Publications by authors named "V Rompokos"

8 Publications

Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation in stopping-power and range prediction in particle therapy.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Jul 27;163:7-13. Epub 2021 Jul 27.

OncoRay - National Center for Radiation Research in Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Dresden, Germany; Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden - Rossendorf, Institute of Radiooncology - OncoRay, Dresden, Germany; Department of Radiotherapy and Radiation Oncology, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität Dresden, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), partner site Dresden, and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Experimental assessment of inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy of stopping-power-ratio (SPR) prediction within 17 particle therapy centres of the European Particle Therapy Network.

Material And Methods: A head and body phantom with seventeen tissue-equivalent materials were scanned consecutively at the participating centres using their individual clinical CT scan protocol and translated into SPR with their in-house CT-number-to-SPR conversion. Inter-centre variation and absolute accuracy in SPR prediction were quantified for three tissue groups: lung, soft tissues and bones. The integral effect on range prediction for typical clinical beams traversing different tissues was determined for representative beam paths for the treatment of primary brain tumours as well as lung and prostate cancer.

Results: An inter-centre variation in SPR prediction (2σ) of 8.7%, 6.3% and 1.5% relative to water was determined for bone, lung and soft-tissue surrogates in the head setup, respectively. Slightly smaller variations were observed in the body phantom (6.2%, 3.1%, 1.3%). This translated into inter-centre variation of integral range prediction (2σ) of 2.9%, 2.6% and 1.3% for typical beam paths of prostate-, lung- and primary brain-tumour treatments, respectively. The absolute error in range exceeded 2% in every fourth participating centre. The consideration of beam hardening and the execution of an independent HLUT validation had a positive effect, on average.

Conclusion: The large inter-centre variations in SPR and range prediction justify the currently clinically used margins accounting for range uncertainty, which are of the same magnitude as the inter-centre variation. This study underlines the necessity of higher standardisation in CT-number-to-SPR conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.07.019DOI Listing
July 2021

Risk of radiation-induced second malignant neoplasms from photon and proton radiotherapy in paediatric abdominal neuroblastoma.

Phys Imaging Radiat Oncol 2021 Jul 9;19:45-52. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Centre for Medical Image Computing, Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.

Background And Purpose: State-of-the-art radiotherapy modalities have the potential of reducing late effects of treatment in childhood cancer survivors. Our aim was to investigate the carcinogenic risk associated with 3D conformal (photon) radiation (3D-CRT), intensity modulated arc therapy (IMAT) and pencil beam scanning proton therapy (PBS-PT) in the treatment of paediatric abdominal neuroblastoma.

Materials And Methods: The risk of radiation-induced second malignant neoplasm (SMN) was estimated using the concept of organ equivalent dose (OED) for eleven organs (lungs, rectum, colon, stomach, small intestine, liver, bladder, skin, central nervous system (CNS), bone, and soft tissues). The risk ratio (RR) between radiotherapy modalities and lifetime absolute risks (LAR) were reported for twenty abdominal neuroblastoma patients (median, 4y; range, 1-9y) historically treated with 3D-CRT that were also retrospectively replanned for IMAT and PBS-PT.

Results: The risk of SMN due to primary radiation was reduced in PBS-PT against 3D-CRT and IMAT for most patients and organs. The RR across all organs ranged from 0.38 ± 0.22 (bladder) to 0.98 ± 0.04 (CNS) between PBS-PT and IMAT, and 0.12 ± 0.06 (rectum and bladder) to 1.06 ± 0.43 (bone) between PBS-PT and 3D-CRT. The LAR for most organs was within 0.01-1% (except the colon) with a cumulative risk of 21 ± 13%, 35 ± 14% and 35 ± 16% for PBS-PT, IMAT and 3D-CRT, respectively.

Conclusions: PBS-PT was associated with the lowest risk of radiation-induced SMN compared to IMAT and 3D-CRT in abdominal neuroblastoma treatment. Other clinical endpoints and plan robustness should also be considered for optimal plan selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phro.2021.06.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8295851PMC
July 2021

Assessment of the impact of CT calibration procedures for proton therapy planning on pediatric treatments.

Med Phys 2021 Sep 20;48(9):5202-5218. Epub 2021 Jul 20.

Department of Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, University College London, London, UK.

Purpose: Relative stopping powers (RSPs) for proton therapy are estimated using single-energy computed tomography (SECT), calibrated with standardized tissues of the adult male. It is assumed that those tissues are representative of tissues of all age and sex. Female, male, and pediatric tissues differ from one another in density and composition. In this study, we use tabulated pediatric tissues and computational phantoms to investigate the impact of this assumption on pediatric proton therapy. The potential of dual-energy CT (DECT) to improve the accuracy of these calculations is explored.

Methods: We study 51 human body tissues, categorized into male/female for the age groups newborn, 1-, 5-, 10-, and 15-year-old children, and adult, with given compositions and densities. CT numbers are simulated and RSPs are estimated using SECT and DECT methods. Estimated tissue RSPs from each method are compared to theoretical RSPs. The dose and range errors of each approach are evaluated on three computational phantoms (Ewing's sarcoma, salivary sarcoma, and glioma) derived from pediatric proton therapy patients.

Results: With SECT, soft tissues have mean estimation errors and standard deviation up to (1.96 ± 4.18)% observed in newborns, compared to (0.20 ± 1.15)% in adult males. Mean estimation errors for bones are up to (-3.35 ± 4.76)% in pediatrics as opposed to (0.10 ± 0.66)% in adult males. With DECT, mean errors reduce to (0.17 ± 0.13)% and (0.23 ± 0.22)% in newborns (soft tissues/bones). With SECT, dose errors in a Ewing's sarcoma phantom are exceeding 5 Gy (10% of prescribed dose) at the distal end of the treatment field, with volumes of dose errors >5 Gy of  mm . Similar observations are made in the head and neck phantoms, with overdoses to healthy tissue exceeding 2 Gy (4%). A systematic Bragg peak shift resulting in either over- or underdosage of healthy tissues and target volumes depending on the crossed tissues RSP prediction errors is observed. Water equivalent range errors of single beams are between -1.53 and 5.50 mm (min, max) (Ewing's sarcoma phantom), -0.78 and 3.62 mm (salivary sarcoma phantom), and -0.43 and 1.41 mm (glioma phantom). DECT can reduce dose errors to <1 Gy and range errors to <1 mm.

Conclusion: Single-energy computed tomography estimates RSPs for pediatric tissues with systematic shifts. DECT improves the accuracy of RSPs and dose distributions in pediatric tissues compared to the SECT calibration curve based on adult male tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15062DOI Listing
September 2021

Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy Case Selection for Paediatric Abdominal Neuroblastoma: Effects of Tumour Location and Bowel Gas.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 03 19;33(3):e132-e142. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

Aims: Pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy is an increasingly used radiation modality for childhood malignancies due to its ability to minimise dose to surrounding organs. However, the dosimetry is extremely sensitive to anatomical and density changes. The aims of this study were to investigate if there is a dosimetric benefit or detriment with PBS for paediatric abdominal neuroblastoma, assess gastrointestinal air variability and its dosimetric consequences, plus identify if there are factors that could assist case selection for PBS referral.

Materials And Methods: Twenty neuroblastoma cases were double-planned with PBS and intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT). Cases were divided into unilateral, midline unilateral and midline bilateral locations in relation to the kidneys. Plans were recalculated after the gastrointestinal volume was simulated as air (Hounsfield Units -700) and water (Hounsfield Units 0), then compared with nominal plans (recalculated - nominal, ΔD). Forty-three weekly cone beam computed tomography scans were analysed to quantify gastrointestinal air variability during treatment.

Results: PBS reduced the mean dose to normal tissues at all tumour locations, particularly unilateral tumours. However, 15% had better dosimetry with IMAT, all of which were midline tumours. Increased gastrointestinal air caused significant compromises to PBS versus IMAT plans for midline tumours [median/maximum ΔD95% clinical target volume (CTV) -2.4%/-15.7% PBS versus 1.4%/0% IMAT, P = 0.003], whereas minimal impact was observed for unilateral tumours (ΔD95% CTV -0.5%/-1.9% PBS versus 0.5%/-0.5% IMAT, P = 0.008). D95% CTV was significantly decreased in PBS plans if planning target volume (PTV) ≥400 cm (median -4.1%, P = 0.001) or PTV extension ≥60% anterior to vertebral body (-2.1%, P = 0.002). A larger variation in gastrointestinal air was observed in patients treated under general anaesthesia (median 38.4%) versus awake (11.5%); P = 0.004.

Conclusion: In this planning study, tumours at the unilateral location consistently showed improved dose reductions to normal tissue with minimal dose degradation from increased gastrointestinal air with PBS plans. Tumour location, PTV volume and anterior extension of PTV are useful characteristics in facilitating patient selection for PBS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2020.08.012DOI Listing
March 2021

Retrospective Planning Study of Patients with Superior Sulcus Tumours Comparing Pencil Beam Scanning Protons to Volumetric-Modulated Arc Therapy.

Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) 2021 03 11;33(3):e118-e131. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

Department of Clinical Oncology, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.

Aims: Twenty per cent of patients with non-small cell lung cancer present with stage III locally advanced disease. Precision radiotherapy with pencil beam scanning (PBS) protons may improve outcomes. However, stage III is a heterogeneous group and accounting for complex tumour motion is challenging. As yet, it remains unclear as to whom will benefit. In our retrospective planning study, we explored if patients with superior sulcus tumours (SSTs) are a select cohort who might benefit from this treatment.

Materials And Methods: Patients with SSTs treated with radical radiotherapy using four-dimensional planning computed tomography between 2010 and 2015 were identified. Tumour motion was assessed and excluded if greater than 5 mm. Photon volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and PBS proton single-field optimisation plans, with and without inhomogeneity corrections, were generated retrospectively. Robustness analysis was assessed for VMAT and PBS plans involving: (i) 5 mm geometric uncertainty, with an additional 3.5% range uncertainty for proton plans; (ii) verification plans at maximal inhalation and exhalation. Comparative dosimetric and robustness analyses were carried out.

Results: Ten patients were suitable. The mean clinical target volume D95 was 98.1% ± 0.4 (97.5-98.8) and 98.4% ± 0.2 (98.1-98.9) for PBS and VMAT plans, respectively. All normal tissue tolerances were achieved. The same four PBS and VMAT plans failed robustness assessment. Inhomogeneity corrections minimally impacted proton plan robustness and made it worse in one case. The most important factor affecting target coverage and robustness was the clinical target volume entering the spinal canal. Proton plans significantly reduced the mean lung dose (by 21.9%), lung V5, V10, V20 (by 47.9%, 36.4%, 12.1%, respectively), mean heart dose (by 21.4%) and thoracic vertebra dose (by 29.2%) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: In this planning study, robust PBS plans were achievable in carefully selected patients. Considerable dose reductions to the lung, heart and thoracic vertebra were possible without compromising target coverage. Sparing these lymphopenia-related organs may be particularly important in this era of immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clon.2020.07.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7883303PMC
March 2021
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