Publications by authors named "Valentina Meucci"

48 Publications

Hepatic lead and copper concentrations in dogs with chronic hepatitis and their relationship with hematology, serum biochemistry, and histopathology.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

Veterinary Teaching Hospital "Mario Modenato," Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Although the influence of copper ([Cu]) on chronic hepatitis (CH) has been widely studied in dogs, little information is available about the accumulation of other metals.

Hypothesis/objectives: We assessed the concentration of lead ([Pb]) in the livers of dogs with CH with or without abnormal hepatic [Cu] to establish if any association existed between [Pb] and either hematologic or biochemical variables, fibrosis, necrosis and inflammation of the liver on histology.

Animals: Thirty-four dogs with CH that had hepatic [Cu] and [Pb] determined.

Methods: Retrospective review of medical records of dogs with CH and hepatic [Cu] and [Pb]. Chronic hepatitis was defined using current American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement guidelines. Hepatic [Cu] and [Pb] were determined using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. Dogs were divided into 2 groups based on [Cu]: <400 ppm (LoCu) and ≥400 ppm (HiCu).

Results: The median [Cu] and [Pb] were 357 ppm (range, 100-7743 ppm) and 58.7 (range, 6.89-224.4 ppm), respectively. Nineteen dogs had LoCu and 15 dogs had HiCu. Median [Pb] was significantly higher in HiCu compared to LoCu dogs (P < .001). Hepatic [Pb] and [Cu] were significantly correlated (rho = 0.7; P < .001). Dogs with microcytosis had higher [Pb] than did dogs with normal red cell volume (P = .02). Hepatic [Pb] was not correlated with either necroinflammatory or fibrosis scores.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Although additional studies are needed to better understand the clinical role of hepatic [Pb], dogs with abnormal hepatic [Cu] may also have higher hepatic [Pb]. In addition, in dogs with high hepatic [Pb], microcytosis may be present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16149DOI Listing
May 2021

The Mitral INsufficiency Echocardiographic score: A severity classification of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs.

J Vet Intern Med 2021 May 5;35(3):1238-1244. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Cardiology, Anicura Istituto Veterinario Novara, Granozzo con Monticello, Italy.

Background: There is no commonly shared severity score for myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) based on routinely acquired echocardiographic variables.

Hypothesis/objectives: To propose an easy-to-use echocardiographic classification of severity of MMVD in dogs.

Animals: Five hundred and sixty dogs with MMVD.

Methods: This was a retrospective, multicenter, observational study. The proposed Mitral INsufficiency Echocardiographic (MINE) score was based on 4 echocardiographic variables: left atrium-to-aorta ratio, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter normalized for body weight, fractional shortening, and E-wave transmitral peak velocity. Specific echocardiographic cutoffs were defined based on previous prognostic studies on MMVD, and severity scores were assigned as follows: mild (score: 4-5), moderate (score: 6-7), severe (score: 8-12), late stage (score: 13-14).

Results: Median survival time was significantly different (P < .05) between the proposed severity classes: mild (2344 days, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1877-2810 days), moderate (1882 days, 95% CI 1341-2434 days), severe (623 days, 95% CI 432-710 days), and late stage (157 days, 95% CI 53-257 days). A MINE score >8 was predictive of cardiac death (area under the curve = 0.85; P < .0001; sensitivity 87%, specificity 73%). In the multivariable analysis, all the echocardiographic variables of the MINE score were independent predictors of death because of heart disease (P < .001).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: The MINE score is a new easy-to-use echocardiographic classification of severity of MMVD, which has been proven to be clinically effective as it is associated with survival. This classification provides prognostic information and could be useful for an objective echocardiographic assessment of MMVD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.16131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163114PMC
May 2021

Evaluation of Different Methods to Estimate the Transfer of Immunity in Donkey Foals Fed with Colostrum of Good IgG Quality: A Preliminary Study.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Feb 15;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

The aims of the present study were to evaluate the correlation between IgG Serum Radial Immunodiffusion (SRID), Electrophoresis Gamma Globulins (EGG), Electrophoresis Total Protein (ETP) and the serum total protein (TP) analyzed by refractometry and by a dry chemistry analyzer (Biuret) and to estimate serum IgG concentrations using serum TP. A total of 36 samples collected at four different times (birth, 6, 12, 24 h after birth) from nine Amiata donkey foals were evaluated with SRID, EGG, ETP, serum TP Biuret and refractometry. SRID IgG concentration increased significantly over time until T12. Serum TP analyzed with refractometry, electrophoresis and Biuret showed a statistically significant difference between T0 and T6 vs. T12 and T24. A good or strong correlation was found between different tests performed. Equations to quantify serum IgG were created and can be used for estimating the donkey foals' serum IgG in the first day of life. Serum TP refractometry showed a high correlation with SRID IgG (0.91) which may be a particularly useful and economic instrument to estimate the transfer of immunity in donkey foals during the first day of life. Further studies evaluating a high number of animals are needed in order to set specific cut-off values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11020507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7919688PMC
February 2021

Rapid and simultaneous electrochemical method to measure copper and lead in canine liver biopsy.

MethodsX 2020 20;7:101154. Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, 56122 Via Livornese, San Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy.

The conventional analytical techniques used for the quantitative analysis of heavy metals in animal tissues are the atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) and the inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These methods involve high cost, skilled personnel and long analysis times. Several studies have shown the applicability of electrochemical transducer coupled to disposable screen-printed electrodes (SPE) for measuring metals. The aim of the present study was to applicate and validate a simple and fast protocol for the simultaneous measurement of Cu and Pb concentrations in canine liver biopsy, coupling a simple digestion procedure with electrochemical stripping analysis. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) coupled to disposable SPE was employed as fast and sensitive method for metals detection. Samples were digested with hydrogen peroxide/hydrochloric acid mixture for 1 h coupled to solid phase purification with carbon columns. Instrumental precision, digestion procedure accuracy and limits of detections were evaluated. To validate the proposed method the metal concentrations have also been determined by AAS. Instrumental precision and digestion method accuracy were less than 15.3% and 16.8% for Cu and Pb, respectively. The limits of detection were 10 and 6 mg/kg dry weight in liver samples for Cu and Pb, respectively. The results obtained by the electrochemical method are in agreement with those of the reference method. The obtained results showed a reliable approach for Cu and Pb detection simultaneously with good sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The simple sample pre-treatment together with the low cost makes this approach particularly appealing for Cu and Pb quantification for diagnostic purposes.•Simultaneous determination of Cu and Pb concentrations in canine liver biopsy.•Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) with screen-printed electrodes (SPE) coupled to an acid digestion protocol.•Cu and Pb were measured with a very good sensitivity and accuracy.•Good agreement with AAS reference method.•Low cost, fast and sensitive method for diagnostic purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.101154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7701836PMC
November 2020

Evaluation of Protein Carbonyl Content in Healthy and Sick Hospitalized Horses.

Front Vet Sci 2020 27;7:582886. Epub 2020 Oct 27.

Department of Veterinary Science, Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Literature on the protein carbonyl content (PCC) evaluation in horses is scarce, thus the aims were to evaluate the PCC in healthy and SIRS (Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome) horses and to investigate the performances of PCC in terms of sensitivity, specificity, and likelihood ratio in identifying SIRS positive and negative horses. A total of 72 adult horses were included. All the horses underwent to a complete physical examination, blood analysis, and were evaluated for the SIRS status. Blood samples were collected once in healthy horses and at admission time, then 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after admission in sick animals. PCC was evaluated using a method previously described. Data were statistically analyzed to verify differences in PCC between healthy vs. SIRS positive or SIRS negative horses at all sampling time. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed to verify sensitivity and specificity of PCC in the diagnosis of SIRS-positive and SIRS negative horses. The healthy horses were standardbred mares with a median age of 8.5 years. The sick horses were 31/54 females, 16/54 geldings, and 7/54 stallions of different breeds and with a median age of 12 years old. Eight out of 54 sick horses were SIRS negative, while 46/54 were SIRS positive. Statistically significant differences were obtained between healthy and SIRS positive horses, while no differences were observed between healthy and SIRS negative horses at any sampling time. The best cutoff value of PCC to discriminate between SIRS positive, SIRS negative, and healthy horses, the sensitivity and specificity of cutoff point, the area under receiver operating characteristic curve, the 95% confidence intervals, and the likelihood ratio were reported. We found higher PCC values in sick SIRS-positive horses vs. healthy ones with a decrement over time, while no differences at admission, nor during the observational period, were obtained in sick but SIRS-negative horses. The value of 0.049 nmol/ml/mg is reported as a potential cutoff for the diagnosis of SIRS positivity vs. healthy horses with a sensibility of 74.5% and a specificity of 72.2%. In conclusion, PCC seems to be a sensitive and specific marker for SIRS in horses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2020.582886DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652898PMC
October 2020

Mammary Cistern Size during the Dry Period in Healthy Dairy Cows: A Preliminary Study for an Ultrasonographic Evaluation.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Nov 10;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, via Livornese snc, San Piero a Grado, 56122 Pisa, Italy.

We evaluated the udder cistern (UC) size during the dry period using ultrasound. Forty healthy quarters were evaluated in both the longitudinal and cross-section of the UC. Quarters were evaluated at the drying-off (T0) and 24 h later (T1), then regularly until the end of the dry period (T7-T58), during the colostrum production phase (TCPP) and at 7 days in milking (T7PP). The Spearman test was applied to find the correlation between the ultrasonographic UC size (UUCS) assessment and time. The Friedman test and Dunn's test for multiple comparisons as a post-hoc test were performed to compare the forequarter and hindquarter cross-sections (FQCSs and HQCSs, respectively) and the forequarter and hindquarter longitudinal sections (FQLSs and HQLSs, respectively) at T0 vs. T58 vs. TCPP vs. T7PP. A total of 440 images were evaluated. A negative linear correlation between time and FQCS and FQLS (r = -0.95; < 0.0004) and between time and HQCS and HQLS (r = -0.90; < 0.002) was found. The UUCS decreased throughout the dry period, starting to increase at the beginning of the next lactation. Measuring the UUCS provides useful information for monitoring the dry period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10112082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698221PMC
November 2020

Novel organ-specific effects of Ketoprofen and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen on toxicological response transcripts and their functional products in salmon.

Aquat Toxicol 2020 Dec 5;229:105677. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway. Electronic address:

Racemic ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are widely used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and commonly detected in the aquatic environment. The present study has evaluated the toxicological effects of RS-KP and S(+)-KP on biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in gills and liver of Atlantic salmon. Fish were exposed for 10 days using different concentrations of RS-KP (1, 10 and 100 μg/L) and S(+)-KP (0.5, 5 and 50 μg/L). Biotransformation and oxidative stress responses were analysed at both transcript and functional levels. In the gills, significant inhibitory effect at transcriptional and enzymatic levels were observed for biotransformation and oxidative stress responses. On the contrary, biotransformation responses were significantly increased at transcriptional and translational levels in the liver, while the associated enzymatic activities did not parallel this trend and were inhibited and further demonstrated by principal component analysis (PCA). Our findings showed that both compounds produced comparable toxicological effects, by producing organ-specific effect differences. RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not bioaccumulate in fish muscle, either due to rapid metabolism or excretion as a result of their hydrophobic properties. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects observed in the gills suggest that these drugs may not undergo first pass metabolism, that might result to downstream differences in toxicological outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105677DOI Listing
December 2020

Ochratoxin A Levels in Tissues of Wild Boars () from Northern Italy.

Toxins (Basel) 2020 11 8;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Parma, 43126 Parma, Italy.

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin produced by and , capable of contaminating several foodstuffs. OTA damages primarily the kidneys, and is suspected to be a carcinogenic substance, thus maximum levels for OTA in foodstuffs have been established in the EU. Italian Ministry of Health suggested a maximum level of 1 μg/kg OTA in pork meat and derived products. In this study, OTA concentrations in liver, kidney, and muscle of 64 wild boars () killed in two areas (area A and B) of Parma province (northern Italy), characterized by different habitat types, were assessed by HPLC-FLD technique. OTA was detected in 54% liver, 52% kidney, and 16% muscle samples. OTA levels were significantly higher in liver and kidney compared with muscle, and were above 1 μg/kg in 19 liver, 17 kidney, and 4 muscle samples. OTA levels in wild boars from area A resulted significantly higher with respect to those from area B, suggesting an environmental influence on OTA contamination in wild boars. This study seems to confirm that wild boar meat is a potential source of OTA, thus monitoring the presence of this mycotoxin in game meat might be recommended to prevent risks for human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins12110706DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7695140PMC
November 2020

Procalcitonin Detection in Veterinary Species: Investigation of Commercial ELISA Kits.

Animals (Basel) 2020 Aug 26;10(9). Epub 2020 Aug 26.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy.

In human medicine, procalcitonin (PCT), the precursor of calcitonin, is used for the rapid identification of the origin and severity of sepsis. In veterinary medicine, PCT has been studied in horses, cattle, and dogs, but the use of PCT in diagnostic and/or prognostic settings is not possible because of the lack of validated assays to obtain reference ranges. The aim of the present study was the investigation of commercially available ELISA kits for the detection of canine and equine PCT in plasma samples. Validation of the ELISA kits was performed by using species-specific recombinant proteins spiked both in plasma and buffer samples; linearity, limit of detection (LOD), recovery, and intra-assay and inter-assay variability were calculated. Moreover, clinical samples obtained from sick and healthy animals were also analyzed with the tested kits. Canine PCT was measured with a recombinant canine and a canine PCT ELISA kit. Equine PCT was measured with an equine and a human ELISA PCT kit. Our data demonstrate that the canine recombinant PCT ELISA kit can be used to measure canine PCT in plasma samples, showing an intra-assay and inter-assay coefficient of variation less than 20% and a LOD of 11 pg/mL, whereas the present results do not support the use of the canine PCT ELISA kit. The human PCT ELISA kit is suitable to detect equine PCT with a LOD of 56 ng/mL, whereas the equine PCT ELISA kit did not detect recombinant equine PCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10091511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552142PMC
August 2020

Evaluation of jennies' colostrum: IgG concentrations and absorption in the donkey foals. A preliminary study.

Heliyon 2020 Aug 3;6(8):e04598. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Viale delle Piagge 2, 56100, Pisa, Italy.

Immunoglobulin type G (IgG) concentration both in jennies' colostrum and in serum of donkey foals are mostly unknown in the first 24 h after delivery. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the IgG concentrations of colostrum during the first 24 h of lactation of Amiata jennies, the absorption of colostrum and the weekly body weight gain of the donkey foals. IgG concentrations were assessed in the jennies' colostrum and in the serum of donkey foals. Colostrum was collected in 9 jennies ready after delivery, and at 6, 12, 24 h after foaling from both halves. Serum was collected at the same sampling times from 9 donkey foals. Donkey foals were weighted at birth and then weekly until the 28 days of life. Temporal changes of IgG concentrations in dam's colostrum and in donkey foal serum were analyzed by a linear regression model and a general linear model, respectively. Results showed that colostrum IgG concentration were similar between the left and the right half. Colostrum IgG concentrations decreased continuously throughout the time in all jennies by 0.0244 Log mg/mL hour. Serum IgG concentrations in donkey foals at birth was significantly lower compared to other times. No correlation was found between the colostrum IgG concentrations and the average weekly body weight gain of the donkey foal. The pattern of colostrum IgG levels in jennies and serum IgG concentration in donkey foals seem to be similar to what reported for equine. However, the donkey foals seem to be less agammaglobulinemic at birth compared to the horse foal. The pattern and both serum and colostrum concentrations evaluated in the Amiata donkeys were slightly different from results reported in other donkey breeds, underlying the importance of setting references specific to breed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7399250PMC
August 2020

Serum homocysteine concentration in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy.

J Vet Sci 2020 Jul;21(4):e47

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, 56122 Pisa, Italy.

Background: Homocysteine (HCY) was evaluated in healthy and chronic enteropathic dogs, however no studies on dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy are available.

Objectives: The aim was to evaluate serum HCY concentrations and its prognostic role in dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy compared to healthy dogs.

Methods: Serum HCY concentration was statistically compared between 24 healthy dogs and 29 dogs with immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy. Correlation analyses between serum total protein, albumin (ALB), C-reactive protein (CRP), folate and cobalamin, and serum HCY concentration were performed in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs.

Results: The associations between serum HCY concentration and clinical, histological, endoscopic scores and follow-up were evaluated. Mean serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs compared to control dogs (30.22 ± 8.67 μmol/L vs. 5.26 ± 2.78 μmol/L; < 0.0001). No association between serum HCY concentration and total protein, ALB, CRP, folate concentration as well as, clinical score, histological and endoscopic scores was found. A negative correlation between serum HCY concentration and cobalamin was noted ( = 0.0025, = -0.54). No significant difference in HCY was found between responsive and non-responsive dogs or between survivors and non-survivors.

Conclusions: Although, serum HCY concentration was higher in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathy, its prognostic value remains unclear. However, further prospective, large-scale studies are warranted to better investigate the possible prognostic role of HCY in immunosuppressant-responsive enteropathic dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e47DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7402937PMC
July 2020

Impacts of salicylic acid in Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to warming conditions.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2020 Nov 25;80:103448. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Italy. Electronic address:

While many studies have been conducted on drug-inducing alterations in the aquatic environment, little is known about their interaction with climate change, such as rising temperatures. To increase knowledge on this topic, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to two different temperatures 17 ± 1 °C (control) and 21 ± 1 °C in the absence and presence of salicylic acid (SA) (4 mg/L) for 28 days. Salicylic acid in the water and tissues was measured and its impact reported through biomarker responses including: energy metabolism (electron transport system (ETS) activity, glycogen (GLY), protein (PROT) and lipids (LIP) contents), oxidative stress markers (activity of the enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)), glutathione balance between the reduced and the oxidized forms (GSH/GSSG), and damage to membrane lipids (lipid peroxidation - LPO). The mussels responded differently if the stresses imposed were single or combined, with greater impacts when both stressors were acting together. Contaminated mussels exposed to high temperatures were unable to increase their metabolic capacity to restore their defence mechanisms, reducing the expenditure of LIP. In the presence of SA and increased temperature antioxidant defences respond differently, with higher SOD levels and inhibition of CAT. The present study highlights not only the negative impact of warming and SA, but especially how temperature increase will promote the impact of SA in M. galloprovincialis, which under predicted climate change scenarios may greatly impair population maintenance and ecosystem biodiversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2020.103448DOI Listing
November 2020

Evaluation of Symmetric Dimethylarginine (SDMA) in Dogs with Acute Pancreatitis.

Vet Sci 2020 Jun 1;7(2). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Via Livornese Lato Monte, 56121 Pisa, Italy.

Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) is considered an important biomarker of kidney dysfunction. The aims of the study were to evaluate SDMA in dogs with acute pancreatitis (AP) and its relationship with the presence of kidney injury and mortality. A cohort study including fifty-four dogs with AP diagnosed using compatible clinical and laboratory parameters, abnormal SNAP cPL and compatible abdominal ultrasound within 48 h from admission, was conducted. Dogs with history of renal and/or urinary diseases were excluded, along with dogs exposed to nephrotoxic drugs. Serum urea and creatinine and urinary output (UO) were recorded. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was diagnosed and graded using International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) guidelines. SDMA was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Fifty-four dogs were included and divided in non-AKI ( = 37) and AKI dogs ( = 17). Twenty-three dogs (14 non-AKI) had SDMA > 15 μg/dL. Median SDMA was higher in AKI dogs than non-AKI dogs (25.7 vs. 13.93 μg/dL; = 0.03). Dogs with normal creatinine (AP and AKI 1 dogs) had SDMA above reference range in 38% and 33% of cases, respectively. In AKI dogs, SDMA and creatinine were positively correlated ( = 0.006 = 0.7). SDMA was not significantly different between survivors and non-survivors. Although further studies are warranted, SDMA may be a useful tool in canine AP, as a high SDMA may be related to subclinical kidney impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7020072DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356378PMC
June 2020

Biochemical and physiological responses of two clam species to Triclosan combined with climate change scenario.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jul 23;724:138143. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal. Electronic address:

Ocean acidification and warming are among the man-induced factors that most likely impact aquatic wildlife worldwide. Besides effects caused by temperature rise and lowered pH conditions, chemicals of current use can also adversely affect aquatic organisms. Both climate change and emerging pollutants, including toxic impacts in marine invertebrates, have been investigated in recent years. However, less information is available on the combined effects of these physical and chemical stressors that, in nature, occur simultaneously. Thus, this study contrasts the effects caused by the antimicrobial agent and plastic additive, Triclosan (TCS) in the related clams Ruditapes philippinarum (invasive) and Ruditapes decussatus (native) and evaluates if the impacts are influenced by combined temperature and pH modifications. Organisms were acclimated for 30 days at two conditions (control: 17 °C; pH 8.1 and climate change scenario: 21 °C, pH 7.7) in the absence of the drug (experimental period I) followed by a 7 days exposure under the same water physical parameters but either in absence (unexposed) or presence of TCS at 1 μg/L (experimental period II). Biochemical responses covering metabolic, oxidative defences and damage-related biomarkers were contrasted in clams at the end of experimental period II. The overall picture showed a well-marked antioxidant activation and higher TCS bioaccumulation of the drug under the forecasted climate scenario despite a reduction on respiration rate and unaltered metabolism in the exposed clams. Since clams are highly consumed shellfish, the consequences for higher tissue bioaccumulation of anthropogenic chemicals to final consumers should be alerted not only at present conditions but more significantly under predicted climatic conditions for humans but also for other components of the marine trophic chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138143DOI Listing
July 2020

Behavioral Therapy and Fluoxetine Treatment in Aggressive Dogs: A Case Study.

Animals (Basel) 2020 May 11;10(5). Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Turin, Largo Braccini 2, 10095 Grugliasco (TO), Italy.

Canine aggression is a major concern, affecting millions of people worldwide, and treatment can be challenging even for skilled veterinarians. Empiric use of fluoxetine is sometimes attempted, although few data regarding long-term effects in aggressive dogs are available. The aim of the study was to investigate clinical effectiveness of fluoxetine (1.5 mg/kg/die PO) combined with a behavior modification program for treatment of canine dominance-related aggression. Circulating levels of fluoxetine, norfluoxetine, and serotonin (5-HT) were also measured. Eight dogs with a diagnosis of dominance aggression (owner-directed) were enrolled. Before treatment (T0), and after one (T1), two (T2), four (T3), and six (T4) months of fluoxetine administration, clinical outcomes were graded using a five-point frequency scale (0-4), and blood samples were collected to measure fluoxetine/norfluoxetine (high-performance liquid chromatography) and 5-HT (ELISA) levels. Following treatment, a decrease in behavioral test scores was observed at T1-T4. Increasing concentrations of circulating fluoxetine and norfluoxetine were measured throughout the follow-up. Correlation between norfluoxetine levels and clinical scores was observed at T4. Starting from T1, a significant decrease in 5-HT levels was observed. Our data suggest that fluoxetine (1.5 mg/kg/day) when associated with behavior treatment is effective in controlling canine aggression over a six-month period, and that, in dogs norfluoxetine levels seem reliable in predicting clinical efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani10050832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278467PMC
May 2020

Evaluation of asymmetric dimethylarginine as an inflammatory and prognostic marker in dogs with acute pancreatitis.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 May 7;34(3):1144-1149. Epub 2020 May 7.

Veterinary Teaching Hospital "Mario Modenato," Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been proposed as a severity marker in humans with acute pancreatitis (AP).

Objectives: To evaluate ADMA in dogs with AP compared with healthy dogs and its association with severity of disease, mortality, and indicators of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), including serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration, WBC count, and band neutrophils.

Animals: Fifty-four dogs with AP and a control group (CG) of 28 healthy dogs.

Methods: Cohort study including dogs with AP diagnosed using clinical and laboratory variables, abnormal canine pancreatic lipase (cPL) concentration, and compatible abdominal ultrasound examination findings performed within 48 hours of admission. Canine AP severity (CAPS) was calculated. Serum concentration of ADMA was measured using high performance liquid chromatography. Blood donor-, staff-, and student-owned dogs were enrolled in the CG.

Results: Dogs with AP had higher median admission serum ADMA concentrations compared with the CG (62 versus 48.5 μg/dL; P = .003). Dogs with CAPS ≥11 had higher serum ADMA concentrations than did dogs with CAPS <11 (92 versus 54.6 μg/dL P = .009). Univariable analysis for mortality, CAPS score, band neutrophils, CRP, and ADMA were included in multivariable logistic regression, in which only ADMA was associated with mortality (P = .02). Survivors had a significant decrease in ADMA at first reevaluation compared to admission (P = .02).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Because serum ADMA concentrations were higher in AP dogs compared with the CG, it may have value as a biomarker in the diagnosis of AP in dogs. In addition, because ADMA was associated with mortality, it may have prognostic value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7255674PMC
May 2020

Sonographic Evaluation of Medial Iliac Lymph Nodes-to-Aorta Ratio in Dogs.

Vet Sci 2020 Feb 11;7(1). Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pisa, 56100 Pisa, Italy.

Medial iliac lymph nodes drain many districts and are easy to identify during an ultrasound examination of the abdomen. Since there are no reference values for their size in healthy dogs, the aim of this work was to evaluate the size of the medial iliac lymph nodes by using a ratio with the aortic diameter and find a reference range. The population was divided into group A (healthy dogs) and group B, with diseases of the medial iliac lymph nodes. The ratio of length, height and thickness of the medial iliac lymph nodes with the diameter of the aorta were calculated and underwent statistical analysis, < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Sixty-three patients were enrolled in group A, and 37 in group B. Significant differences were found between the ratio of sick and healthy patients and neoplastic and healthy patients. No significant difference was found between healthy and inflammatory patients. The best cut-off value to discriminate sick and healthy patients was 0.57, with a sensitivity of 78% and a specificity of 71%. The cut-off value of neoplastic and healthy patients was 0.69, with a sensitivity of 89.47% and a specificity of 84.13%. This value is highly predictive of neoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci7010022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7158673PMC
February 2020

Combined effects of salinity changes and salicylic acid exposure in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Sci Total Environ 2020 May 20;715:136804. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Italy.

Pharmaceuticals and Personal care products (PPCPs) are frequently released into several marine matrices, representing significant environmental and ecotoxicological risks. Among the widest spread PPCPs in aquatic systems is Salicylic acid (SA), with known negative effects on marine and freshwater species. Nevertheless, the toxicity resulting from these emerging pollutants, including SA, together with climate change has still received little attention up to date. Among climate change related factors salinity is one that most affects aquatic organisms. To better understand the combined impacts of SA and salinity, the present study evaluated the biochemical alterations induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels exposed to SA and different salinity levels, acting individually and in combination. The effects observed clearly highlighted that cellular damages were mainly observed at higher salinity (35), with no additive or synergistic effects derived from the combined presence of SA. Higher antioxidant capacity of mussels in the presence of SA may prevent increased LPO levels in comparison to uncontaminated mussels. Nevertheless, in the presence of SA mussels revealed loss of redox balance, regardless of the salinity level. Furthermore, mussels exposed to SA at control salinity showed increased metabolic capacity which decreased when exposed to salinities 25 and 35. These findings may indicate the protective capacity of mussels towards higher stressful conditions, with lower energy reserves expenditure when in the presence of SA and salinities out of their optimal range. Although limited cellular damages were observed, changes on mussel's redox balance, antioxidant mechanisms and metabolism derived from the combined exposure to SA and salinity changes may compromise mussel's growth and reproduction. Overall, the present study highlights the need to investigate the impacts induced by pollutants under present and future climate change scenarios, towards a more realistic environmental risk assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.136804DOI Listing
May 2020

Toxic impacts induced by Sodium lauryl sulfate in Mytilus galloprovincialis.

Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 2020 04 9;242:110656. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences, University of Messina, Italy.

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are continuously dispersed into the environment, as a result of human and veterinary use, reaching aquatic coastal systems and inhabiting organisms. However, information regarding to toxic effects of these compounds towards marine invertebrates is still scarce, especially in what regards to metabolic capacity and oxidative status alterations induced in bivalves after chronic exposure. In the present study, the toxic impacts of Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), an anionic surfactant widely used as an emulsifying cleaning agent in household and cosmetics, were evaluated in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis, after exposure for 28 days to different concentrations (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 mg/L). For this, effects on mussels respitation rate, metabolic capacity and oxidative status were evaluated. The obtained results indicate a significant decrease on mussel's respiration rate after exposure to different SLS concentrations, an alteration that was accompanied by a decrease of bioconcentration factor along the increasing exposure gradient, especially at the highest exposure concentration. Nonetheless, the amount of SLS accumulated in organisms originated alterations in mussel's metabolic performance, with higher metabolic capacity up to 2.0 mg/L followed by a decrease at the highest tested concentration (4.0 mg/L). Mussels exposed to SLS revealed limited antioxidant defense mecanhisms but cellular damage was only observed at the highest exposure concentration (4.0 mg/L). In fact, up to 2.0 mg/L of SLS limited toxic impacts were observed, namely in terms of oxidative stress and redox balance. However, since mussel's respiration rate was greatly affected by the presence of SLS, the present study may highlight the potential threat of SLS towards marine bivalves, limiting their filtration capacity and, thus, affecting their global physiological development (including growth and reproduction) and ultimely their biochemical performance (afecting their defense capacity towards stressful conditons).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.110656DOI Listing
April 2020

A prospective multicenter observational study of Viperidae polyvalent immune F(ab') antivenom administration for the treatment of viper envenomation in dogs.

J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio) 2020 Jan 19;30(1):34-40. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

Sclavo Diagnostics International, Sovicille, Italy.

Objective: To test an equine-derived polyvalent viperid antivenom (EPVA) in the treatment of dogs with evidence of viper envenomation.

Design: Prospective, multicenter observational study.

Setting: Veterinary emergency and critical care hospitals.

Animals: A total of 82 client-owned dogs with progressive clinical signs after viperid snakebite were enrolled in the study.

Interventions: Equine-derived polyvalent viperid antivenom was administered at a dosage of 1 mL/kg body weight, either by IV infusion or SC injection.

Measurements And Main Results: A standardized snakebite severity score (SSS) was used to characterize the severity of envenomation and the clinical course after EPVA treatment. Most dogs had improved SSS both at 4 (65.8%) and 8 hours (81.7%) following EPVA administration. Five dogs died. At the 4-week assessment, 3 dogs had slightly abnormal hematological or coagulation parameters; all other surviving dogs showed no abnormalities. Antivenom-related acute or intermediate reactions occurred in 12 dogs (14.6%).

Conclusions: In the first study on antivenom in dogs in Italy, the effects of progressive viper envenomation were stabilized or reversed in the large majority of dogs receiving EPVA, as confirmed by the SSS analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vec.12917DOI Listing
January 2020

The influence of climate change related factors on the response of two clam species to diclofenac.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2020 Feb 23;189:109899. Epub 2019 Nov 23.

Instituto de Ciencias Del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003, Barcelona, Spain.

Diclofenac (DIC) is one of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with higher consumption rates, used in both human and veterinary medicine. Previous studies already demonstrated the presence of this drug in aquatic environments and adverse effects towards inhabiting organisms. However, with the predictions of ocean acidification and warming, the impacts induced by DIC may differ from what is presently known and can be species-dependent. Thus, the present study aimed to comparatively assess the effects caused by DIC in the clams Ruditapes philippinarum and Ruditapes decussatus and evaluate if these impacts were influenced by pH and temperature. For this, organisms were acclimated for 30 days at two different temperature and pH (control conditions: pH 8.1, 17 °C; climate change forecasted scenario: pH 7.7, 20 °C) in the absence of drugs (experimental period I) followed by 7 days exposure under the same water physical parameters but in absence or presence of the pharmaceutical drug (at 1 μg/L, experimental period II). Biochemical responses covering metabolic capacity, oxidative stress and damage-related biomarkers were contrasted in clams at the end of the second experimental period. The results showed that under actual conditions, R. philippinarum individuals exposed to DIC presented enhanced antioxidant activities and reduced their respiration rate compared with non-contaminated clams. When exposed to the predicted climate change conditions, a similar response was observed in contaminated clams, but in this case clams increased their metabolic activities probably to fight the stress caused by the combination of both stressors. When R. decussatus was exposed to DIC, even at actual pH and temperature conditions, their antioxidant defences were also elevated but their baseline enzymatic activities were also naturally higher in respect to R. philippinarum. Although clams may use different strategies to prevent DIC damage, both clam species showed under low pH and high temperature limited oxidative stress impacts in line with a lower DIC bioaccumulation. The present findings reveal that predicted climate change related factors may not enhance the impacts of DIC in Ruditapes clams in a species-dependent manner although both displayed particular mechanisms to face stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.109899DOI Listing
February 2020

Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by plasma clearance of iohexol in healthy horses of various ages.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 11 30;33(6):2765-2769. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Veterinary Science, Veterinary Teaching Hospital "Mario Modenato", University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: Plasma clearance of iohexol is a reliable method to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The relationship between aging and GFR in horses is unclear.

Hypothesis/objectives: To compare GFR estimated by iohexol clearance in horses of different ages.

Animals: Twenty-one clinically healthy horses were enrolled.

Methods: Prospective study. Groups: (A) composed by 8 young horses (≤14 years old) with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL, (B) by 7 aged horses (≥20 years old) with serum creatinine <1.5 mg/dL, and (C) by 6 aged horses (≥20 years old) with serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL. Iohexol was injected (75.5 mg/kg) through an IV catheter, and plasma samples were collected 5, 30, and 90 minutes later. Plasma clearance of iohexol was obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet method.

Results: The GFR was 2.6, 2.1, and 1.45 mL/min/kg (median value) in Groups A, B, and C, respectively. Statistical analysis showed differences between Group A versus B and A versus C for urea, and A versus C for creatinine and GFR.

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Glomerular filtration rate was significantly reduced in aged horses with serum creatinine ≥1.5 mg/dL compared to young horses with creatinine <1.5 mg/dL; no differences were obtained between young and aged horses with creatinine <1.5 mg/dL. Glomerular filtration rate evaluation should be considered in aged horses even if the plasma creatinine values are normal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15642DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6872606PMC
November 2019

Biochemical and physiological responses induced in Mytilus galloprovincialis after a chronic exposure to salicylic acid.

Aquat Toxicol 2019 Sep 16;214:105258. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Chemical, Biological, Pharmaceutical and Environmental Sciences University of Messina, Italy.

A vast variety of substances currently reaches the aquatic environment, including newly developed chemicals and products. Lack of appropriate analytical methods for trace determinations in aquatic ecosystem compartments and lack of information regarding their toxicity explains existing regulation gaps. However, suspicion of their toxicity assigned them as Contaminants of Emerging Concern (CECs). Among CECs are Pharmaceuticals including Salicylic Acid (SA), which is the active metabolite of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; aspirin). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential effects of SA on the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. For this, organisms were exposed for 28 days to different concentrations of SA (0.005; 0.05; 0.5 and 5 mg/L), resembling low to highly polluted sites, after which different physiological and biochemical parameters were evaluated to assess organism's respiration rate, neurotoxic, metabolic and oxidative stress status. Our results clearly showed that SA strongly reduced the respiration capacity of mussels. Also, SA inhibited the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes, but increased the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), which prevented the occurrence of lipid peroxidation (LPO). Nevertheless, oxidative stress was confirmed by the strong decrease of the ratio between reduce glutathione (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in contaminated mussels. Moreover, neurotoxicity was observed in mussels exposed to SA. Overall, this study demonstrates the metabolic, neurotoxic and oxidative stress impacts of SA in M. galloprovincialis, which may result in negative consequences at the population level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2019.105258DOI Listing
September 2019

Determination of Prolactin in Canine Saliva: Is it Possible to Use a Commercial ELISA kit?

Animals (Basel) 2019 Jul 4;9(7). Epub 2019 Jul 4.

Dipartimento di ScienzeVeterinarie, Università di Pisa, 56124 Pisa, Italy.

Prolactin has been reported to be a remarkable index of stress response, both acute and chronic, in several species. The use of biological matrixes other than blood is receiving increasing interest in the study of hormones, due to the lower invasiveness in collection. This research aimed to investigate the possibility of using a commercial ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) kit for measuring canine prolactin in blood for the quantification of canine prolactin in saliva. Study 1 consisted of a validation protocol, using saliva samples collected from lactating and non-lactating dogs. Study 2 was conducted to investigate a possible correlation between prolactin concentration in saliva and plasma in sheltered dogs by using the same kit. Prolactin values were reliably read only when they came from blood samples, not from saliva, but tended to be low in most of the cases. Study 1 showed that saliva had a matrix effect. In study 2, saliva prolactin levels were low and in 42.9% of cases, not readable. No correlation between prolactin values in plasma and saliva was found (ρ=0.482; p=0.274). These findings suggested that the determination of prolactin in dog saliva through an ELISA kit created for measuring prolactin in dog blood was unreliable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani9070418DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6680982PMC
July 2019

Evaluation of glomerular filtration rate estimation by means of plasma clearance of iohexol in domestic rabbits ().

Am J Vet Res 2019 Jun;80(6):525-532

Objective: To evaluate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation by means of plasma clearance of iohexol (IOX) in domestic rabbits and to assess accuracy of limited-sampling models for GFR estimation.

Animals: 6 healthy domestic rabbits ().

Procedures: Each rabbit received IOX (64.7 mg/kg [0.1 mL/kg], IV), and blood samples were collected at predetermined times before and after administration. Plasma IOX concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The pharmacokinetics of IOX was determined by a noncompartmental method. For each rabbit, plasma clearance of IOX was determined by dividing the total IOX dose administered by the area under the concentration-time curve indexed to the subject's body weight. The GFR estimated from the plasma IOX concentration at 6 sampling times (referent model) was compared with that estimated from the plasma IOX concentration at 5 (model A), 4 (model B), and 3 (models C, D, and E) sampling times (limited-sampling models).

Results: Mean ± SD GFR was 4.41 ± 1.10 mL/min/kg for the referent model and did not differ significantly from the GFR estimated by any of the limited-sampling models. The GFR bias magnitude relative to the referent model was smallest for model D in which GFR was estimated from plasma IOX concentrations at 5, 15, and 90 minutes after IOX administration.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results suggested that plasma clearance of IOX was a safe, reliable, accurate, and clinically feasible method to estimate GFR in domestic rabbits. Further research is necessary to refine the method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.80.6.525DOI Listing
June 2019

Does salinity modulates the response of Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to triclosan and diclofenac?

Environ Pollut 2019 Aug 6;251:756-765. Epub 2019 May 6.

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003, Barcelona, Spain.

In the present study Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed for 28 days to three salinities: 30 (control), 25 and 35. Simultaneously, organisms at each salinity were exposed to either the antimicrobial agent Triclosan (TCS) or the pharmaceutical drug Diclofenac (DIC) at 1 μg/L. Salinity alone and exposure to PPCPs changed mussel's metabolic capacity and oxidative status, but no additive or synergetic effects resulting from the combined exposures were observed. Overall, the metabolic capacity of mussels was decreased when exposed to TCS and DIC under control salinity, which was less pronounced at salinities out of the control level. TCS had a notorious effect over glutathione peroxidase activity while DIC exposure enhanced catalase response. Such defence mechanisms were able to prevent cellular damage but still a clear reduction in GSH/GSSG ratio after PPCPs exposures indicates oxidative stress which could compromise bivalve's performance to further stressing events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.04.115DOI Listing
August 2019

The influence of temperature on the effects induced by Triclosan and Diclofenac in mussels.

Sci Total Environ 2019 May 16;663:992-999. Epub 2019 Jan 16.

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar ICM-CSIC, E-08003 Barcelona, Spain.

Little is known about the consequences of exposure to pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in elevated temperatures associated with climate change. To increase the knowledge on this topic, Mytilus galloprovincialis mussels were exposed to 1.0 μg/L of either the antimicrobial Triclosan (TCS) or the anti-inflammatory drug Diclofenac (DIC), at control (17 °C) and 4 °C raised (21 °C) temperatures for 28 days. Triclosan and DIC concentrations in the water and tissues were subsequently measured and related to biomarker responses including: energy metabolism (electron transport system (ETS) activity, glycogen and protein reserves), oxidative stress markers, glutathione balance between the reduced and the oxidised form (GSH/GSSG), and damage to proteins and lipids. Mussels responded to the increase in temperature and drug exposure by lowering their metabolic rate (decreased ETS), increasing their endogenous reserves and antioxidant defences, thus preventing oxidative stress damage, with the exception of DIC exposure at the higher temperature. In all cases, GSH/GSSG ratio was reduced in detriment of the antioxidant form at both PPCPs exposures and elevated temperature with no additive effect due to combined stressors. Overall, either drug exposure or increased temperature could compromise the ability of mussels to withstand further insults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.189DOI Listing
May 2019

Comparison of smartphone-based and standard base-apex electrocardiography in healthy dairy cows.

J Vet Intern Med 2019 Mar 27;33(2):981-986. Epub 2018 Dec 27.

Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Background: There is good diagnostic accuracy of smartphone-based ECG in the evaluation of heart rate (HR), heart rhythm, and ECG values for humans, horses, dogs, and cats.

Objectives: Assess feasibility and reliability of a smartphone ECG device to evaluate HR expressed as beats per minute and ECG values in cows.

Animals: Fifty-five healthy Holstein Friesian cows.

Methods: Prospective observational study. A standard base-apex ECG was acquired for 60 seconds in each cow. A smartphone ECG tracing was recorded simultaneously using a single-lead bipolar ECG recorder. All ECGs were reviewed by 1 blinded investigator. The following ECG variables were assessed: HR, P wave duration, PR interval, QRS complex and QT interval (milliseconds), P wave, and QRS complex polarity. Agreement between standard and smartphone ECG was evaluated by Cohen's k test and the Bland-Altman test.

Results: Smartphone ECG tracings were interpretable in 89% of the recordings. Minimal differences of no clinical relevance were found between standard and smartphone ECG tracings regarding HR and duration of ECG waves and interval. Good agreement found in the evaluation of QRS complex polarity (85%) but not for P wave polarity (k = 0.006). Artifacts were rare but of significantly higher frequency in smartphone ECG compared to standard ECG tracings (22% versus 0%; P = .005).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Good quality single-lead ECG tracings can be recorded by smartphone device in healthy cows. Smartphone tracings are reliable for evaluation of HR and selective ECG variables. Smartphone ECG can represent an additional tool for ECG screening in cows.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6430901PMC
March 2019

Biotransformation and oxidative stress responses in rat hepatic cell-line (H4IIE) exposed to racemic ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP).

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2018 Apr 30;59:199-207. Epub 2018 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway.

Pharmaceuticals such as racemate ketoprofen (RS-KP) and its enantiomer, dexketoprofen (S(+)-KP) are highly detectable non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the aquatic environment and therefore are designated as one of the most emerging groups of pollutants that can affect environmental and human health. The potential impact of these pharmaceuticals was assessed for the first time in vitro using a rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (H4IIE). Cells were exposed to low and high concentrations of these drugs. Cytotoxicity was determined by MTT reduction assay; CYP1A1 transcriptional and enzymatic levels together with canonical oxidative stress responsive markers (GPx, GR, GST and CAT) were also investigated. Cells exposed to RS-KP and S(+)-KP did not show cytotoxicity effect at the concentrations tested. However, this study highlighted differences between RS-KP and S(+)-KP in most of the evaluated markers, showing compound-, concentration- and time-specific effect patterns which suggest a potential stereo-selective toxicity of these drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2018.03.018DOI Listing
April 2018

Determination of ochratoxin A in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) by enzymatic digestion (ED) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD).

Mycotoxin Res 2018 Mar 30;34(1):1-8. Epub 2017 Aug 30.

Department of Veterinary Science, University of Pisa, Via Livornese lato monte, 56122, San Piero a Grado, Pisa, Italy.

Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a secondary toxic metabolite synthesized by Aspergillus or Penicillium species, which can contaminate various crops. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified OTA as a group 2B possible human carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to assess OTA concentrations in tissues of wild boar (Sus scrofa L.) from Tuscany (Italy). Over a period of 2 years, samples of muscle, liver, and kidney from 48 wild boars were collected and concentrations of OTA were determined by enzymatic digestion (ED) coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The highest concentrations of OTA were found in the kidneys of the 48 wild boars analyzed. No difference in concentrations was found based on years of collection and sex while a significantly higher OTA concentration was found in the kidney of the young wild boars with respect to the adult one. Monitoring the quality of meat destined for transformation is a priority in order to decrease the possibility of toxin carry-over to humans. The present study showed that contamination of wild boar meat products by OTA represents a potential emerging source of OTA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-017-0292-zDOI Listing
March 2018