Publications by authors named "Vai Pathak"

2 Publications

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Multiomics-Identified Intervention to Restore Ethanol-Induced Dysregulated Proteostasis and Secondary Sarcopenia in Alcoholic Liver Disease.

Cell Physiol Biochem 2021 Feb;55(1):91-116

Department of Inflammation and Immunity, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA,

Background/aims: Signaling and metabolic perturbations contribute to dysregulated skeletal muscle protein homeostasis and secondary sarcopenia in response to a number of cellular stressors including ethanol exposure. Using an innovative multiomics-based curating of unbiased data, we identified molecular and metabolic therapeutic targets and experimentally validated restoration of protein homeostasis in an ethanol-fed mouse model of liver disease.

Methods: Studies were performed in ethanol-treated differentiated C2C12 myotubes and physiological relevance established in an ethanol-fed mouse model of alcohol-related liver disease (mALD) or pair-fed control C57BL/6 mice. Transcriptome and proteome from ethanol treated-myotubes and gastrocnemius muscle from mALD and pair-fed mice were analyzed to identify target pathways and molecules. Readouts including signaling responses and autophagy markers by immunoblots, mitochondrial oxidative function and free radical generation, and metabolic studies by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and sarcopenic phenotype by imaging.

Results: Multiomics analyses showed that ethanol impaired skeletal muscle mTORC1 signaling, mitochondrial oxidative pathways, including intermediary metabolite regulatory genes, interleukin-6, and amino acid degradation pathways are β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate targets. Ethanol decreased mTORC1 signaling, increased autophagy flux, impaired mitochondrial oxidative function with decreased tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediary metabolites, ATP synthesis, protein synthesis and myotube diameter that were reversed by HMB. Consistently, skeletal muscle from mALD had decreased mTORC1 signaling, reduced fractional and total muscle protein synthesis rates, increased autophagy markers, lower intermediary metabolite concentrations, and lower muscle mass and fiber diameter that were reversed by β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate treatment.

Conclusion: An innovative multiomics approach followed by experimental validation showed that β-hydroxymethyl-butyrate restores muscle protein homeostasis in liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.33594/000000327DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8195260PMC
February 2021

Vascular dimorphism ensured by regulated proteoglycan dynamics favors rapid umbilical artery closure at birth.

Elife 2020 09 10;9. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Cleveland Clinic Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland, United States.

The umbilical artery lumen closes rapidly at birth, preventing neonatal blood loss, whereas the umbilical vein remains patent longer. Here, analysis of umbilical cords from humans and other mammals identified differential arterial-venous proteoglycan dynamics as a determinant of these contrasting vascular responses. The umbilical artery, but not the vein, has an inner layer enriched in the hydrated proteoglycan aggrecan, external to which lie contraction-primed smooth muscle cells (SMC). At birth, SMC contraction drives inner layer buckling and centripetal displacement to occlude the arterial lumen, a mechanism revealed by biomechanical observations and confirmed by computational analyses. This vascular dimorphism arises from spatially regulated proteoglycan expression and breakdown. Mice lacking aggrecan or the metalloprotease ADAMTS1, which degrades proteoglycans, demonstrate their opposing roles in umbilical vascular dimorphism, including effects on SMC differentiation. Umbilical vessel dimorphism is conserved in mammals, suggesting that differential proteoglycan dynamics and inner layer buckling were positively selected during evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.60683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7529456PMC
September 2020