one general public hospital and three long-term care facilities in Italy. Construct validity was assessed with confirmatory factor analysis. Criterion and contrasting-group validities were tested, as well as internal consistency reliability.

Results: Confirmatory factor analysis showed the adequacy of a one-factor model of the PND scale. Criterion and contrasting-group validities were supportive, as was internal consistency reliability.

Conclusions: The PND is a valid and reliable scale to measure nurses' attitudes toward nursing diagnosis. Its use in practice and research is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apnr.2015.03.012DOI Listing
February 2016

Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explain Women's Role in Prostate Cancer Screening.

Res Theory Nurs Pract 2015 ;29(3):200-13

Objective: To test the suitability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for explaining Italian women's role in prostatic cancer screening promotion.

Design/methods: A descriptive, cross-sectional, online self-report survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 235 Italian women. Variables included attitudes women's role, perceived behavioral control, subjective norm, behavioral intention, and prostate cancer screening promotion behavior. A survey composed of the Eastland Prostate Cancer Survey subscales that were consistent with the TPB was distributed via e-mail to potential participants. The survey was live for 12 weeks (March 2013 to May 2013). Responses were collated with eSurv.org. Data were analyzed using latent path analysis and structural equation modeling.

Results: Behavioral intentions in promoting prostate cancer screening significantly predicted the likelihood of the Italian women to adopt self-reported prostate cancer screening promotion behaviors. In addition, the exclusive direct impact of the intentions explained 39% of the variance in self-reported behaviors.

Conclusions: The TPB could represent a good framework to explain the role of Italian women in prevention behaviors related to the prostatic screening domain. Consistent with literature findings in social and nursing sciences, the intention to promote prostate cancer screening was a powerful "predictor" of the behavior itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1891/1541-6577.29.3.200DOI Listing
December 2015