Publications by authors named "Vahid Mofid"

13 Publications

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National food policies in the Islamic Republic of Iran aimed at control and prevention of noncommunicable diseases.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 Dec 9;26(12):1556-1564. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Foods and Beverages, Iran Food and Drug Administration, Tehran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Background: Diet plays an important role in the risk of noncommunicable diseases. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, national activities were started after release of the World Health Organization's (WHO) action plan on prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases.

Aims: This study describes national food policies implemented by the government in order to reduce noncommunicable diseases in the country in line with WHO action plan.

Methods: Newly adopted food standards and regulations linked to noncommunicable diseases from 2013 to 2018 were reviewed and the maximum permitted levels of salt and trans and saturated fats were compared in the old and new standards. Nutritional traffic light labelling to raise public awareness of healthy diets was evaluated.

Results: Fifteen food standards associated with eight food items that make up a large share of the daily Iranian food basket and three that make up a small share were evaluated. Policies on salt included reduction in maximum permitted percentage in bread, cheese and doogh (a fermented drink) to 1%, 3% and 0.8%, respectively. For trans and saturated fats, maximum permitted percentages were set as 2-5% and 30-65% of edible oils and fats, respectively. Nutritional traffic light labelling, which indicates the content of salt, sugar, fat and trans fat in foods, has been mandatory for all foods since 2016.

Conclusions: In view of the polices implemented to reduce the salt and fat/oil content of foods, significant decreases in noncommunicable diseases are expected in coming years in the country. However, further studies are needed to show the effectiveness of the interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.20.024DOI Listing
December 2020

Comparison of probiotic yogurt and ordinary yogurt consumption on serum Pentraxin3, NT-proBNP, oxLDL, and ApoB100 in patients with chronic heart failure: a randomized, triple-blind, controlled trial.

Food Funct 2020 Nov;11(11):10000-10010

Department of Nutrition, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background And Aims: Nowadays, the potential beneficial effects of probiotic yogurt as a functional food has raised much interest. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the probiotic yogurt and ordinary yogurt consumption on some indices in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).

Methods And Results: In this randomized, triple-blind clinical trial, 90 patients with CHF were randomly allocated into two groups to take either probiotic yogurt or ordinary yogurt for 10 weeks. The serum levels of pentraxin3 (PTX3), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL), and apolipoprotein B100 (ApoB100) were measured at the baseline and at the end of week 10. P-Value <0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Final analyses were performed on 78 patients. The levels of PTX3 and oxLDL in both the groups decreased significantly after 10 weeks, and these reductions were greater in the probiotic group, where the difference between the groups was statistically significant for oxLDL (P-value: 0.051, adjusted P-value: 0.010) but not significant for PTX3 (P-value: 0.956, adjusted P-value: 0.236). The changes in the serum NT-proBNP levels were not statistically significant between the groups (P-value: 0.948, adjusted P-value: 0.306). ApoB100 significantly decreased in the control group compared to the probiotic group and the difference between the groups was significant at first but was not significant after adjusting for the confounders (P-value: 0.004, adjusted P-value: 0.280).

Conclusion: The serum oxLDL significantly reduced due to probiotic yogurt consumption after 10 weeks compared to ordinary yogurt; thus, it may be useful for improving the oxidative status of CHF patients. The clinical trial registry number is IRCT20091114002709N48 (https://www.irct.ir/IRCT20091114002709N48, registered 12 March 2018).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo01014fDOI Listing
November 2020

Recent advances in extracting pectin by single and combined ultrasound techniques: A review of techno-functional and bioactive health-promoting aspects.

Carbohydr Polym 2020 Feb 17;229:115474. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Bahrami Children Hospital, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Ultrasonication is an emerging nonthermal process to extract pectins and pectic-polysaccharides from natural sources. This review aimed to highlight recent results of techno-functional (e.g., water and oil holding capacities, foaming capacity and stability, emulsifying activity, emulsion stability, rheological and pasting properties, and tin corrosion inhibitory activity) and biofunctional (e.g., antioxidant, antiradical, antiglycation, anticoagulant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory, and analgesic activities) properties of pectins extracted using both single and combined sonication modes. Integrating the ultrasound with other techniques (e.g., microwave heating and enzymatic digestion) can significantly increase the cell disruption, better penetration, and mass transfer of pectins at a shorter time. The ultrasound-microwave (UMAE) and ultrasound-enzyme (UEAE) assisted extraction systems compared to the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) can more improve the techno-functional quality of pectins and their body's healing capacity to accomplish optimum health and functioning. The current opportunities and promising perspectives are also presented to enhance the pectin bioavailability in clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.115474DOI Listing
February 2020

Therapeutic and Nutritional Effects of Synbiotic Yogurts in Children and Adults: a Clinical Review.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2020 09;12(3):851-859

Health Management Research Center, Baqiyatallah University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Synbiotic yogurts (SYs) are potential natural cures with improved health outcomes and prevention and control of chronic diseases through the synergistic action of probiotic bacteria and prebiotic compounds. Recent clinical achievements in consuming SYs in healthy and patient pediatric and adult populations were critically reviewed. Some forthcoming challenges and interesting solutions to increase healthy nutritional effects of these dairy products have also been addressed. The use of SY-based nutrition pattern in children can considerably increase their body's immunity with an improvement in social and school functioning. SY consumption not only reduces childhood digestive problems but also remarkably decreases the illness duration and symptoms' severity. Increasing the number of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy adults consuming SYs can significantly reduce the pathogenic bacteria in feces. The regular intake of SYs with enhanced bioavailability of bioactive compounds in a short intestinal transit time reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease among hypercholesterolemic adults. Also, a meaningful improvement in the health status of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease has been assessed after eating this bio-functional supplement product. Administration of a healthy SY-based diet purposefully alters microbiota composition, provides a microbial balance in the gut, and promotes GI functions in pediatric and geriatric age groups. Full recovery without any further complications during the follow-up period in elderly patients can also be obtained by implementing the SY-based dietary guideline.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-019-09594-xDOI Listing
September 2020

The prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products in the Middle East region: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Acta Trop 2020 Feb 25;202:105241. Epub 2019 Oct 25.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Engineering, State University of Campinas (UNICAMP),Monteiro Lobato, 80, Caixa Postal: 6121, CEP: 13083-862, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Brucellosis, known as Malta fever or Mediterranean fever, is one of the most common bacterial zoonotic diseases caused by Brucella spp. which can result in serious health issues. The objective of the present study was to systematically review and summarize the studies regarding the prevalence of Brucella spp. in milk and milk products in the Middle East region. Some international databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar) were searched to retrieve relevant reports published between 1 January 2008 and 30th October 2018. After assessing for eligibility, 30 articles containing 9281 samples, were included in the current study. The highest number of publications were found in Iran and Turkey (n = 12 and 7, respectively), while Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Syria had the lowest number of publications (n = 1). Besides, the highest and lowest prevalence was observed in Kuwait (62%) and Egypt (15%), respectively. The highest and lowest overall prevalence of Brucella spp. in milk was found in raw cow milk 36% (95%CI: 28-54%) and raw buffalo milk 13% (95%CI: -22-48%), respectively. The overall prevalence in cheese estimated to be 9% (95%CI: -16-35%). The overall prevalence of Brucella spp. in dairy products in the Middle East was estimated to be 29% (95%CI: 23-35%). The results indicate that more risk management plans are needed to reduce the incidence of Brucella spp. in dairy products in the Middle East, especially in cow milk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105241DOI Listing
February 2020

Effects of probiotic yogurt on fat distribution and gene expression of proinflammatory factors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in overweight and obese people with or without weight-loss diet.

J Am Coll Nutr 2014 31;33(6):417-25. Epub 2014 Jul 31.

a Department of Nutrition, School of Health , Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , IRAN.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether probiotics had an effect on proinflammatory markers and cytokines in overweight and obese individuals and whether they could have synergistic effects with weight-loss diets.

Methods: A total of 75 healthy overweight and obese individuals completed this randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to groups consuming regular yogurt with a low-calorie diet (LCD, RLCD; n = 25) or receiving probiotic yogurt with LCD (PLCD; n = 25) or consuming probiotic yogurt without LCD (PWLCD; n = 25) for 8 weeks. The pribiotic regimen contained 200 g/day yogurt, enriched by Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) colony-forming units/g. Body fat percentage, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), leptin, and mRNA levels of inflammation-related genes (TNF-α and RAR-related orphan receptor gamma [ROR-γt]) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured.

Results: A reduction in body mass index (BMI), fat percentage, and leptin level was observed that was more obvious in groups who received the weight-loss diet with probiotic yogurt. Reduction in the gene expression of ROR-γt was significant in the PLCD group (p < 0.001). The expression of TNF-α did not change among all groups after intervention. The mean concentration of leptin was significantly decreased in all groups after the dietary intervention, but the mean changes in leptin level in the PLCD group was more prominent compared to the other two groups (-2.38, p < 0.001 [PLCD] vs -1.75, p = 0.002 [RLCD] and -0.55 ng/mL, p = 0.12 [PWLCD]). The reduction in serum levels of hs-CRP was more evident in the PWLCD group compared to the PLCD and RLCD groups after the 8-week intervention (-3.4, p = 0.03 vs -1.76, p < 0.001 and -2.98 pg/mL, p < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Our results suggested that the weight-loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cells subset specific gene expression in PBMCs, fat percentage, and body weight among overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2013.874937DOI Listing
July 2015

Combination of probiotics and antibiotics in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infection in children.

Iran J Pediatr 2013 Aug;23(4):430-8

Pediatric Urology Research Center, Pediatric Center of excellence, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: We examined the preventive effect of probiotic and antibiotics versus antibiotics alone, in children with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTI) in a preliminary randomized clinical trial.

Methods: Between March 2007 and April 2011, children with the history of RUTI and unilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) were randomly assigned to receive concomitant probiotic and antibiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and bifidobacterium lactis, 10(7)/ml, as 0.25 ml/kg three times a day regimen in addition to Nitrofurantoin, 1mg/kg daily (group I). In group II, all children received conventional prophylactic antibiotics alone (Nitrofurantoin, 1 mg/kg daily). Randomization was performed via using the random numerals table in a 1:1 manner with stratification by sex, age and grade of reflux. The urine examinations were done monthly and the incidence of UTI was evaluated in these two groups.

Findings: Forty-one children (age: 8.3±3.1 years) in group I and 44 children (age: 8.0±3.0 years) in group II were compared. During the course of three years, 39% in group I and 50% of participants in group II experienced RUTIs (P=0.4). Incidences of UTI - febrile and afebrile - reduced in both groups without any significant differences after two years of prophylaxis. Also, incidence of afebrile UTIs did not significantly differ (0.51±1.30 and 0.81±1.41 respectively, P =0.3); however, the incidence of febrile UTIs in particular were lower in group I (0.00±0.00 versus 0.13±0.40, P =0.03) in the last year.

Conclusion: The consumption of probiotic and antibiotics in children with RUTI is safe and more effective in reducing the incidence of febrile UTI in comparison to prophylactic antibiotics alone.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3883373PMC
August 2013

Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium BB12, and Lactobacillus casei DN001 modulate gene expression of subset specific transcription factors and cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of obese and overweight people.

Biofactors 2013 Nov-Dec;39(6):633-43. Epub 2013 Sep 10.

Department of Nutrition, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Probiotics are believed to have interaction with immune cells through sustained effects on gene expression of different cytokines and transcription factors. The present randomized doubled-blind controlled clinical trial was performed recruiting 75 individuals with BMI 25-35, who were randomly assigned to the following three groups: Group 1 (n = 25) who consumed regular yogurt as part of a low calorie diet [RLCD], group 2 (n = 25) who received probiotic yogurt with a LCD [PLCD] and group 3 (n = 25) who consumed probiotic yogurt without LCD [PWLCD] for 8 week. Participants in PLCD and PWLCD groups received 200 g/day yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5, Bifidobacterium Bb12, and lactobacillus casei DN001 10(8) cfu/gr. The expression of the FOXP3, T-bet, GATA3, TNF-α, IFN-γ, TGF-β, and ROR-γt in PBMCs genes were assessed, before and after intervention. In three groups, ROR-γt expression was reduced (P = 0.007) and FOXP3 was increased (P < 0.001). The expression of TNFα, TGFβ, and GATA3 genes did not change among all groups after intervention. Interestingly, the expression of T-bet gene, which was significantly decreased in PLCD and PWLCD groups (P < 0.001), whereas gene expression of IFN-γ decreased in all three groups. Our results suggest that weight loss diet and probiotic yogurt had synergistic effects on T-cell subset specific gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells among overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1128DOI Listing
July 2014

Relationship between probiotic consumption and IL-10 and IL-17 secreted by PBMCs in overweight and obese people.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2013 Aug 28;12(4):404-6. Epub 2013 Aug 28.

Department of Nutrition, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

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August 2013

Effect of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt on oxidative stress in pregnant women: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

Ann Nutr Metab 2012 10;60(1):62-8. Epub 2012 Feb 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Nutrition, School of Medicine, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background: Due to the enhanced oxygen requirement of the mitochondria-rich placenta primarily during the third trimester, pregnancy is associated with elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study was designed to determine the effects of daily consumption of probiotic yogurt on oxidative stress among Iranian pregnant women.

Methods: This randomized single-blind controlled clinical trial was performed among 70 pregnant women, singleton primigravida, aged 18-30 in their third trimester. Subjects were randomly assigned to two groups to consume 200 g/day of either conventional yogurt (n = 33) or probiotic yogurt (n = 37) for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after a 9-week intervention to measure oxidative stress parameters.

Results: Consumption of probiotic yogurt resulted in increased erythrocyte glutathione reductase (GR) levels as compared to the conventional yogurt (p = 0.01). Despite the significant effect of probiotic yogurt consumption on plasma glutathione (67.9 μmol/l, p = 0.01), erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (163 mmol/min/ml, p = 0.04) and serum 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine levels (-74.3 ng/ml, p = 0.04), no significant differences were found between the two yogurts in terms of their effects on the mentioned parameters.

Conclusion: Consumption of probiotic yogurt among pregnant women resulted in increased levels of erythrocyte GR as compared to the conventional yogurt, but could not affect other indices of oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000335468DOI Listing
July 2012

Plasma total antioxidant capacity and its related factors in Iranian pregnant women.

Saudi Med J 2011 Dec;32(12):1246-50

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Objective: To determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and its related factors in pregnant Iranian women attending maternity clinics.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study carried out in Naghavi Maternity Clinic, Shaheed Beheshti Specialty and Subspecialty Polyclinic and 10 antenatal centers, affiliated to Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran, we determined the plasma TAC and its related factors including maternal age, weight, and body mass index (BMI) at the beginning, thirteenth, and twenty-first to twenty-fourth weeks of pregnancy, and gestational age at the twenty-first to twenty-fourth weeks of pregnancy in 137 primigravid pregnant women, 18-30 years old from October 2010 to March 2011. We used multiple linear regression to assess the relationship between TAC and its related factors.

Results: Plasma TAC in the twenty-first to twenty-fourth weeks of pregnancy was 0.75+/-0.11 mmol/l. The BMI at the beginning was 25.06+/-4, 25.72+/-4.13 at the thirteenth, and 26.95+/-4.19 kg/m2 at the twenty-first to twenty-fourth weeks of pregnancy. Multiple regression analysis showed that gestational age was inversely associated with the plasma TAC (beta: -0.234, p=0.007). Regression analysis also suggested a trend toward significant association between maternal age and plasma TAC (beta: 0.150, p=0.080), but there was no association between other variables and plasma TAC.

Conclusion: Gestational age was inversely correlated with plasma TAC and maternal age had a trend toward significant association with TAC in 18-30 year-old Iranian pregnant women in their sixth month of pregnancy.
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December 2011

Probiotic yogurt improves antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients.

Nutrition 2012 May 29;28(5):539-43. Epub 2011 Nov 29.

Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis and progression of diabetes. Among various functional foods with an antioxidant effect, probiotic foods have been reported to repress oxidative stress. The objective of this clinical trial was to assess the effects of probiotic and conventional yogurt on blood glucose and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: Sixty-four patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, 30 to 60 y old, were assigned to two groups in this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial. The patients in the intervention group consumed 300 g/d of probiotic yogurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 and those in the control group consumed 300 g/d of conventional yogurt for 6 wk. Fasting blood samples, 24-h dietary recalls, and anthropometric measurements were collected at the baseline and at the end of the trial.

Results: Probiotic yogurt significantly decreased fasting blood glucose (P < 0.01) and hemoglobin A1c (P < 0.05) and increased erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities and total antioxidant status (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. In addition, the serum malondialdehyde concentration significantly decreased compared with the baseline value in both groups (P < 0.05). No significant changes from baseline were shown in insulin concentration and erythrocyte catalase activity within either group (P > 0.05).

Conclusion: The consumption of probiotic yogurt improved fasting blood glucose and antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients. These results suggest that probiotic yogurt is a promising agent for diabetes management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nut.2011.08.013DOI Listing
May 2012

Effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

Pak J Biol Sci 2011 Apr;14(8):476-82

Department of Nutrition and Biochemistry, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Previous studies have shown that inflammatory factors increases in pregnancy and is associated with several complications of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to assess effects of daily consumption of probiotic yoghurt on inflammatory factors in pregnant women. In a randomized clinical trial, seventy primigravid (the first pregnancy) and singleton pregnant women aged 18-30 years were assigned to two groups. Subjects consumed daily 200 g probiotic yoghurt containing Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium animalis BB12 (10(7) CFU g(-1) for each) or 200 g conventional yoghurt for 9 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline (28 weeks of gestation) and after intervention (37 weeks of gestation). Inflammatory factors, hs-CRP and TNF-alpha, were measured by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Independent t-test was used to compare the two groups after intervention and paired-sample t-test compared variables before and after treatment. The results showed that the probiotic yogurt brought about a decrease in the serum hs-CRP level, from 10.44 +/- 1.56 to 7.44 +/- 1.03 microg mL(-1) (p = 0.041). There was no significant change in the conventional yogurt group in the serum hs-CRP level (12.55 +/- 1.57 to 14.51 +/- 1.62 microg mL(-1), p = 0.202). The probiotic yogurt had no effect on TNF-alpha (from 73.75 +/- 6.59 to 77.91 +/- 5.61 pg mL(-1), p = 0.633). Serum TNF-alpha did not change in the conventional yogurt group (p = 0.134). In conclusion probiotic yogurt significantly decreased hs-CRP in pregnant women but had no effect on TNF-alpha.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2011.476.482DOI Listing
April 2011