Publications by authors named "Valérie Ray"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Rivaroxaban vs Dalteparin in Cancer-Associated Thromboembolism: A Randomized Trial.

Chest 2021 Oct 8. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

F-CRIN INNOVTE Network, Saint-Etienne, France; Service de Médecine Vasculaire et Thérapeutique, CHU Saint-Etienne, Hôpital Nord, Saint-Etienne, France.

Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are an alternative to low-molecular-weight heparin for treating cancer-associated VTE.

Research Question: Is rivaroxaban as efficient and safe as dalteparin to treat patients with cancer-associated VTE?

Study Design And Methods: In a randomized open-label noninferiority trial, patients with active cancer who had proximal DVT, pulmonary embolism (PE), or both were assigned randomly to therapeutic doses of rivaroxaban or dalteparin for 3 months. The primary outcome was the cumulative incidence of recurrent VTE, a composite of symptomatic or incidental DVT or PE, and worsening of pulmonary vascular or venous obstruction at 3 months.

Results: Of 158 randomized patients, 74 and 84 patients were assigned to receive rivaroxaban and dalteparin, respectively. Mean age was 69.4 years, and 115 patients (76.2%) had metastatic disease. The primary outcome occurred in 4 and 6 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (both the intention-to-treat and per-protocol populations: cumulative incidence, 6.4% vs 10.1%; subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR], 0.75; 95% CI, 0.21-2.66). Major bleeding occurred in 1 and 3 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (cumulative incidence, 1.4% vs 3.7%; SHR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.04-3.43). Major or clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 9 and 8 patients in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (cumulative incidence, 12.2% vs 9.8%; SHR, 1.27; 95% CI, 0.49-3.26). Overall, 19 patients (25.7%) and 20 patients (23.8%) died in the rivaroxaban and dalteparin groups, respectively (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.56-1.97).

Interpretation: In this trial comparing rivaroxaban and dalteparin in the treatment of cancer-associated VTE, the number of patients was insufficient to reach the predefined criteria for noninferiority, but efficacy and safety results were consistent with those previously reported with DOACs. An updated meta-analysis of randomized trials comparing DOACs with low-molecular-weight heparin in patients with cancer-associated VTE is provided.

Trial Registry: ClinicalTrials.gov; No.: NCT02746185; URL: www.clinicaltrials.gov.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2021.09.037DOI Listing
October 2021

Eruptive papules isolated to the anterior neck of a young woman.

Pediatr Dermatol 2020 07;37(4):738-739

Dell Medical School, University of Texas at Austin/Dell Children's Medical Center, Pediatric/Adolescent Dermatology, Austin, TX, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pde.14216DOI Listing
July 2020

Publisher Correction: Anti-Psl Targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms for Neutrophil-Mediated Disruption.

Sci Rep 2018 Jun 20;8(1):9637. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Department of Infectious Diseases, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, 20878, USA.

A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26660-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6010426PMC
June 2018

Anti-Psl Targeting of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms for Neutrophil-Mediated Disruption.

Sci Rep 2017 11 22;7(1):16065. Epub 2017 Nov 22.

Department of Infectious Diseases, MedImmune, LLC, Gaithersburg, MD, 20878, USA.

Bacterial biofilms are recalcitrant to antibiotic therapy and a major cause of persistent and recurrent infections. New antibody-based therapies may offer potential to target biofilm specific components for host-cell mediated bacterial clearance. For Pseudomonas aeruginosa, human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the Psl biofilm exopolysaccharide exhibit protective activity against planktonic bacteria in acute infection models. However, anti-Psl mAb activity against P. aeruginosa biofilms is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that anti-Psl mAbs targeting three distinct Psl epitopes exhibit stratified binding in mature in vitro biofilms and bind Psl within the context of a chronic biofilm infection. These mAbs also exhibit differential abilities to inhibit early biofilm events and reduce biomass from mature biofilms in the presence of neutrophils. Importantly, a mAb mixture with neutrophils exhibited the greatest biomass reduction, which was further enhanced when combined with meropenem, a common anti-Pseudomonal carbapenem antibiotic. Moreover, neutrophil-mediated killing of biofilm bacteria correlated with the evident mAb epitope stratification within the biofilm. Overall, our results suggest that anti-Psl mAbs might be promising candidates for adjunctive use with antibiotics to inhibit/disrupt P. aeruginosa biofilms as a result of chronic infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-16215-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5700069PMC
November 2017

Improving Patient's Primary Medication Adherence: The Value of Pharmaceutical Counseling.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Oct;94(41):e1805

From the Department of Pharmacy, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France (GLB, FD, CRM, FA, JMK); Laboratory of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Health Economics, EA2415, University Institute of Clinical Research, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France (GLB, CRM, CC, JMK); Department of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Health Economics, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France (SB, CC); Department of General Medicine, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France (VR); and Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France (AS).

Quality of transitions of care is one of the first concerns in patient safety. Redesigning the discharge process to incorporate clinical pharmacy activities could reduce the incidence of postdischarge adverse events by improving medication adherence. The present study investigated the value of pharmacist counseling sessions on primary medication adherence after hospital discharge.This study was conducted in a 1844-bed hospital in France. It was divided in an observational period and an interventional period of 3 months each. In both periods, ward-based clinical pharmacists performed medication reconciliation and inpatient follow-up. In interventional period, initial counseling and discharge counseling sessions were added to pharmaceutical care. The primary medication adherence was assessed by calling community pharmacists 7 days after patient discharge.We compared the measure of adherence between the patients from the observational period (n = 201) and the interventional period (n = 193). The rate of patients who were adherent increased from 51.0% to 66.7% between both periods (P < 0.01). When discharge counseling was performed (n = 78), this rate rose to 79.7% (P < 0.001). The multivariate regression performed on data from both periods showed that age of at least 78 years old, and 3 or less new medications on discharge order were predictive factors of adherence. New medications ordered at discharge represented 42.0% (n = 1018/2426) of all medications on discharge order. The rate of unfilled new medications decreased from 50.2% in the observational period to 32.5% in the interventional period (P < 10). However, patients included in the observational period were not significantly more often readmitted or visited the emergency department than the patients who experienced discharge counseling during the interventional period (45.3% vs. 46.2%; P = 0.89).This study highlights that discharge counseling sessions are essential to improve outpatients' primary medication adherence. We identified predictive factors of primary nonadherence in order to target the most eligible patients for discharge counseling sessions. Moreover, implementation of discharge counseling could be facilitated by using Health Information Technology to adapt human resources and select patients at risk of nonadherence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000001805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4616785PMC
October 2015

CysK Plays a Role in Biofilm Formation and Colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

Appl Environ Microbiol 2015 Aug 29;81(15):5223-34. Epub 2015 May 29.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois, USA

A biofilm, or a matrix-embedded community of cells, promotes the ability of the bacterium Vibrio fischeri to colonize its symbiotic host, the Hawaiian squid Euprymna scolopes. Biofilm formation and colonization depend on syp, an 18-gene polysaccharide locus. To identify other genes necessary for biofilm formation, we screened for mutants that failed to form wrinkled colonies, a type of biofilm. We obtained several with defects in genes required for cysteine metabolism, including cysH, cysJ, cysK, and cysN. The cysK mutant exhibited the most severe wrinkling defect. It could be complemented with a wild-type copy of the cysK gene, which encodes O-acetylserine sulfhydrolase, or by supplementing the medium with additional cysteine. None of a number of other mutants defective for biosynthetic genes negatively impacted wrinkled colony formation, suggesting a specific role for CysK. CysK did not appear to control activation of Syp regulators or transcription of the syp locus, but it did influence production of the Syp polysaccharide. Under biofilm-inducing conditions, the cysK mutant retained the same ability as that of the parent strain to adhere to the agar surface. The cysK mutant also exhibited a defect in pellicle production that could be complemented by the cysK gene but not by cysteine, suggesting that, under these conditions, CysK is important for more than the production of cysteine. Finally, our data reveal a role for cysK in symbiotic colonization by V. fischeri. Although many questions remain, this work provides insights into additional factors required for biofilm formation and colonization by V. fischeri.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AEM.00157-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495211PMC
August 2015

Identification of a novel matrix protein that promotes biofilm maturation in Vibrio fischeri.

J Bacteriol 2015 Feb 17;197(3):518-28. Epub 2014 Nov 17.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Health Sciences Division, Loyola University Chicago, Maywood, Illinois, USA

Bacteria form communities, termed biofilms, in which cells adhere to each other within a matrix, typically comprised of polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Biofilm formation by the marine bacterium Vibrio fischeri requires the Syp polysaccharide, but the involvement of matrix proteins is as yet unknown. Here we identified three genes, termed bmpA, -B, and -C (biofilm maturation protein), with overlapping functions in biofilm maturation. A triple bmpABC mutant, but not single or double mutants, was defective in producing wrinkled colonies, a form of biofilm. Surprisingly, the triple mutant was competent to form pellicles, another biofilm phenotype, but they generally lacked a three-dimensional architecture. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the extracellular matrix of the bmp mutant contained electron-dense, thread-like structures that were also present in the wild type but lacking in syp mutant strains. We hypothesized that the bmp mutant produces the Syp polysaccharide but fails to produce/export a distinct matrix component. Indeed, a mixture of the bmp and syp mutants produced a wrinkled colony. Finally, BmpA could be detected in cell-free supernatants from disrupted pellicles. Thus, this work identifies a new matrix protein necessary for biofilm maturation by V. fischeri and, based on the conservation of bmp, potentially other microbes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.02292-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4285995PMC
February 2015

Impact of admission medication reconciliation performed by clinical pharmacists on medication safety.

Eur J Intern Med 2014 Nov 29;25(9):808-14. Epub 2014 Sep 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Nîmes University Hospital, Nîmes, France; Laboratory of Biostatistics, Epidemiology, Clinical Research and Health Economics, EA2415, University Institute of Clinical Research, Montpellier University, Montpellier, France. Electronic address:

Background: Many activities contribute to reduce drug-related problems. Among them, the medication reconciliation (MR) is used to compare the best possible medication history (BPMH) and the current admission medication order (AMO) to identify and solve unintended medication discrepancies (UMD). This study aims to assess the impact of the implementation of admission MR by clinical pharmacists on UMD.

Method: This prospective study was carried out in two units of general medicine and infectious and tropical diseases in a 1844-bed French hospital. A retroactive MR performed in an observational period was compared to a proactive MR realized in an interventional period. We used a logistic regression to identify risk factors of UMD.

Results: During both periods, 394 patients were enrolled and 2,725 medications were analyzed in the BPMH. Proactive MR reduced the percentage of patients with at least one UMD compared with retroactive process (respectively 2.1% vs. 45.8%, p<0.001). Patients with at least one UMD during both periods were older compared to patients without UMD (79 vs. 72, p<0.005) and had more medications at admission (7 vs. 6, p<0.0001). UMD occur 38 times more often when there is no clinical pharmacist intervention. Among the 226 UMD detected in both periods, 42% would have required monitoring or intervention to preclude harm, and 10% had potential harm to the patient and 2% were life threatening.

Conclusion: Proactive MR performed by clinical pharmacists is an acute process of detection and correction of UMD, but it requires a lot of human resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2014.09.012DOI Listing
November 2014

The putative oligosaccharide translocase SypK connects biofilm formation with quorum signaling in Vibrio fischeri.

Microbiologyopen 2014 Dec 25;3(6):836-48. Epub 2014 Sep 25.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 16802; Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, 53706.

Quorum signaling (QS) describes how bacteria can use small signaling molecules (autoinducers) to coordinate group-level behaviors. In Vibrio fischeri, QS is achieved through a complex regulatory network that ultimately controls bioluminescence, motility, and host colonization. We conducted a genetic screen focused on qrr1, which encodes a small regulatory RNA that is necessary for the core quorum-signaling cascade to transduce autoinducer information into cellular responses. We isolated unique mutants with a transposon inserted into one of two genes within the syp locus, which is involved in biofilm formation. We found that overexpression of sypK, which encodes a putative oligosaccharide translocase, is sufficient to activate qrr1, and, in addition, this effect appears to depend on the kinase activity of the sensor LuxQ. Consistent with the established model for QS in V. fischeri, enhanced expression of qrr1 by the overexpression of sypK resulted in reduced bioluminescence and increased motility. Finally, we found that induction of the syp locus by overexpression of sypG was sufficient to activate qrr1 levels. Together, our results show how conditions that promote biofilm formation impact the quorum-signaling network in V. fischeri, and further highlight the integrated nature of the regulatory circuits involved in complex bacterial behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mbo3.199DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4263508PMC
December 2014

The syp enhancer sequence plays a key role in transcriptional activation by the σ54-dependent response regulator SypG and in biofilm formation and host colonization by Vibrio fischeri.

J Bacteriol 2013 Dec 4;195(23):5402-12. Epub 2013 Oct 4.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process that requires multiple regulators. One such regulator, the NtrC-like response regulator SypG, controls biofilm formation and host colonization by V. fischeri via its impact on transcription of the symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) locus. SypG is predicted to activate syp transcription by binding to the syp enhancer (SE), a conserved sequence located upstream of four syp promoters. In this study, we performed an in-depth analysis of the sequences necessary for SypG to promote syp transcription and biofilm formation. We found that the SE sequence is necessary for SypG-mediated syp transcription, identified individual bases necessary for efficient activation, and determined that SypG is able to bind to syp promoter regions. We also identified SE sequences outside the syp locus and established that SypG recognizes these sequences as well. Finally, deletion of the SE sequence upstream of sypA led to defects in both biofilm formation and host colonization that could be restored by reintroducing the SE sequence into its native location in the chromosome. This work thus fills in critical gaps in knowledge of the Syp regulatory circuit by demonstrating a role for the SE sequence in SypG-dependent control of biofilm formation and host colonization and by identifying new putative regulon members. It may also provide useful insights into other bacteria, such as Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, that have syp-like loci and conserved SE sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.00689-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3837961PMC
December 2013

LuxU connects quorum sensing to biofilm formation in Vibrio fischeri.

Mol Microbiol 2012 Nov 5;86(4):954-70. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL 60153, USA.

Biofilm formation by Vibrio fischeri is a complex process involving multiple regulators, including the sensor kinase (SK) RscS and the response regulator (RR) SypG, which control the symbiosis polysaccharide (syp) locus. To identify other regulators of biofilm formation in V. fischeri, we screened a transposon library for mutants defective in wrinkled colony formation. We identified LuxQ as a positive regulator of syp-dependent biofilm formation. LuxQ is a member of the Lux phosphorelay and is predicted to control bioluminescence in concert with the SK AinR, the phosphotransferase LuxU and the RR LuxO. Of these, LuxU was the only other regulator that exerted a substantial impact on biofilm formation. We propose a model in which the Lux pathway branches at LuxU to control both bioluminescence and biofilm formation. Furthermore, our evidence suggests that LuxU functions to regulate syp transcription, likely by controlling SypG activity. Finally, we found that, in contrast to its predicted function, the SK AinR has little impact on bioluminescence under our conditions. Thus, this study reveals a novel connection between the Lux and Syp pathways in V. fischeri, and furthers our understanding of how the Lux pathway regulates bioluminescence in this organism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mmi.12035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3566283PMC
November 2012

A semi-quantitative approach to assess biofilm formation using wrinkled colony development.

J Vis Exp 2012 Jun 7(64):e4035. Epub 2012 Jun 7.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Loyola University Medical Center, USA.

Biofilms, or surface-attached communities of cells encapsulated in an extracellular matrix, represent a common lifestyle for many bacteria. Within a biofilm, bacterial cells often exhibit altered physiology, including enhanced resistance to antibiotics and other environmental stresses. Additionally, biofilms can play important roles in host-microbe interactions. Biofilms develop when bacteria transition from individual, planktonic cells to form complex, multi-cellular communities. In the laboratory, biofilms are studied by assessing the development of specific biofilm phenotypes. A common biofilm phenotype involves the formation of wrinkled or rugose bacterial colonies on solid agar media. Wrinkled colony formation provides a particularly simple and useful means to identify and characterize bacterial strains exhibiting altered biofilm phenotypes, and to investigate environmental conditions that impact biofilm formation. Wrinkled colony formation serves as an indicator of biofilm formation in a variety of bacteria, including both Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, and Gram-negative bacteria, such as Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio fischeri. The marine bacterium V. fischeri has become a model for biofilm formation due to the critical role of biofilms during host colonization: biofilms produced by V. fischeri promote its colonization of the Hawaiian bobtail squid Euprymna scolopes. Importantly, biofilm phenotypes observed in vitro correlate with the ability of V. fischeri cells to effectively colonize host animals: strains impaired for biofilm formation in vitro possess a colonization defect, while strains exhibiting increased biofilm phenotypes are enhanced for colonization. V. fischeri therefore provides a simple model system to assess the mechanisms by which bacteria regulate biofilm formation and how biofilms impact host colonization. In this report, we describe a semi-quantitative method to assess biofilm formation using V. fischeri as a model system. This method involves the careful spotting of bacterial cultures at defined concentrations and volumes onto solid agar media; a spotted culture is synonymous to a single bacterial colony. This 'spotted culture' technique can be utilized to compare gross biofilm phenotypes at single, specified time-points (end-point assays), or to identify and characterize subtle biofilm phenotypes through time-course assays of biofilm development and measurements of the colony diameter, which is influenced by biofilm formation. Thus, this technique provides a semi-quantitative analysis of biofilm formation, permitting evaluation of the timing and patterning of wrinkled colony development and the relative size of the developing structure, characteristics that extend beyond the simple overall morphology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/4035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3466081PMC
June 2012

Identification and characterization of noncoding small RNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 2 strain D39.

J Bacteriol 2010 Jan;192(1):264-79

Department of Biology, Indiana University-Bloomington, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA.

We report a search for small RNAs (sRNAs) in the low-GC, gram-positive human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae. Based on bioinformatic analyses by Livny et al. (J. Livny, A. Brencic, S. Lory, and M. K. Waldor, Nucleic Acids Res. 34:3484-3493, 2006), we tested 40 candidates by Northern blotting and confirmed the expression of nine new and one previously reported (CcnA) sRNAs in strain D39. CcnA is one of five redundant sRNAs reported by Halfmann et al. (A. Halfmann, M. Kovacs, R. Hakenbeck, and R. Bruckner, Mol. Microbiol. 66:110-126, 2007) that are positively controlled by the CiaR response regulator. We characterized 3 of these 14 sRNAs: Spd-sr17 (144 nucleotides [nt]; decreased in stationary phase), Spd-sr37 (80 nt; strongly expressed in all growth phases), and CcnA (93 nt; induced by competence stimulatory peptide). Spd-sr17 and CcnA likely fold into structures containing single-stranded regions between hairpin structures, whereas Spd-sr37 forms a base-paired structure. Primer extension mapping and ectopic expression in deletion/insertion mutants confirmed the independent expression of the three sRNAs. Microarray analyses indicated that insertion/deletion mutants in spd-sr37 and ccnA exerted strong cis-acting effects on the transcription of adjacent genes, indicating that these sRNA regions are also cotranscribed in operons. Deletion or overexpression of the three sRNAs did not cause changes in growth, certain stress responses, global transcription, or virulence. Constitutive ectopic expression of CcnA reversed some phenotypes of D39 Delta ciaR mutants, but attempts to link CcnA to -E to comC as a target were inconclusive in ciaR(+) strains. These results show that S. pneumoniae, which lacks known RNA chaperones, expresses numerous sRNAs, but three of these sRNAs do not strongly affect common phenotypes or transcription patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.01204-09DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2798261PMC
January 2010
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