Publications by authors named "Valerie S Morrison"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Translational pharmacology of an inhaled small molecule αvβ6 integrin inhibitor for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

Nat Commun 2020 09 16;11(1):4659. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Nordic Bioscience A/S, Biomarkers and Research, Herlev Hovedgade 205-207, Herlev, Denmark.

The αvβ6 integrin plays a key role in the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), a pro-fibrotic mediator that is pivotal to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). We identified a selective small molecule αvβ6 RGD-mimetic, GSK3008348, and profiled it in a range of disease relevant pre-clinical systems. To understand the relationship between target engagement and inhibition of fibrosis, we measured pharmacodynamic and disease-related end points. Here, we report, GSK3008348 binds to αvβ6 with high affinity in human IPF lung and reduces downstream pro-fibrotic TGFβ signaling to normal levels. In human lung epithelial cells, GSK3008348 induces rapid internalization and lysosomal degradation of the αvβ6 integrin. In the murine bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis model, GSK3008348 engages αvβ6, induces prolonged inhibition of TGFβ signaling and reduces lung collagen deposition and serum C3M, a marker of IPF disease progression. These studies highlight the potential of inhaled GSK3008348 as an anti-fibrotic therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18397-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7494911PMC
September 2020

In vitro pharmacological characterization of vilanterol, a novel long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist with 24-hour duration of action.

J Pharmacol Exp Ther 2013 Jan 6;344(1):218-30. Epub 2012 Nov 6.

Respiratory TAU, GlaxoSmithKline, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, UK.

Vilanterol trifenatate (vilanterol) is a novel, long-acting β(2)-adrenoceptor (β(2)-AR) agonist with 24 h activity. In this study, we describe the preclinical pharmacological profile of vilanterol using radioligand binding and cAMP studies in recombinant assays as well as human and guinea pig tissue systems to characterize β(2)-AR binding and functional properties. Vilanterol displayed a subnanomolar affinity for the β(2)-AR that was comparable with that of salmeterol but higher than olodaterol, formoterol, and indacaterol. In cAMP functional activity studies, vilanterol demonstrated similar selectivity as salmeterol for β(2)- over β(1)-AR and β(3)-AR, but a significantly improved selectivity profile than formoterol and indacaterol. Vilanterol also showed a level of intrinsic efficacy that was comparable to indacaterol but significantly greater than that of salmeterol. In cellular cAMP production and tissue-based studies measuring persistence and reassertion, vilanterol had a persistence of action comparable with indacaterol and longer than formoterol. In addition, vilanterol demonstrated reassertion activity in both cell and tissue systems that was comparable with salmeterol and indacaterol but longer than formoterol. In human airways, vilanterol was shown to have a faster onset and longer duration of action than salmeterol, exhibiting a significant level of bronchodilation 22 h after treatment. From these investigations, the data for vilanterol are consistent, showing that it is a novel, potent, and selective β(2)-AR receptor agonist with a long duration of action. This pharmacological profile combined with clinical data is consistent with once a day dosing of vilanterol in the treatment of both asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/jpet.112.198481DOI Listing
January 2013

CRACM/Orai ion channel expression and function in human lung mast cells.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2012 Jun 10;129(6):1628-35.e2. Epub 2012 Mar 10.

Department of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Institute for Lung Health, University of Leicester, Leicester, United Kingdom.

Background: Influx of extracellular Ca(2+) into human lung mast cells (HLMCs) is essential for the FcεRI-dependent release of preformed granule-derived mediators and newly synthesized autacoids and cytokines. However, the identity of the ion channels underlying this Ca(2+) influx is unknown. The recently discovered members of the CRACM/Orai ion channel family that carries the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current are candidates.

Objectives: To investigate the expression and function of CRACM channels in HLMCs.

Methods: CRACM mRNA, protein, and functional expression were examined in purified HLMCs and isolated human bronchus.

Results: CRACM1, -2, and -3 mRNA transcripts and CRACM1 and -2 proteins were detectable in HLMCs. A CRACM-like current was detected following FcεRI-dependent HLMC activation and also in HLMCs dialyzed with 30 μM inositol triphosphate. The Ca(2+)-selective current obtained under both conditions was blocked by 10 μM La(3+) and Gd(3+), known blockers of CRACM channels, and 2 distinct and specific CRACM-channel blockers-GSK-7975A and Synta-66. Both blockers reduced FcεRI-dependent Ca(2+) influx, and 3 μM GSK-7975A and Synta-66 reduced the release of histamine, leukotriene C(4), and cytokines (IL-5/-8/-13 and TNFα) by up to 50%. Synta-66 also inhibited allergen-dependent bronchial smooth muscle contraction in ex vivo tissue.

Conclusions: The presence of CRACM channels, a CRACM-like current, and functional inhibition of HLMC Ca(2+) influx, mediator release, and allergen-induced bronchial smooth muscle contraction by CRACM-channel blockers supports a role for CRACM channels in FcεRI-dependent HLMC secretion. CRACM channels are therefore a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of asthma and related allergic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2012.01.070DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3526795PMC
June 2012

The discovery of long-acting saligenin β₂ adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating hydantoin or uracil rings.

Bioorg Med Chem 2011 Jul 21;19(14):4192-201. Epub 2011 Jun 21.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.

A series of novel, potent and selective human β(2) adrenoceptor agonists incorporating a hydantoin or a uracil ring on the right-hand side phenyl ring of (R)-salmeterol is presented. Hydantoin 12a had long duration of action in vitro on guinea pig trachea, and 12h in guinea pigs in vivo at its EC(90) 25 μM. It had lower oral absorption than salmeterol in rats, and lower bioavailability than salmeterol in vivo in both rats and dogs (2% and 5%, respectively). An improved method for measuring the absorbed fraction of analogues dosed to rats, which considers the glucuronidated fraction is presented. Compound 12a was metabolised in human liver microsomes and hepatocytes to the active hydantoic acid 12m.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmc.2011.05.064DOI Listing
July 2011

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of long-acting beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating metabolic inactivation: an antedrug approach.

J Med Chem 2010 Jun;53(11):4522-30

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.

A series of saligenin beta(2) adrenoceptor agonist antedrugs having high clearance were prepared by reacting a protected saligenin oxazolidinone with protected hydroxyethoxyalkoxyalkyl bromides, followed by removal of the hydroxy-protecting group, alkylation, and final deprotection. The compounds were screened for beta(2), beta(1), and beta(3) agonist activity in CHO cells. The onset and duration of action in vitro of selected compounds were assessed on isolated superfused guinea pig trachea. Compound 13f had high potency, selectivity, fast onset, and long duration of action in vitro and was found to have long duration in vivo, low oral bioavailability in the rat, and to be rapidly metabolized. Crystalline salts of 13f (vilanterol) were identified that had suitable properties for inhaled administration. A proposed binding mode for 13f to the beta(2)-receptor is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm100326dDOI Listing
June 2010

Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of long-acting beta2 adrenergic receptor agonists incorporating arylsulfonamide groups.

J Med Chem 2009 Apr;52(8):2280-8

Department of Medicinal Chemistry, GlaxoSmithKline Medicines Research Centre, Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, Hertfordshire SG1 2NY, United Kingdom.

A series of saligenin alkoxyalkylphenylsulfonamide beta(2) adrenoceptor agonists were prepared by reacting a protected saligenin oxazolidinone with alkynyloxyalkyl bromides, followed by Sonogashira reaction, hydrogenation, and deprotection. The meta-substituted primary sulfonamide was more potent than the para- and the ortho-analogues. Primary sulfonamides were more potent than the secondary and tertiary analogues. The onset and duration of action in vitro of selected compounds was assessed on isolated superfused guinea pig trachea. Sulfonamide 29b had the best profile of potency, selectivity, onset, and duration of action on both guinea pig trachea and human bronchus. Furthermore, 29b was found to have low oral bioavailability in rat and dog and also to have long duration of action in an in vivo model of bronchodilation. Crystalline salts of 29b were identified that had suitable properties for inhaled administration. A proposed binding mode for 29b to the beta(2)-receptor is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm801016jDOI Listing
April 2009