Publications by authors named "Vahid Bagheri"

20 Publications

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Selectively targeting cancer stem cells: Current and novel therapeutic strategies and approaches in the effective eradication of cancer.

IUBMB Life 2021 08 9;73(8):1045-1059. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Birjand University of Medical Sciences, Birjand, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a subgroup of cells in malignant cancers, which possess self-renewal capacity, tumor-initiating capability, and pluripotency, as well as being responsible for tumor maintenance, metastasis, relapse, and chemoresistance. The treatment modalities previously established for cancer included surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The majority of tumor cells of non-CSCs could be eradicated using conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Therefore, novel and promising therapeutic strategies that selectively target CSCs are of great importance. In this review, we described different therapeutic strategies such as immunotherapy, metabolism-based therapeutic strategies, and additional potential therapeutic approaches (targeting microRNAs [miRNAs], histone deacetylase, and DNA methyl transferase) against CSCs. Taken together, due to the inefficiency of anticancer single therapies, targeting CSCs through their metabolism and using immunotherapy and miRNAs besides classical chemo- and radiotherapy may exert better therapeutic effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/iub.2524DOI Listing
August 2021

Kinetics Analysis and Susceptibility Coefficient of the Pathogenic Bacteria by Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles.

Adv Pharm Bull 2020 Jan 11;10(1):56-64. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

The increase of bacterial resistance to common antibacterial agents is one of the major problems of health care systems and hospital infection control programs. In this study, antimicrobial activity of titanium dioxide (TiO ) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated against , , and pathogenic bacteria by determining sensitivity coefficient and kinetics of bacterial death. Antimicrobial tests were performed with ~10 CFU/mL of each bacterium at baseline. At first, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was concluded by the dilution method and then, death kinetic and susceptibility coefficient of NPs suspensions was determined at 0 to 360 min. treatment time. The results of this study revealed that, the highest susceptibility was observed for (Z=0.025 mL/μg) to TiO NPs, whereas the lowest susceptibility was obtained in the reaction of ZnO NPs with (Z=0.0033 mL/μg). The process of bacterial death in NPs suspension was assumed to follow first-degree kinetic and the survival ratio of bacteria decreased by the increase in treatment time. An increase in the concentration of NPs was seen to enhance the bactericidal action. Results showed that had higher sensitivity compared to . The results of this study also demonstrated that TiO NPs have a strong antimicrobial effect in comparison with ZnO NPs and it could be employed to aid the control of pathogenic bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2020.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6983981PMC
January 2020

Nanoparticles and Zeolites: Antibacterial Effects and their Mechanism against Pathogens.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2019 ;20(13):1074-1086

Nutrition Research Center, Department of Food Sciences and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran

Nowadays, distribution and microorganism resistance against antimicrobial compounds have caused crucial food safety problems. Hence, nanotechnology and zeolite are recognized as new approaches to manage this problem due to their inherent antimicrobial activity. Different studies have confirmed antimicrobial effects of Nano particles (NPs) (metal and metal oxide) and zeolite, by using various techniques to determine antimicrobial mechanism. This review includes an overview of research with the results of studies about antimicrobial mechanisms of nanoparticles and zeolite. Many researches have shown that type, particle size and shape of NPs and zeolite are important factors showing antimicrobial effectiveness. The use of NPs and zeolite as antimicrobial components especially in food technology and medical application can be considered as prominent strategies to overcome pathogenic microorganisms. Nevertheless, further studies are required to minimize the possible toxicity of NPs in order to apply suitable alternatives for disinfectants and antibacterial agents in food applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1573397115666190708120040DOI Listing
January 2020

Pro-inflammatory S100A9 Protein: a Double-Edged Sword in Cancer?

Inflammation 2019 08;42(4):1137-1138

Institute for Health and Sport, Victoria University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-019-00981-8DOI Listing
August 2019

Induction of T cell-mediated immune response by dendritic cells pulsed with mRNA of sphere-forming cells isolated from patients with gastric cancer.

Life Sci 2019 Feb 12;219:136-143. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Medical Genetics Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Laboratory Sciences, School of Paramedical Sciences, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Gastric cancer (GC) as the third most common cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide is one of the cancers with very high heterogeneity. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) as a small subset of cancer cells in solid tumors with the self-renewal, differentiation and tumorigenic ability are responsible for tumor initiation, progression, recurrence, metastasis, and resistance to current treatments. Therefore, eradication of CSCs is very vital to cure cancer. Here, we first isolated and identified sphere-forming cells in tumor tissue from four GC patients and then analyzed T cell responses induced by monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with total mRNA of sphere-forming cells in terms of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene expression and specific cytotoxicity. Spheroid colonies were formed in serum-free media. Sphere-forming cells dissociated from tumorspheres heterogeneously expressed CD44, CD54, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) markers and generated one tumor in nude mice. These results demonstrated that gastric CSCs were enriched in tumorspheres. Cytokine-matured DCs loaded with mRNA of sphere-forming cells were able to induce IFN-γ gene expression in T-lymphocytes after a 12-day co-culture. mRNA level of IFN-γ gene in these lymphocytes was more highly expressed compared to stimulated T-lymphocytes by DCs transfected with normal tissue (6.4-9.39 folds). Cytotoxic activity of primed T-lymphocytes with antigens of sphere-forming cells was significantly higher than normal tissue antigens and mock DCs (P ≤ 0.0001). Taken together, DCs loaded with mRNA of sphere-forming cells that elicit effectively specific T cell-mediated immune responses in vitro, may be considered as a promising therapeutic vaccination in GC patients in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2019.01.016DOI Listing
February 2019

CXCL12 and CXCR4 in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Neuroimmunomodulation 2018 14;25(4):201-205. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran,

Objective: The role of CXCL12 and its receptor CXCR4 has not been fully examined in Parkinson's disease (PD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CXCL12/CXCR4 in the peripheral blood of patients with PD and healthy controls.

Methods: CXCL12 serum levels and CXCR4 mRNA levels were measured in 30 PD patients and 40 controls using ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively.

Results: CXCL12 serum levels were significantly higher in PD patients compared to controls (p < 0.0001). Moreover, CXCR4 expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PD patients was significantly increased compared to controls (p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Our findings provide new information on the expression of CXCL12/CXCR4 in PD. CXCR4 expression in PBMC or CXCL12 serum levels may be potential biomarkers of inflammation in PD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000494435DOI Listing
September 2019

Isolation and identification of chemotherapy-enriched sphere-forming cells from a patient with gastric cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2018 10 10;233(10):7036-7046. Epub 2018 May 10.

Immunology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Gastric cancer (GC) is the third and fifth cause of cancer-associated mortality for men and women throughout the world, respectively. Despite the use of surgery and chemotherapy for GC therapy, there are no efficient therapeutic protocols for it to date. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) due to their pivotal role in tumor initiation, growth, progression, invasion, distant metastasis, recurrence and resistance to anticancer drugs are very appealing targets for cancer therapies. Here, we isolated and identified CSCs from a chemotherapy-treated patient. Small subpopulation of dissociated cells after tissue digestion formed spheroid colonies in serum-free media under the non-adherent condition. These spheroid colonies differentiated into epithelial like cells in serum-containing medium. Few sphere-forming cells carried CD44 and CD54 markers overexpressed DLL4 that is responsible for tumor growth and angiogenesis. Subcutaneous injections of sphere-forming cells in different passages conferred tumorigenicity in nude mice. Sphere-forming cells upregulated CD44 polymorphisms CD44v3, -v6, and -v8 -10, stemness factors OCT4, SOX2, SALL4 and Cripto-1, self-renewal molecules IHh, Wnt, β-catenin and BMI1, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers Twist1 and Snail1 in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, these cells similar to sphere-forming cells isolated from a chemotherapy-free patient expressed Oct-4 and β-catenin proteins. However, the Twist1 protein was only expressed by sphere-forming cells derived from the chemotherapy-treated patient. Thus, these cells have all the characteristics of stationary and migratory CSCs, including tumorigenicity, self-renewal, pluripotency, invasion and metastasis. Taken together, targeting chemotherapy-enriched CSCs as chemo-resistance cells observed in GC patients can provide more effective therapeutic strategies compared to untreated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.26627DOI Listing
October 2018

S100A12-CD36 axis: A novel player in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis?

Cytokine 2019 10 26;122:154104. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of EF-hand calcium-binding proteins and have a variety of intracellular and extracellular activities. It exerts its proinflammatory effects by binding to the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). CD36 is a class B scavenger receptor that acts as a fatty acid transporter. Both S100A12 and CD36 are implicated in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis. It has recently been demonstrated that S100A12 binds with high affinity to CD36. On the other hand, RAGE and TLR4 play a key role in the regulation of CD36 expression. These observations point to the fact that S100A12 is an interesting molecular target for the development of therapeutics. This Cytokine stimulus will focus on the possible mechanisms of S100A12-CD36 axis in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2017.07.010DOI Listing
October 2019

Toll like receptor 4: an important molecule in recognition and induction of appropriate immune responses against Chlamydia infection.

Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis 2017 Apr 29;51:27-33. Epub 2017 Mar 29.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; Department of Immunology, Faculty of Medicine, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Chlamydia species are obligate intracellular pathogens causing different infectious diseases particularly asymptomatic genital infections and are also responsible for a wide range of complications. Previous studies showed that there are different immune responses to Chlamydia species and their infections are limited to some cases. Moreover, Chlamydia species are able to alter immune responses through modulating the expression of some immune system related molecules including cytokines. Toll like receptors (TLRs) belonge to pathogen recognition receptors (PRRs) and play vital roles in recognition of microbes and stimulation of appropriate immune responses. Therefore, it appears that TLRs may be considered as important sensors for recognition of Chlamydia and promotion of immune responses against these bacterial infections. Accordingly, TLR4 detects several microbial PAMPs such as bacterial lipopolysacharide (LPS) and subsequently activates transcription from pro-inflammatory cytokines in both MYD88 and TRIF pathways dependent manner. The purpose of this review is to provide the recent data about the status and major roles played by TLR4 in Chlamydia species recognition and promotion of immune responses against these infections and also the relationship between TLR4 activities and pathogenesis of Chlamydia infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cimid.2017.03.004DOI Listing
April 2017

Comment on "Potential Effects of Calcium Binding Protein S100A12 on Severity Evaluation and Curative Effect of Severe Acute Pancreatitis".

Inflammation 2017 10;40(5):1811-1812

School of Medical Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales, 2052, Australia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10753-017-0529-1DOI Listing
October 2017

Cytokine networks and their association with Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric carcinoma.

J Cell Physiol 2018 04 7;233(4):2791-2803. Epub 2017 Mar 7.

Human Genetic Division, Immunology Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cytokine networks as dynamic networks are pivotal aspects of tumor immunology, especially in gastric cancer (GC), in which infection, inflammation, and antitumor immunity are key elements of disease progression. In this review, we describe functional roles of well-known GC-modulatory cytokines, highlight the functions of cytokines with more recently described roles in GC, and emphasize the therapeutic potential of targeting the complex cytokine milieu. We also focus on the role of Helicobacter pylori (HP)-induced inflammation in GC and discuss how HP-induced chronic inflammation can lead to the induction of stem cell hyperplasia, morphological changes in gastric mucosa and GC development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.25822DOI Listing
April 2018

S100A12: Friend or foe in pulmonary tuberculosis?

Authors:
Vahid Bagheri

Cytokine 2017 04 18;92:80-82. Epub 2017 Jan 18.

Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

In humans, S100A12 (also named Calgranulin C and EN-RAGE) is mainly expressed and secreted by neutrophil granulocytes. Extracellular S100A12 is involved in innate immune responses against microorganisms and parasites. S100A12 is a ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), which is a cell surface receptor on macrophages, endothelium, and lymphocytes. In a recent study, Realegeno et al. showed that S100A12 exerts antimicrobial activity against Mycobacterium leprae in infected human macrophages. Recently, some interesting data on the antimicrobial activity of S100A12 have been reported. Proinflammatory role of S100A12 is supported by another newly found receptor, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These observations emphasize the importance of S100A12 for the development of potential therapeutic approaches to increase protective immunity or reduce immunopathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2017.01.009DOI Listing
April 2017

Isolation, identification, and characterization of cancer stem cells: A review.

J Cell Physiol 2017 Aug 28;232(8):2008-2018. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Human Genetic Division, Immunology Research Center, Bu-Ali Research Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) as a small subset of neoplastic cells are able to produce a tumor (tumorigenesis), maintain the population of tumorigenic cells (self-renewal), and generate the heterogeneous cells constructing the entire tumor (pluripotency). The research on stationary and circulating CSCs due to resistance to conventional therapies and inability in complete eradication of cancer is critical for developing novel therapeutic strategies for a more effective reduction in the risk of tumor metastasis and cancer recurrence. This review compiles information about different methods of detection and dissociation, side population, cellular markers, and establishment culture of CSCs, as well as characteristics of CSCs such as tumorigenicity, and signaling pathways associated with self-renewal and the capability of the same histological tumor regeneration in various cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.25759DOI Listing
August 2017

Neutralizing human recombinant antibodies against herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoproteins B from a phage-displayed scFv antibody library.

Life Sci 2017 Jan 23;169:1-5. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The HSV-1 envelope glycoprotein B (gB) plays a critical role in virus entry into host cells. Neutralizing antibodies can therefore potentially prevent virus entry into target cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection. Our present study focused on the selection of neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) antibodies of a phage-displayed nonimmune human scFv antibody library against gB of HSV-1. To enrich specific scFvs, two phage antibodies were isolated against amino acid residues 31-43 derived from the N-terminal part of gB using panning technique. Two scFvs, scFv-gB and scFv-gB, with frequencies of 45% and 20% were obtained from scFv clones after performing PCR and MvaI fingerprinting. In phage ELISA analysis, both gB and gB scFvs demonstrated high reactivity with the gB peptide. In the neutralization assay, scFv-gB and scFv-gB represented neutralizing effects of 55% and 59%, respectively. Upon further enhancement of the neutralizing effects of these antibodies, they can be considered as new potential alternatives in the treatment and prophylaxis of HSV-1 infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2016.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7094719PMC
January 2017

CXC chemokine CXCL12 tissue expression and circulating levels in peptic ulcer patients with Helicobacter pylori infection.

Cytokine 2016 09 3;85:1-4. Epub 2016 Jun 3.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is among the most prevalent human infections. CXCL12 is a well-known CXC chemokine involved in inflammation and play major roles in angiogenesis. There is currently very limited data on the role of CXCL12 in peptic ulcer disease. Hence, we aimed to explore whether CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis of peptic ulcer induced by H. pylori. In this study, we enrolled 102 H. pylori-infected patients, including 51 with active ulcer (GA) and 51 with healing ulcer (GH). We also recruited 50 healthy subjects as control, which did not show any sign or symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases, infection, or immune-related disorders. Endoscopy was performed to determine the stage of the disease. ELISA was used for detection of H. pylori infection and CXCL12 measurement. We also employed western blotting to detect CXCL12 in ulcerative lesions of H. pylori. Demographic data were also collected by questionnaire. Our results demonstrated that CXCL12 serum levels in GA group (151.8±18.31pg/mL) were significantly higher than those in GH (36.89±6.78pg/mL) and control groups (33.77±9.12pg/mL) (P<0.0001). However, we did not observe a significant difference between GH and control groups. Moreover, overexpression of CXCL12 in gastric lesions of patients in GA group was confirmed by Western blot analysis. According to the result of the present study, it could be concluded that CXCL12 is involved in the pathogenesis and healing of H. pylori-induced peptic ulcer. CXCL12 serum levels may also be used to distinguish between GA and GH phases of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2016.05.025DOI Listing
September 2016

Elevated levels of S100A12 in the seminal plasma of infertile men with varicocele.

Int Urol Nephrol 2016 Mar 2;48(3):343-7. Epub 2016 Jan 2.

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran.

Purpose: Varicocele is among the leading causes of male infertility. Despite decades of research, its pathogenesis is still unclear. S100A12 is a member of the S100 family of calcium-binding proteins with principal extracellular activities. It is secreted by activated neutrophils and interacts with the multiligand receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Many studies have delineated the patterns of S100A12 expression in a variety of pathologic conditions. These data show that S100A12 could be a potentially useful inflammatory marker. To explore the relationship between S100A12 and infertility, we examined the amount of S100A12 in semen of infertile men who suffered from varicocele.

Methods: S100A12 levels in seminal plasma of 68 infertile men with varicocele (age range 30-45 years) and 68 healthy fertile controls were measured using ELISA. Statistical analysis was performed using both parametric and nonparametric tests.

Results: Results of this study showed that the seminal levels of S100A12 were significantly increased in infertile men with varicocele when compared to fertile controls (P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Because of the important role(s) of these molecules in inflammatory response of cell systems, it could be possible that the spermatozoa motility is reduced following increasing neutrophils, S100A12, and reactive oxygen species in semen of infertile patients with varicocele. S100 proteins seem to be potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for male infertility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11255-015-1188-5DOI Listing
March 2016

New insights into the role of stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1/CXCL12) in the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis.

J Neuroimmunol 2016 Jan 24;290:70-5. Epub 2015 Nov 24.

Geriatric Care Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran; Department of Neurology, Ali-ebn-Abitaleb Hospital, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran. Electronic address:

The etiology of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS) is still not clarified. MS is defined as an autoimmune disease with clinical features of a chronic, inflammatory, and demyelinating autoimmune disorder, which affects the central nervous system. Phases of remission and relapse are the major course of the disease, which could be exacerbated in terms of both severity and duration. As a subfamily of the cytokines, chemokines act as chemoattractants for a wide variety of cells, including immune cells. CXCL12, which is an important member of the CXC subfamily, has been widely explored in the hematopoietic system. In the peripheral immune system, CXCL12/CXCR4 performs pleiotropic functions. CXCL12 is a highly effective chemoattractant for lymphocytes and monocytes but not neutrophils. CXCL12 is present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with MS and other inflammatory neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to summarize recent findings regarding the relationship between CXCL12 and MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2015.11.021DOI Listing
January 2016

Human papillomavirus and its clinical relevance in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a Kurdish population in the west of Iran.

Infect Dis (Lond) 2016 Apr 10;48(4):270-273. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

g Immunology of Infectious Diseases Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences , Rafsanjan , Iran.

Background The aetiological role of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was evaluated by assessment of the presence and status of HPV DNA in a Kurdish population in the west of Iran. Methods One hundred and three paraffin-embedded ESCC tissue samples, diagnosed between 2007-2013, were included in the study. DNA was extracted and then HPV presence and genotypes were determined by PCR and INNO-LiPA genotyping, respectively. Results HPV DNA was detected in 11/103 (10.7%) of ESCCs. HPV-18 and HPV-16 genotypes were determined in five and six samples, respectively. Co-infection of HPV-6 was only found with HPV-18 in two cases. There were no statistically significant distinctions between HPV-positive and HPV-negative cases with regard to clinical and pathologic findings. Conclusion The present study indicates that, among a group of Kurdish people in two provinces in the west of Iran, as a low-risk ESCC area, HPV could be one of the risk factors, although in a small proportion of the patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/23744235.2015.1109134DOI Listing
April 2016

S100A12 and RAGE expression in human bladder transitional cell carcinoma: a role for the ligand/RAGE axis in tumor progression?

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2015 ;16(7):2725-9

Molecular Medicine Research Center, Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan, Iran E-mail :

Background: Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) and prostate cancer are the most frequent cancers in the male genitourinary tract. Measurement of biological biomarkers may facilitate clinical monitoring and aid early diagnosis of TCC. The aim of the present investigation was to detect the mRNA levels of S100A12 and RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end products) in patients suffering from bladder TCC.

Materials And Methods: To explore the involvement of S100A12 and RAGE genes, total RNA was harvested from cancer tissues and samples obtained from normal non-tumorized urothelium of the same patients. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was subsequently employed to determine the mRNA levels of S100A12 and RAGE.

Results: The results showed that mRNA expression of S100A12 and RAGE was significantly up-regulated in the cancer tissue.

Conclusions: According to the results presented in the current study, mRNA expression of S100A12 and RAGE might be as a useful biomarker for TCC. Therefore, this ligand-receptor axis possibly plays important roles in the development of TCC and may serve either as an early diagnostic marker or as a key factor in monitoring of response to treatment. More research is required concerning inhibition of the S100A12-RAGE axis in different cancer models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2015.16.7.2725DOI Listing
January 2016

Can Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) 2 be considered as a new target for immunotherapy against hepatitis B infection?

Hum Immunol 2014 Jun 12;75(6):549-54. Epub 2014 Feb 12.

School of Biomolecular and Physical Science, Eskitis Institute for Drug Discovery, Griffith University Nathan, Queensland, Australia.

The current literature describes pivotal mechanisms in which hepatitis B virus (HBV) induces liver diseases including inflammation, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It appears that differences in genetic and immunological parameters between patients and controls may be responsible for inducing the prolonged forms of the infection. Previous studies demonstrated that Toll-Like Receptors (TLRs) play key roles in viral recognition and inducing appropriate immune responses. Therefore, TLRs can be considered as key sensors for HBV recognition and subsequent induction of immune responses against this virus. It has also been shown that the TLR2 detects several microbial PAMPs either in its homodimer form or in a heterodimer with TLR1 or TLR6 and subsequently activates NF-κB in a MYD88 dependent manner. Therefore, defective TLR2 expression may result in impaired immune responses against HBV which is reported in long-term forms of hepatitis B. This review presents the recent data regarding the status and important roles played by TLR2 in HBV recognition and induction or suppression of immune responses against HBV as well as its roles in the pathogenesis of cirrhosis and HCC in prolonged hepatitis B forms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2014.02.018DOI Listing
June 2014
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