Publications by authors named "Valeria Gonzalez"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of Partial Uncinectomy After Balloon Sinuplasty on Maxillary Sinus Irrigant Penetration: A Cadaveric Study.

OTO Open 2021 Jan-Mar;5(1):2473974X21989583. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Mayo Clinic in Florida, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Objective: The uncinate process may play a role in the amount of irrigation penetrance. In this cadaver study, we aimed to investigate if the addition of partial uncinectomy provides better maxillary sinus irrigation penetrance than balloon sinuplasty (BSP) alone.

Study Design: Cadaveric study.

Setting: Simulation laboratory at the Mayo Clinic in Florida.

Methods: Five fresh-frozen human cadaveric heads (10 sides) were used to assess maxillary sinus irrigation penetration after 3 interventions performed sequentially: irrigation penetrance with no intervention, irrigation after BSP, and irrigation after BSP and partial removal of the uncinate. Penetrance was recorded with intrasinus endoscopy and scored by 4 blinded observers using a scale from 0 (no irrigation) to 5 (fully irrigated). The diameter of the maxillary ostium was measured before and after BSP. Internal consistency was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha.

Results: Mean ostium size increased from 4.1 to 6.8 mm after BSP ( = .013). Cronbach's alpha was 0.93. The median scores of irrigation penetration after no intervention, BSP, and BSP and partial uncinectomy were 2.5, 3, and 4, respectively. We found a significantly higher penetrance following partial uncinectomy plus BSP versus BSP alone ( = .008). Both interventions had a statistically significant difference in irrigation penetrance as compared with no intervention ( = .0001).

Conclusion: Maxillary sinus irrigation penetration increased from baseline after BSP. The addition of a partial uncinectomy to the balloon dilation of the maxillary sinus was associated with a statistically significant increase in irrigation penetrance scores as compared with BSP alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2473974X21989583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863165PMC
January 2021

Testing the Δ-∑ hypothesis in the suboptimal choice task: Same delta with different probabilities of reinforcement.

J Exp Anal Behav 2020 09 28;114(2):233-247. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Education and Psychology, University of Aveiro, Portugal.

In a concurrent-chain procedure, pigeons choose between 2 initial-link stimuli; one is followed by terminal link stimuli that signal reliably whether food will be delivered after a delay; the other is followed by terminal link stimuli that do not signal whether food will be delivered after the delay. Pigeons prefer the former alternative even when it yields a lower overall probability of food. Recently, we proposed the Delta-Sigma (∆-∑) hypothesis to explain the effect: Preference depends on the difference (∆) between the reinforcement probabilities associated with the terminal link stimuli, and the overall probability of reinforcement (∑) associated with the alternative. The hypothesis predicts that, for constant ∑, animals should prefer alternatives with greater ∆ values regardless of the specific probabilities of reinforcement that determine ∆. In 2 experiments, we tested this prediction by comparing a ∆ = .5 against a ∆ = 0 alternative, with the former obtained with different pairs of reinforcement probabilities across conditions. The results supported the hypothesis when the 2 probabilities defining ∆ were significantly greater than 0, but not when one of them was close to 0. The results challenge our theoretical accounts of suboptimal choice and the variables considered to determine pigeons' preference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jeab.621DOI Listing
September 2020

Atrial Dyssynchrony Measured by Strain Echocardiography as a Marker of Proarrhythmic Remodeling and Oxidative Stress in Cardiac Surgery Patients.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2020 30;2020:8895078. Epub 2020 Dec 30.

Department of Morphophysiology, School of Medicine, National University of Cuyo, Centro Universitario, Mendoza 5500, Argentina.

Aging leads to structural and electrophysiological changes that increase the risk of postoperative atrial arrhythmias; however, noninvasive preoperative markers of atrial proarrhythmic conditions are still needed. This study is aimed at assessing whether interatrial dyssynchrony determined using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography relates to proarrhythmic structural and functional remodeling. A cohort of 45 patients in sinus rhythm referred for cardiac surgery was evaluated by echocardiography and surface electrocardiogram the day before the intervention. Transmembrane potential, connexin, and potassium channel distribution, inflammatory, and nitrooxidative markers were measured from right atrial tissue obtained from patients. A difference greater than 40 milliseconds between right and left atrial free wall contraction confirmed the presence of interatrial dyssynchrony in 21 patients. No difference in relation with age, previous diseases, and 2-dimensional echocardiographic findings as well as average values of global longitudinal right and left atrial strain were found between synchronic and dyssynchronic patients. Postoperative atrial fibrillation incidence increased from 8.3% in the synchronic group to 33.3% in the dyssynchronic ones. P wave duration showed no difference between groups. Action potentials from dyssynchronous patients decreased in amplitude, maximal rate of depolarization, and hyperpolarized. Duration at 30% of repolarization increased, being markedly shorter at 90% of repolarization. Only the dyssynchronous group showed early and delayed afterdepolarizations. Atrial tissue of dyssynchronous patients displayed lateralization of connexin 40 and increased connexin 43 expression and accumulation of tumor necrosis factor- in the intercalated disc. Tumor necrosis factor- did not colocalize, however, with lateralized connexin 40. Nitroxidative marks and K channels increased perivascularly and in myocytes. Our results demonstrate that, as compared to a traditional surface electrocardiogram, the novel noninvasive echocardiographic evaluation of interatrial dyssynchrony provides a better identification of nonaged-related proarrhythmic atrial remodeling with increased susceptibility to postoperative atrial fibrillation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/8895078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7787772PMC
December 2020

The functional equivalence of two variants of the suboptimal choice task: choice proportion and response latency as measures of value.

Anim Cogn 2021 Jan 8;24(1):85-98. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Education and Psychology, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal.

In the suboptimal-choice task, birds systematically choose the leaner but informative option (suboptimal) over the richer but non-informative option (optimal). The task has two variations. In the standard task, the optimal option includes two terminal link stimuli. In the original task, it includes a single terminal link stimulus. Two models, the temporal information account (Cunningham and Shahan, J Exp Psychol Anim Learn Cogn 44:1-22, 2018) and the ∆-∑ hypothesis (González et al., J Exp Anal Behav 113:591-608, 2020), presuppose that these procedures are equivalent, but no formal comparison is available. Here we test whether or not these procedures are functionally equivalent. One group of pigeons was trained with the standard procedure, another group with the original procedure, and a third group was trained with a hybrid of the other two (i.e., the two options were the optimal links of the standard and original procedures). Our findings indicate that the number of terminal link stimuli in the optimal option is inconsequential vis-à-vis choice. Moreover, our findings also indicate that latencies to respond are a sensitive metric of value and choice. As predicted by the Sequential Choice Model, we were able to predict simultaneous choices from the latencies of sequential choices and observed a substantial shortening of latencies during simultaneous choices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10071-020-01418-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Magnesium Salt, a Simple Strategy to Improve Methadone Analgesia in Chronic Pain: An Isobolographic Preclinical Study in Neuropathic Mice.

Front Pharmacol 2020 8;11:566. Epub 2020 May 8.

Laboratory of Neurobiology, Department of Biology, Faculty of Chemistry and Biology, University of Santiago of Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Analgesic efficacy of methadone in cancer and chronic non-cancer pains is greater than that of other opioids, probably because of its unique pharmacokinetics properties and also because it targets glutamatergic receptors in addition to µ-opioid receptors. However, methadone has drawbacks which are clearly related to dosing and treatment duration. The authors hypothesized that the antinociceptive efficacy of methadone could be synergistically potentiated by magnesium and copper salts in a preclinical mouse model of chronic pain, using the intraplantar formalin test as algesimetric tool. The spared nerve injury mice model was used to generate mononeuropathy. A low dose (0.25%) formalin was injected in the neuropathic limb in order to give rise only to Phase I response, resulting from direct activation by formalin of nociceptive primary afferents. Licking/biting of the formalin-injected limb was evaluated as nociceptive behavior during a 35-min observation period. Dose-response curves for intraperitoneal magnesium sulfate (10, 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg i.p.), copper sulfate (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg i.p.) and methadone (0.1, 0.3, 1, and 3 mg/kg i.p.) allowed to combine them in equieffective doses and to determine their interaction by isobolographic analysis. Magnesium sulfate, copper sulfate and methadone dose-dependently decreased the nociceptive response evoked by formalin injection, the respective ED being 76.38, 1.18, and 0.50 mg/kg i.p. Isobolographic analysis showed a superadditive interaction for magnesium and methadone. Indeed, despite that both ED are obviously equieffective, the ED for the MgSO4/methadone combination contained less than one third of the methadone having the ED for methadone alone. For the CuSO/methadone combination, the interaction was only additive. Extrapolated to clinical settings, the results suggest that magnesium salts might be used to improve synergistically the efficacy of methadone in neuropathy, which would allow to reduce the dose of methadone and its associated side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7225258PMC
May 2020

The Δ-∑ hypothesis: How contrast and reinforcement rate combine to generate suboptimal choice.

J Exp Anal Behav 2020 05 1;113(3):591-608. Epub 2020 Apr 1.

Department of Education and Psychology, University of Aveiro, Portugal.

When given a choice between two alternatives, each offering food after the same delay with different but signaled probabilities, pigeons often prefer the low probability alternative. This preference is surprising because pigeons fail to maximize the rate of food intake; they exhibit a suboptimal preference. We advance a new explanation, the Δ-∑ hypothesis, in which the difference in probability of reinforcement within terminal links (Δ) and the overall reinforcement probability rate of each alternative (∑) are the key variables responsible for such suboptimal preference. We tested the Δ-∑ hypothesis in two experiments. In Experiment 1, we manipulated the Δs while maintaining constant all other parameters of the task, in particular the ∑s. We predicted a preference for the alternative with the larger Δ. In Experiment 2, we examined the effect of the overall reinforcement probabilities, the ∑s, while maintaining constant all other parameters of the task, in particular the Δs. We predicted a preference for the larger ∑. The results of both experiments support the Δ-∑ hypothesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jeab.595DOI Listing
May 2020

Intensive Imaging Surveillance of Survivors of Breast Cancer May Increase Risk of Radiation-induced Malignancy.

Clin Breast Cancer 2019 06 23;19(3):e468-e474. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Medical Unit, Translational Research In Oncology (TRIO), Montevideo, Uruguay.

Background: Current clinical guidelines recommend mammography as the only imaging method for surveillance in asymptomatic survivors of early breast cancer (EBC). However, non-recommended tests are commonly used. We estimated the imaging radiation-induced malignancies (IRIM) risks in survivors of EBC undergoing different imaging surveillance models.

Materials And Methods: We built 5 theoretical models of imaging surveillance, from annual mammography only (model 1) to increasingly imaging-intensive approaches, including computed tomography (CT) scan, positron emission tomography-CT, bone scan, and multigated acquisition scan (models 2 through 5). Using the National Cancer Institute's Radiation Risk Assessment Tool, we compared the excess lifetime attributable cancer risk (LAR) for hypothetical survivors of EBC starting surveillance at the ages of 30, 60, or 75 years and ending at 81 years.

Results: For all age groups analyzed, there is a statistically significant increase in LAR when comparing model 1 with more intensive models. As an example, in a patient beginning surveillance at the age of 60 years, there is a 28.5-fold increase in the IRIM risk when comparing mammography only versus a schedule with mammography plus CT scan of chest-abdomen and bone scan. We found no differences when comparing models 2 through 5. LAR is higher when surveillance starts at a younger age, although the age effect was only statistically significant in model 1.

Conclusion: Non-recommended imaging during EBC surveillance can be associated with a significant increase in LAR. In addition to the lack of survival benefit, additional tests may have significant IRIM risks and should be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clbc.2019.01.003DOI Listing
June 2019

Polymorphisms Within RYR3 Gene Are Associated With Risk and Age at Onset of Hypertension, Diabetes, and Alzheimer's Disease.

Am J Hypertens 2018 06;31(7):818-826

Department of Health and Biomedical Sciences, College of Health Affairs, University of Texas Rio Grande Valley, Brownsville, Texas, USA.

Background: Hypertension affects 33% of Americans while type 2 diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD) affect 10% of Americans, respectively. Ryanodine receptor 3 gene (RYR3) codes for the RYR which functions to release stored endoplasmic reticulum calcium ions (Ca2+) to increase intracellular Ca2+ concentration. Increasing studies demonstrate that altered levels of intracellular Ca2+ affect cardiac contraction, insulin secretion, and neurodegeneration. In this study, we investigated associations of the RYR3 genetic variants with hypertension, AD, and diabetes.

Methods: Family data sets were used to explore association of RYR3 polymorphisms with risk and age at onset (AAO) of hypertension, diabetes, and AD.

Results: Family-based association tests using generalized estimating equations (FBAT-GEE) showed several unique or shared disease-1 associated variants in the RYR3 gene. Three single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs; rs2033610, rs2596164, and rs2278317) are significantly associated with risk for hypertension, diabetes, and AD. Two SNPs (rs4780174 and rs7498093) are significantly associated with AAO of the 3 diseases.

Conclusions: RYR3 variants are associated with hypertension, diabetes, and AD. Replication of these results of this gene in these 3 complex traits may help to better understand the genetic basis of calcium-signaling gene, RYR3 in association with risk and AAO of these diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpy046DOI Listing
June 2018

Floral nectaries in Sapindaceae s.s.: morphological and structural diversity, and their systematic implications.

Protoplasma 2017 Nov 10;254(6):2169-2188. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, 3400, Corrientes, Argentina.

We investigated the morphology and structure of the floral nectary in 11 Neotropical genera belonging to the subfamilies Dodonaeoideae and Paullinioideae (Sapindaceae) from southern South America representing three tribes (Dodonaeaeae, Paullinieae, and Melicocceae), in relation to other floral traits in species with contrasting morphological flower characteristics. Nectary organization was analyzed under light, stereoscopic, and scanning electron microscopes; Diplokeleba floribunda N.E. Br. was also observed using transmission electron microscopy. Our comparative data may contribute to the understanding of floral nectary evolution and systematic value in this family. The nectaries were studied in both staminate and pistillate flowers. All the floral nectaries are typical of Sapindaceae: extrastaminal, receptacular, structured, and persistent. The anatomical analysis revealed a differentiated secretory parenchyma and an inner non-secretory parenchyma; the nectary is supplied by phloem traces and, less frequently, by phloem and xylem traces. Nectar is secreted through nectarostomata of anomocytic type. The anatomical analysis showed the absence of nectary in the three morphs of Dodonaea viscosa flowers. Nectary ultrastructure is described in D. floribunda. In this species, the change in nectary color is related to progressive accumulation of anthocyanins during the functional phase. We found relatively small variation in the nectary structural characteristics compared with large variation in nectary morphology. The latter aspect agreed with the main infrafamilial groupings revealed by recent phylogenetic studies, so it is of current valuable systematic importance for Sapindaceae. In representatives of Paullinieae, the reduction of the floral nectary to 4-2 posterior lobes should be interpreted as a derived character state.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-017-1108-xDOI Listing
November 2017

Preventing the recovery of extinguished ethanol tolerance.

Behav Processes 2016 Mar 6;124:141-8. Epub 2016 Jan 6.

Departamento de Psicología, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

There is substantial evidence that drug-paired cues become associated with drug effects. From a Pavlovian perspective, these cues act as conditioned stimuli and elicit conditioned compensatory responses that contribute to drug tolerance. Here we report two experiments with rats in which we studied the extinction of the associative tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol. Experiment 1 evaluated whether changes in the temporal and physical contexts after extinction training provoke recovery of the extinguished tolerance. The results showed successful extinction, spontaneous recovery and renewal of the extinguished tolerance, but no summation of renewal and spontaneous recovery. Experiment 2 evaluated whether using massive extinction trials and delivering extinction in multiple contexts attenuates the renewal effect. The results showed that both manipulations reduced renewal of the extinguished tolerance to the ataxic effect of ethanol; however, these manipulations used in combination did not appear to be more effective in reducing recovery than each by itself. The present results may help guide further research that evaluates behavioral ploys to prevent the recovery of extinguished responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2016.01.004DOI Listing
March 2016

Modification of Docosahexaenoic Acid Composition of Milk from Nursing Women Who Received Alpha Linolenic Acid from Chia Oil during Gestation and Nursing.

Nutrients 2015 Aug 4;7(8):6405-24. Epub 2015 Aug 4.

Lipid Center, Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology (INTA), University of Chile, Av. El Líbano 5524, Macul, Santiago 8380453, Chile.

α-Linolenic acid (ALA) is the precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in humans, which is fundamental for brain and visual function. Western diet provides low ALA and DHA, which is reflected in low DHA in maternal milk. Chia oil extracted from chia (Salvia hispanica L.), a plant native to some Latin American countries, is high in ALA (up to 60%) and thereby is an alternative to provide ALA with the aim to reduce DHA deficits. We evaluated the modification of the fatty acid profile of milk obtained from Chilean mothers who received chia oil during gestation and nursing. Forty healthy pregnant women (22-35 years old) tabulated for food consumption, were randomly separated into two groups: a control group with normal feeding (n = 21) and a chia group (n = 19), which received 16 mL chia oil daily from the third trimester of pregnancy until the first six months of nursing. The fatty acid profile of erythrocyte phospholipids, measured at six months of pregnancy, at time of delivery and at six months of nursing, and the fatty acid profile of the milk collected during the first six months of nursing were assessed by gas-chromatography. The chia group, compared to the control group, showed (i) a significant increase in ALA ingestion and a significant reduction of linoleic acid (LA) ingestion, no showing modification of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA; (ii) a significant increase of erythrocyte ALA and EPA and a reduction of LA. AA and DHA were not modified; (iii) a increased milk content of ALA during the six months of nursing, whereas LA showed a decrease. AA and EPA were not modified, however DHA increased only during the first three months of nursing. Consumption of chia oil during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first three months of nursing transiently increases the milk content of DHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu7085289DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555128PMC
August 2015