Publications by authors named "Valeria Tullio"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Violence against women in heterosexual couples: A review of psychological and medico-legal considerations.

Med Sci Law 2021 Jan;61(1_suppl):113-124

Department of Health Promotion, Mother and Child Care, Internal Medicine and Medical Specialties - Medico Legal Section, University of Palermo, Italy.

Intimate partner violence against women (IPVAW) is the most pervasive violation of women's rights worldwide, causing devastating lifelong damage. Victims can suffer physical, emotional or mental health problems, and experience detrimental effects in social, psychological and relational health with their families, especially children. Due to the complexity regarding violence against women in heterosexual couples, it is important to make a clear distinction between psychological and physical mistreatment, which also includes psychological violence. This differentiation is important in determining different emotional and psychological aspects of mistreatment in order to understand the reasons why some women stay in such relationships and to explain the personality profiles of victims and perpetrators. In this short narrative review, we have combined perspectives of depth psychology and attachment theory from studies on trauma, traumatic bonds and the perpetrator/victim complex in gender violence. We have also considered the growing literature on IPVAW as it relates to the medico-legal field. Our search strategy included intimate partner violence, attachment styles, risk factors and the victim/perpetrator relationship. Distinguishing the different types of IPVAW is a necessary step in understanding the complexity, causes, correlations and consequences of this issue. Above all, it enables the implementation of effective prevention and intervention strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025802420936081DOI Listing
January 2021

Magnetic Resonance in Cultural Heritage.

Magn Reson Chem 2020 09;58(9):783-784

Laboratorio NMR "Segre-Capitani" Institute for Biological Systems, ISB, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Montelibretti, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.5075DOI Listing
September 2020

Donatella Capitani.

Magn Reson Chem 2020 09;58(9):785-791

Laboratorio NMR "Segre-Capitani" Institute for Biological Systems, ISB, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Montelibretti, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.5069DOI Listing
September 2020

Nano- to microscale three-dimensional morphology relevant to transport properties in reactive porous composite paint films.

Sci Rep 2020 Oct 27;10(1):18320. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794, USA.

The quantitative evaluation of the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of porous composite materials is important for understanding mass transport phenomena, which further impact their functionalities and durability. Reactive porous paint materials are composites in nature and widely used in arts and technological applications. In artistic oil paintings, ambient moisture and water and organic solvents used in conservation treatments are known to trigger multiple physical and chemical degradation processes; however, there is no complete physical model that can quantitatively describe their transport in the paint films. In the present study, model oil paints with lead white (2PbCO·Pb(OH)) and zinc white (ZnO) pigments, which are frequently found in artistic oil paintings and are associated with the widespread heavy metal soap deterioration, were studied using synchrotron X-ray nano-tomography and unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance. This study aims to establish a relationship among the paints' compositions, the 3D morphological properties and degradation. This connection is crucial for establishing reliable models that can predict transport properties of solvents used in conservation treatments and of species involved in deterioration reactions, such as soap formation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75040-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7591493PMC
October 2020

Psychological support and psychotherapy via digital devices in Covid-19 emergency time: Some critical issues.

Med Leg J 2020 Jul 3;88(2):73-76. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Health Promotion, Maternal and Child Care, "G. D'Alessandro", University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

The Covid-19 pandemic and the resulting fear, quarantine and lockdown measures implemented in Italy and other countries to contain the risk of contagion have seriously impacted the mental health of a large number of people. The need to offer psychological and psychotherapeutic support to these people, while respecting the government's pressing calls to "stay home", have led many psychologists and psychotherapists, both in the public and private sectors, to provide their professional services via teleconference, telephone, smartphone, etc. The aim of this work is to highlight some critical issues related to the sudden switch from the traditional method of providing psychological services to the digital one in Italy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025817220926942DOI Listing
July 2020

C solid-state NMR complemented by ATR-FTIR and micro-DSC to study modern collagen-based material and historical leather.

Magn Reson Chem 2020 09 7;58(9):840-859. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Advanced Research for Cultural Heritage Group (ARCH Lab), National Research and Development Institute for Textiles and Leather, ICPI Division, Bucharest, Romania.

Ancient vegetable tanned leathers and parchments are very complex materials in which both different manufacturing and deterioration processes make their study and chemical characterisation difficult. In this research, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy was applied to identify different tannin families (condensed and hydrolysable) in historical leather objects such as bookbindings, wall upholsters, footwear and accessories, and military apparel. Furthermore, leather deterioration with special focus on collagen gelatinisation was investigated. A comparison with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and micro-differential scanning calorimetry (micro-DSC) was also performed to support the C CP-MAS NMR findings and to point out the advantages and limitations of solid-state NMR in analysing historical and archaeological leathers. A wide database of NMR and FTIR spectra of commercial tannins compounds was also collected in order to characterise historical and archaeological leathers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.5024DOI Listing
September 2020

Review of the use of NMR spectroscopy to investigate structure, reactivity, and dynamics of lead soap formation in paintings.

Magn Reson Chem 2020 09 3;58(9):798-811. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Heavy metal carboxylate or soap formation is a widespread deterioration problem affecting oil paintings and other works of art bearing oil-based media. Lead soaps are prevalent in traditional oil paintings because lead white was the white pigment most frequently chosen by old masters for the paints and in some cases for the ground preparations, until the development of other white pigments from approximately the middle of the 18th century on, and because of the wide use of lead-tin yellow. In the latter part of the 19th century, lead white began to be replaced by zinc white. The factors that influence soap formation have been the focus of intense study starting in the late 1990s. Since 2014, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies have contributed a unique perspective on the issue by providing chemical, structural, and dynamic information about the species involved in the process, as well as the effects of environmental conditions such as relative humidity and temperature on the kinetics of the reaction(s). In this review, we explore recent insights into soap formation gained through solid-state NMR and single-sided NMR techniques.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.5025DOI Listing
September 2020

The violence of men against women: Medico-legal and psychological issues.

Med Leg J 2020 Mar 18;88(1):37-40. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Department PROMISE - Medico Legal Section, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0025817219882169DOI Listing
March 2020

Water Diffusion and Transport in Oil Paints as Studied by Unilateral NMR and H High-Resolution MAS-NMR Spectroscopy.

Chemphyschem 2020 01 5;21(1):113-119. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Heavy metal carboxylate degradation severely affects thousands of oil paintings. Relative humidity has been reported to accelerate the rate of the reactions. To evaluate its role further, water diffusion and molecular mobility of protons in linseed oil-based lead white paints were studied by unilateral NMR and H HRMAS spectroscopy. The results indicate that exposure to high %RH for relatively long times affects the dynamics of the oil paint's mobile fraction and that the effect is more pronounced as the thickness of the film increases. It was found that the paint can absorb appreciable amounts of water and has a porosity of approximately 6 % available for the diffusion of water, for which a regime of restricted diffusion was observed. Furthermore, the presence of bound and free-moving water, due to the possible formation of hydrated ionic-group clusters, supports the hypothesis of a polymeric/ionomeric network, as well as regions of essentially water free to move as in the bulk. The findings allow a better understanding of the role of water as a factor activating the degradation process in linseed oil-based lead white paints.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201900858DOI Listing
January 2020

13C Solid State Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and µ-Raman Spectroscopic Characterization of Sicilian Amber.

Appl Spectrosc 2016 Aug 23;70(8):1346-55. Epub 2016 Jun 23.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica "Annalaura Segre", Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, Monterotondo (Roma), Italy.

(13)C cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and µ-Raman spectroscopy were applied to characterize Sicilian amber samples. The main goal of this work was to supply a complete study of simetite, highlighting discriminating criteria useful to distinguish Sicilian amber from fossil resins from other regions and laying the foundations for building a spectroscopic database of Sicilian amber. With this aim, a private collection of unrefined simetite samples and fossil resins from the Baltic region and Dominican Republic was analyzed. Overall, the obtained spectra permitted simetite to be distinguished from the other resins. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the spectroscopic data, allowing the clustering of simetite samples with respect to the Baltic and Dominican samples and to group the simetite samples in two sets, depending on their maturity. Finally, the analysis of loadings allowed for a better understanding of the spectral features that mainly influenced the discriminating characteristics of the investigated ambers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0003702816654087DOI Listing
August 2016

Unilateral NMR investigation of multifunctional treatments on stones based on colloidal inorganic and organic nanoparticles.

Magn Reson Chem 2015 Jan 1;53(1):64-77. Epub 2014 Sep 1.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica 'Annalaura Segre', Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (IMC-CNR), Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29,300, 00015, Monterotondo (Roma), Italy.

Consolidation and protection are among the most important treatments usually carried out in conservation of stone artifacts and monuments. In this paper, portable unilateral NMR and conventional techniques were used for investigating new multifunctional treatments based on tetraethoxysilane, silica, and polytetrafluoroethylene nanoparticles. The study was carried out on a very complex and heterogeneous porous stone such as tuff. NMR study allowed to obtain detailed information on the penetration depth of treatments, the hydrophobic effect, and changes in the open porosity caused by treatments. Physical and chemical inhomogeneities between the impregnated layers of tuff and the layers underneath were also detected. The average pores radius and pores interconnection obtained from NMR diffusion measurements were used for the first time to compare effects of different consolidating and/or protective treatments on stone. Because unilateral NMR technique is neither destructive nor invasive, investigation of treatments can be also carried out and optimized directly on buildings and monuments of interest for Cultural Heritage.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.4136DOI Listing
January 2015

Applications of nuclear magnetic resonance sensors to cultural heritage.

Sensors (Basel) 2014 Apr 21;14(4):6977-97. Epub 2014 Apr 21.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica "Annalaura Segre", Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, CNR Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria Km 29,300, 00015 Monterotondo (Rome), Italy.

In recent years nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) sensors have been increasingly applied to investigate, characterize and monitor objects of cultural heritage interest. NMR is not confined to a few specific applications, but rather its use can be successfully extended to a wide number of different cultural heritage issues. A breakthrough has surely been the recent development of portable NMR sensors which can be applied in situ for non-destructive and non-invasive investigations. In this paper three studies illustrating the potential of NMR sensors in this field of research are reported.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s140406977DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4029666PMC
April 2014

Non-invasive NMR stratigraphy of a multi-layered artefact: an ancient detached mural painting.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2013 Oct 27;405(26):8669-75. Epub 2013 Aug 27.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica Annalaura Segre, Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche (IMC), CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma 1, Via Salaria km 29,300, 00015, Monterotondo, Roma, Italy.

NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the procedure all became constitutive parts of the artefact. NMR measurements in situ enabled monitoring of the state of conservation of the artefact and planning of minimum representative sampling to validate results obtained in situ by solid-state NMR analysis of the samples. This analysis enabled chemical characterization of all organic materials. Use of reference compounds and prepared specimens assisted data interpretation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-013-7278-2DOI Listing
October 2013

Nuclear magnetic resonance to characterize and monitor Cultural Heritage.

Prog Nucl Magn Reson Spectrosc 2012 Jul 9;64:29-69. Epub 2011 Nov 9.

Magnetic Resonance Laboratory Annalaura Segre, Institute of Chemical Methodologies, CNR Research Area of Rome, Via Salaria km. 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, Rome, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnmrs.2011.11.001DOI Listing
July 2012

NMR depth profiles as a non-invasive analytical tool to probe the penetration depth of hydrophobic treatments and inhomogeneities in treated porous stones.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Jul 15;400(9):3151-64. Epub 2011 Apr 15.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica "Annalaura Segre" Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Monterotondo, Rome, Italy.

Hydrophobic treatment is one of the most important interventions usually carried out in the conservation of stone artifacts and monuments. The analytical study reported in this paper was aimed at answering general questions such as the penetration depth of a hydrophobic treatment into a porous material, its capability to impair the water absorption, how the presence of a treatment may change the open porosity available to the water, and how a treatment may affect the diffusion of water inside a porous structure. Also, inhomogeneities in treated stones due to sharp variations of the amount of the absorbed product in the porous material were evidenced and scaled. The results of this fully non-invasive analytical study were rationalized in terms of new parameters obtained by a suitable process of nuclear magnetic resonance data. These analytical parameters reported here for the first time, namely the hydrophobic efficiency, the penetration depth, and angles describing changes in slope in depth profiles, gave important information in assessing the performance of a treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-011-4968-5DOI Listing
July 2011

Unilateral NMR, 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy and micro-analytical techniques for studying the materials and state of conservation of an ancient Egyptian wooden sarcophagus.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Mar 8;399(9):3117-31. Epub 2010 Oct 8.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica Annalaura Segre Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00015 Monterotondo, RM, Italy.

A multi-technique approach was employed to study a decorated Egyptian wooden sarcophagus (XXV-XXVI dynasty, Third Intermediate Period), belonging to the Museo del Vicino Oriente of the Sapienza University of Rome. Portable non-invasive unilateral NMR was applied to evaluate the conservation state of the sarcophagus. Moreover, using unilateral NMR, a non-invasive analytical protocol was established to detect the presence of organic substances on the surface and/or embedded in the wooden matrix. This protocol allowed for an educated sampling campaign aimed at further investigating the state of degradation of the wood and the presence of organic substances by (13)C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectroscopy. The composition of the painted layer was analysed by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), Raman and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy (SERS/SERRS), infrared and GC-MS techniques, evidencing original components such as clay minerals, Egyptian green, indigo, natural gums, and also highlighting restoration pigments and alteration compounds. The identification of the wood, of great value for the reconstruction of the history of the artwork, was achieved by means of optical microscopy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4229-zDOI Listing
March 2011

Non-destructive mapping of dampness and salts in degraded wall paintings in hypogeous buildings: the case of St. Clement at mass fresco in St. Clement Basilica, Rome.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2010 Mar 22;396(5):1885-96. Epub 2010 Jan 22.

Laboratorio di Risonanza Magnetica Annalaura Segre, Istituto di Metodologie Chimiche, CNR, Area della Ricerca di Roma, Via Salaria Km. 29,300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo, Rome, Italy.

As is well known, the deterioration of wall paintings due to the capillary rise of water through the walls is a very widespread problem. In this paper, a study of microclimate monitoring, unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and evanescent-field dielectrometry (EFD) was applied to map non-destructively, in situ, and in a quantitative way the distribution of the moisture in an ancient deteriorated wall painting of the eleventh century. Both unilateral NMR and EFD are quite new, fully portable, and non-destructive techniques, and their combination is absolutely new. The approach reported here is proposed as a new analytical protocol to afford the problem of mapping, non-destructively, the moisture in a deteriorated wall painting in a hypogeous building such as that of the second level of St. Clement Basilica, Rome (Italy), where the use of IR thermography is impaired due to the environmental conditions, and the gravimetric tests are forbidden due to the preciousness of the artifact. The moisture distribution was mapped at different depths, from the very first layers of the painted film to a depth of 2 cm. It has also been shown how the map obtained in the first layers of the artwork is affected by the environmental conditions typical of a hypogeous building, whereas the maps obtained at higher depths are representative of the moisture due to the capillary rise of water from the ground. The quantitative analysis of the moisture was performed by calibrating NMR and EFD signals with purposely prepared specimens. This study may be applied before and after performing any intervention aimed at restoring and improving the state of conservation of this type of artwork and reducing the dampness or extracting salts (driven by the variation of moisture content) and monitoring the effectiveness of the performed interventions during the time. This protocol is applicable to any type of porous material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-009-3400-xDOI Listing
March 2010