Publications by authors named "Véronique Vendrely"

57 Publications

What is the optimal treatment for T1N0 anal squamous cell carcinoma? Analysis of current practices in the prospective French FFCD ANABASE cohort.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Radiation Oncology Department, Haut-Lévêque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, Pessac 33600, France; INSERM Unit 1035, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux 33000, France. Electronic address:

Introduction: for localized T1N0 squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) standard radiotherapy (RT) may result in overtreatment and alternative strategies are debated.

Methods: T1N0M0 SCCA treated between 2015 and 2020 by local excision (LE) or RT were analyzed from the French prospective FFCD ANABASE cohort. Treatment strategies, recurrence-free and colostomy-free survivals (RFS, CFS) and prognostic factors were reported.

Results: among 1135 SCCA patients, 99 T1N0M0 were treated by LE(n = 17,17.2%), or RT (n = 82,82.8%) including RT alone (n = 65,79.2%) or chemo-RT (n = 17, 20.7%). Median follow-up was 27.2 months [0.03-54.44]. Median tumor size were 11.4 mm [0.9-20] and 15.3 mm [2-20] in the LE and RT groups respectively. Mean RT tumor dose was 59.4 Gy [18-69.4 Gy]. One patient in LE group and 9 in RT group had a pelvic recurrence, either local (60%), nodal (10%) or both (30%). RFS and CFS at 24 months were 92.2%[95%CI,83.4-96.4] and 94.6%[95%CI,86.1-98.0], at 36 months 88.1%[95%CI,77.1-94.2] and 88.5%[95%CI,77.0-94.5], in LE and RT group respectively, without any significative difference (HR = 0.57;[95%CI,0.07-4.45];p = 0.60). By univariate analysis, male gender was the only prognostic factor(HR = 5.57;95%CI, 1.76-17.63; p = 0.004).

Conclusion: this cohort confirms the heterogeneity of T1N0M0 SCCA management, questioning the place of RT alone, reduced dose or RT volume, and the safety of LE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.03.015DOI Listing
April 2021

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX and preoperative chemoradiotherapy for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer (UNICANCER-PRODIGE 23): a multicentre, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 13;22(5):702-715. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Hôpital Nord Franche-Comté, Montbéliard, France; University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France.

Background: Treatment of locally advanced rectal cancer with chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and adjuvant chemotherapy controls local disease, but distant metastases remain common. We aimed to assess whether administering neoadjuvant chemotherapy before preoperative chemoradiotherapy could reduce the risk of distant recurrences.

Methods: We did a phase 3, open-label, multicentre, randomised trial at 35 hospitals in France. Eligible patients were adults aged 18-75 years and had newly diagnosed, biopsy-proven, rectal adenocarcinoma staged cT3 or cT4 M0, with a WHO performance status of 0-1. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group or standard-of-care group, using an independent web-based system by minimisation method stratified by centre, extramural extension of the tumour into perirectal fat according to MRI, tumour location, and stage. Investigators and participants were not masked to treatment allocation. The neoadjuvant chemotherapy group received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with FOLFIRINOX (oxaliplatin 85 mg/m, irinotecan 180 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m, and fluorouracil 2400 mg/m intravenously every 14 days for 6 cycles), chemoradiotherapy (50 Gy during 5 weeks and 800 mg/m concurrent oral capecitabine twice daily for 5 days per week), total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant chemotherapy (3 months of modified FOLFOX6 [intravenous oxaliplatin 85 mg/m and leucovorin 400 mg/m, followed by intravenous 400 mg/m fluorouracil bolus and then continuous infusion at a dose of 2400 mg/m over 46 h every 14 days for six cycles] or capecitabine [1250 mg/m orally twice daily on days 1-14 every 21 days]). The standard-of-care group received chemoradiotherapy, total mesorectal excision, and adjuvant chemotherapy (for 6 months). The primary endpoint was disease-free survival assessed in the intention-to-treat population at 3 years. Safety analyses were done on treated patients. This trial was registered with EudraCT (2011-004406-25) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01804790) and is now complete.

Findings: Between June 5, 2012, and June 26, 2017, 461 patients were randomly assigned to either the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (n=231) or the standard-of-care group (n=230). At a median follow-up of 46·5 months (IQR 35·4-61·6), 3-year disease-free survival rates were 76% (95% CI 69-81) in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 69% (62-74) in the standard-of-care group (stratified hazard ratio 0·69, 95% CI 0·49-0·97; p=0·034). During neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (38 [17%] of 225 patients) and diarrhoea (25 [11%] of 226). During chemoradiotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse event was lymphopenia (59 [28%] of 212 in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group vs 67 [30%] of 226 patients in the standard-of-care group). During adjuvant chemotherapy, the most common grade 3-4 adverse events were lymphopenia (18 [11%] of 161 in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group vs 42 [27%] of 155 in the standard-of-care group), neutropenia (nine [6%] of 161 vs 28 [18%] of 155), and peripheral sensory neuropathy (19 [12%] of 162 vs 32 [21%] of 155). Serious adverse events occurred in 63 (27%) of 231 participants in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 50 (22%) of 230 patients in the standard-of-care group (p=0·167), during the whole treatment period. During adjuvant therapy, serious adverse events occurred in 18 (11%) of 163 participants in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and 36 (23%) of 158 patients in the standard-of-care group (p=0·0049). Treatment-related deaths occurred in one (<1%) of 226 patients in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (sudden death) and two (1%) of 227 patients in the standard-of-care group (one sudden death and one myocardial infarction).

Interpretation: Intensification of chemotherapy using FOLFIRINOX before preoperative chemoradiotherapy significantly improved outcomes compared with preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with cT3 or cT4 M0 rectal cancer. The significantly improved disease-free survival in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group and the decreased neurotoxicity indicates that the perioperative approach is more efficient and better tolerated than adjuvant chemotherapy. Therefore, the PRODIGE 23 results might change clinical practice.

Funding: Institut National du Cancer, Ligue Nationale Contre le Cancer, and R&D Unicancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00079-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Phase III randomized trial evaluating chemotherapy followed by pelvic re-irradiation versus chemotherapy alone as pre-operative treatment for locally recurrent rectal cancer - GRECCAR 15 Trial Protocol.

Colorectal Dis 2021 Apr 12. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Radiotherapy Department, Haut-Lévèque Hospital, avenue Magellan, 33604, Pessac CHU Bordeaux, France.

Aim: Treatment strategies in locally recurrent rectal cancer (LRRC) are complex and need to be balanced against previous treatments received for the primary rectal cancer. Radiotherapy is an important component of treatment in LRRC. However, there is little high quality evidence on the role of re-irradiation in this cohort.

Methods: GRECCAR 15 is a prospective, multi-centre, open-label, outcome assessor blinded, superiority randomized controlled phase III clinical trial, comparing neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by pelvic re-irradiation versus neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone in patients with LRRC previously irradiated for the primary cancer. Adult patients (>18 years old) with a histologically proven, resectable LRRC, who previously have received pelvic radiotherapy for their primary rectal cancer at a dose of 25-50.4 Gy, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of <2 will be eligible to participate. The primary outcome of this trial is R0 resection rate. Overall, GRECCAR 15 aims to recruit 186 patients to detect an absolute difference of 20 % in the R0 resection rate with 80% power and 5% 2-sided significance level.

Conclusion: GRECCAR 15 trial is the first, definitive, phase III trial investigating re-irradiation in LRRC. The results of this trial will inform definitively the neoadjuvant treatment strategy in previously irradiated patients and assess whether there is any associated benefit of re-irradiation in combination with induction chemotherapy in improving R0 resection rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/codi.15670DOI Listing
April 2021

Oncological strategy following R1 sphincter-saving resection in low rectal cancer after chemoradiotherapy.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2021 Feb 12. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

CHU Bordeaux, Colorectal Unit Magellan Centre, Haut-Leveque Hospital, Pessac, F-33600; University of Bordeaux; Bordeaux, F-33076, France.

Aim: Sphincter-saving resection (SSR) for low rectal cancer remains challenging due to the high risk of positive resection margin (R1). Long-term outcomes and the dedicated oncological strategy are not well established in this situation. The aim of this study was to define the more appropriate strategy according to the patterns of recurrence.

Methods: Between 1994 and 2014, patients treated by SSR for low rectal cancer with preoperative chemoradiotherapy were included. Three types of recurrences were defined: local (LR), distant (DR) and mixed (MR). Recurrences and survival after R0 and R1 resection were analysed by Kaplan-Meier and compared with the log-rang test.

Results: Among 394 patients receiving SSR, 42 (10.6%) had R1 resection. Independent factors of R1 resection were EMVI (OR2.24,95%IC1.10-4.53,p = 0.025) and no tumor downstaging (OR8.41,95%IC2.50-8.32,p = 0.001). Both 5-year disease free and overall survival, and 5-year distant and local recurrence, were significantly worse after R1 resection. The overall recurrence after R1 resection was 57% (24/42), 7% had LR, 36% DR and 14% MR. Time to DR was shorter than time to LR (11.1 vs. 34.3) months. In all cases of MR, DR occurred before LR (12.1 vs. 34.3) months, meaning that after R1 resection, the first concern was DR.

Conclusion: R1 resection after SSR for low rectal cancer reflects a more aggressive and systemic disease. Prognosis depends on DR in about 90% of cases, suggesting that pelvic control should not be the priority in the oncological strategy after R1. Adjuvant systemic chemotherapy ought to be preferred to salvage abdominoperineal resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2021.01.031DOI Listing
February 2021

Next-Generation Cancer Biomarkers: Extracellular Vesicle DNA as a Circulating Surrogate of Tumor DNA.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 2;8:622048. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are produced by healthy tissues and tumor cells and are released in various bodily fluids, including blood. They are limited by bilayer phospholipidic membranes, and they carry a rich content in biomolecules. Their release cleanses the cells of their waste or serves as functional local and distant cell-cell communication and molecular exchange particles. This rich and heterogeneous content has been given intense attention in cancer physiopathology because EVs support cancer control and progression. Because of their specific active cargo, they are being evaluated as carriers of liquid biopsy biomarkers. Compared to soluble circulating biomarkers, their complexity might provide rich information on tumor and metastases status. Thanks to the acquired genomic changes commonly observed in oncogenic processes, double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in EVs might be the latest most promising biomarker of tumor presence and complexity. This review will focus on the recent knowledge on the DNA inclusion in vesicles, the technical aspects of EV-DNA detection and quantification, and the use of EV-DNA as a clinical biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.622048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884755PMC
February 2021

Radiosensitizing Chemotherapy (Irinotecan) with Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Inoperable Liver and/or Lung Metastases of Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 11;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, 44800 St-Herblain, France.

: Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is a recognized treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. We postulated that local responses could be improved by SBRT with a concomitant radiosensitizing agent (irinotecan). : RADIOSTEREO-CAMPTO was a prospective multi-center phase 2 trial investigating SBRT (40-48 Gy in 4 fractions) for liver and/or lung inoperable CRC oligometastases (≤3), combined with two weekly intravenous infusions of 40 mg/m Irinotecan. Primary outcome was the objective local response rate as per RECIST. Secondary outcomes were early and late toxicities, EORTC QLQ-C30 quality of life, local control and overall survival. : Forty-four patients with 51 lesions (liver = 39, lungs = 12) were included. Median age was 69 years (46-84); 37 patients (84%) had received at least two prior chemotherapy treatments. Median follow-up was 48.9 months. One patient with two lung lesions was lost during follow-up. Assuming maximum bias hypothesis, the objective local response rate in ITT was 86.3% (44/51-95% CI: [76.8-95.7]) or 82.4% (42/51-95% CI: [71.9-92.8]). The observed local response rate was 85.7% (42/49-95% CI: [75.9-95.5]). The 1 and 2-year local (distant) progression-free survivals were 84.2% (38.4%) and 67.4% (21.3%), respectively. The 1 and 2-year overall survivals were 97.5% and 75.5%. There were no severe acute or late reactions. The EORTC questionnaire scores did not significantly worsen during or after treatment. : SBRT with irinotecan was well tolerated with promising results despite heavily pretreated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827408PMC
January 2021

MRI-Based Radiomics Input for Prediction of 2-Year Disease Recurrence in Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 7;13(2). Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Radiation Oncology Department, Hôpital Haut-Lévêque, CHU Bordeaux, 33600 Pessac, France.

Purpose: Chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) is the standard treatment for non-metastatic anal squamous cell carcinomas (ASCC). Despite excellent results for T1-2 stages, relapses still occur in around 35% of locally advanced tumors. Recent strategies focus on treatment intensification, but could benefit from a better patient selection. Our goal was to assess the prognostic value of pre-therapeutic MRI radiomics on 2-year disease control (DC).

Methods: We retrospectively selected patients with non-metastatic ASCC treated at the CHU Bordeaux and in the French FFCD0904 multicentric trial. Radiomic features were extracted from T2-weighted pre-therapeutic MRI delineated sequences. After random division between training and testing sets on a 2:1 ratio, univariate and multivariate analysis were performed on the training cohort to select optimal features. The correlation with 2-year DC was assessed using logistic regression models, with AUC and accuracy as performance gauges, and the prediction of disease-free survival using Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier analysis.

Results: A total of 82 patients were randomized in the training ( = 54) and testing sets ( = 28). At 2 years, 24 patients (29%) presented relapse. In the training set, two clinical (tumor size and CRT length) and two radiomic features (FirstOrder_Entropy and GLCM_JointEnergy) were associated with disease control in univariate analysis and included in the model. The clinical model was outperformed by the mixed (clinical and radiomic) model in both the training (AUC 0.758 versus 0.825, accuracy of 75.9% versus 87%) and testing (AUC 0.714 versus 0.898, accuracy of 78.6% versus 85.7%) sets, which led to distinctive high and low risk of disease relapse groups (HR 8.60, = 0.005).

Conclusion: A mixed model with two clinical and two radiomic features was predictive of 2-year disease control after CRT and could contribute to identify high risk patients amenable to treatment intensification with view of personalized medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13020193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7827348PMC
January 2021

Pooled analysis of 115 patients from updated data of Epitopes-HPV01 and Epitopes-HPV02 studies in first-line advanced anal squamous cell carcinoma.

Ther Adv Med Oncol 2020 4;12:1758835920975356. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon, France.

Aims: The addition of docetaxel to cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (DCF) has shown promising efficacy in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA). Preliminary results of Epitopes-HPV01 study showed a high rate of long-lasting complete response to DCF. The prospective, multicenter, Epitopes-HPV02 trial then confirmed the high efficacy of the modified DCF (mDCF) regimen in terms of complete response rate and long-term survival in metastatic or non-resectable locally advanced recurrent SCCA. Here, we present updated results of the Epitopes-HPV01 and Epitopes-HPV02 studies.

Patients & Methods: Epitopes-HPV01 is a prospective study performed by the regional cancer network of Franche-Comté, France. Epitopes-HPV02 is a phase II study supported by two French collaborative oncological groups, performed in 25 centers. Both studies included patients with metastatic, or with unresectable local recurrent SCCA, treated with DCF regimen.

Results: In Epitopes-HPV01, 51 patients were enrolled between September 2012 and January 2019, and 49 patients were included for analysis; while 69 patients were included between September 2014 and December 2016 in Epitopes-HPV02, and 66 patients for analysis. Pooled analysis of 115 patients showed a median progression-free survival of 12.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 10.6-16.1] [11.0 months (9.3-16.0) in -HPV02, and 15.6 months (11.2-34.5) in -HPV01, ( = 0.06)]. The median overall survival was 39.2 months (26.0-109.1) [36.3 in -HPV02 (25.2-NR), and 61.1 months (21.4-120.0) in -HPV01 ( = 0.62)]. Objective response rate was 87.7% (90.9% in -HPV02 and 83.3% in -HPV01) with 40.3% of complete response (45.5% in -HPV02 and 33.3% in -HPV01). No differences were observed between standard DCF ( = 54) and mDCF ( = 58) in terms of OS ( = 0.57) and PFS ( = 0.99). 5-years PFS and OS rates were 24.5% and 44.4%, respectively, in the whole population. No treatment-related death was observed.

Conclusion: Updated results of Epitopes-HPV01 and 02 studies, as well as the pooled analysis, confirm mDCF as a standard treatment in patients with advanced SCCA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1758835920975356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720302PMC
December 2020

Impact of abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy on disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease: a multicentre cohort study from the GETAID.

Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2021 02 26;53(3):400-409. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Bordeaux, France.

Background: Abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients raises concerns regarding the risk of worsening of underlying disease.

Aim: To assess the impact of radiotherapy on IBD course.

Methods: A retrospective multicentre study including IBD patients exposed to abdominal or pelvic irradiation was conducted, retrieving IBD activity by semester (6-month periods) before (from S-4 to S-1) and after (from S + 1 to S + 6) radiotherapy and IBD flare during follow-up.

Results: Sixty-one patients (32 women, mean age 59 years), with 467 patient semesters of follow-up, treated for digestive (n = 31), urinary tract (n = 23) and gynaecological cancers (n = 7) were included. Rates of IBD activity per semester were, respectively, 21% (95% CI: 16-27) from S-4 to S-1; 12% (7-19) from S + 1 to S + 3 (P = 0.15 vs S-4 to S-1) and 16% (10-25) from S + 4 to S + 6 (P = 0.45 vs S-4 to S-1). With a median follow-up of 156 weeks (interquartile range: 82-365), rates of survival without IBD flare at 1 and 3 years after radiotherapy were 82.5% (73.2-93.0) and 70.6% (58.8-84.7). Moderate-to-severe acute radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity and the absence of concomitant chemotherapy were independently associated with an increased risk of flare.

Conclusion: Most patients with non-active IBD can be safely treated with abdominal or pelvic radiotherapy. Patients having acute gut toxicity and those without concomitant chemotherapy should be more closely monitored in the post-radiotherapy period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/apt.16176DOI Listing
February 2021

Optimizing treatment sequencing of chemotherapy for patients with rectal cancer: The KIR randomized phase II trial.

Radiother Oncol 2021 02 19;155:237-245. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Oncology, Division of Radiation Oncology, Sir Mortimer B. Davis Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Background: Randomized studies have shown low compliance to adjuvant chemotherapy in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy and external beam radiation (CT/EBRT) with total mesorectal excision. We hypothesize that giving neoadjuvant CT before local treatment would improve CT compliance.

Methods: Between 2010-2017, 180 patients were randomized (2:1) to either Arm A (AA) with FOLFOX x6 cycles prior to high dose rate brachytherapy (HDRBT) and surgery plus adjuvant FOLFOX x6 cycles, or Arm B (AB), with neoadjuvant HDRBT with surgery and adjuvant FOLFOX x12 cycles. The primary endpoint was CT compliance to ≥85% of full-dose CT for the first six cycles. Secondary endpoints were ypT0N0, five-year disease free survival (DFS), local control and overall survival (OS).

Results: Patients were randomized to either AA (n = 120, median age (MA) 62 years) or AB (n = 60, MA 63 years). 175/180 patients completed HDRBT as planned (97.2%). In AA, two patients expired during CT; three patients post-randomization received short course EBRT because of progression under CT (n = 2, AA) or personal preference (n = 1, AB). ypT0N0 was 31% in AA and 28% in AB (p = 0.7). CT Compliance was 80% in AA and 53% in AB (p = 0.0002). Acute G3/G4 toxicity was 35.8% in AA and 27.6% in AB (p = 0.23). With a median follow-up of 48.5 months (IQR 33-72), the five-year DFS was 72.3% with AA and 68.3% with AB (p = 0.74), the five-year OS 83.8% for AA and 82.2% for AB (p = 0.53), and the five-year local recurrence was 6.3% for AA and 5.8% for AB (p = 0.71).

Conclusion: We confirmed improved compliance to neoadjuvant CT in this study. Although there is no statistical difference in ypT0N0 rate, local recurrence, and DFS between the two arms, a trend towards favourable oncological outcomes is observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.11.008DOI Listing
February 2021

Interval between planning and frameless stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases: are our margins still accurate?

Neurooncol Pract 2020 Mar 1;7(2):211-217. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

CHU-Bordeaux, Radiotherapy Department, France.

Background: Advances in intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) have led to dramatically reduced planning target volume (PTV) margins. However, tumor growth between planning and treatment may lead to treatment failure. Our purpose was to assess the kinetics of tumor growth before SRS for brain metastases.

Methods: This retrospective, monocentric study included all consecutive patients (pts) treated for brain metastases secondary to melanoma (ML) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) between June 2015 and May 2016. All pts underwent diagnostic brain imaging and a radiosurgery planning MRI, during which gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated. Linear and exponential models were used to extrapolate a theoretical GTV at first day of treatment, and theoretical time to outgrow the PTV margins.

Results: Twenty-three ML and 31 NSCLC brain metastases (42 pts, 84 brain imaging scans) were analyzed. Comparison of GTV at diagnosis and planning showed increased tumor volume for 20 ML pts (96%) and 22 NSCLC pts (71%). The shortest time to outgrow a 1 mm margin was 6 days and 3 days for ML and 14 and 8 days for NSCLC with linear and exponential models, respectively.

Conclusions: Physicians should bear in mind the interval between SRS planning and treatment. A mathematical model could screen rapidly progressing tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nop/npz048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7318853PMC
March 2020

Atezolizumab plus modified docetaxel-cisplatin-5-fluorouracil (mDCF) regimen versus mDCF in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma: a randomized, non-comparative phase II SCARCE GERCOR trial.

BMC Cancer 2020 Apr 25;20(1):352. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Besançon, 3 Boulevard Alexander Flemingn, F-25030, Besançon, France.

Background: Modified docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil (mDCF) regimen has become a new standard for the treatment of metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) after demonstrating improved efficacy (12-month PFS of 47%) in the Epitopes-HPV02 trial. Antibodies targeting the checkpoint inhibitor (CKI) programmed cell death protein-1 (PD1) have demonstrated the efficacy as monotherapies in second-line treatment of SCCA. The aim of this study is to evaluate the combination of atezolizumab and mDCF as first-line chemotherapy in a non-comparative multicentre randomized phase II study of advanced SCCA patients.

Methods: Patients with chemo-naive advanced histologically proven SCCA, metastatic or unresectable locally advanced recurrence, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group-performance status (ECOG-PS) < 2 will be eligible. The primary endpoint is a 12-month PFS rate. Using one-arm non-parametric survival with unilateral alpha type I error of 5% and a statistical power of 80%, the upper critical value for the 12-month PFS rate is 47% to reject H0. Assuming 5% lost to follow-up, 99 patients will be randomized on a 2:1 basis, 66 to the experimental arm (arm A, mDCF plus atezolizumab) and 33 to the standard arm (arm B, mDCF). In both arms, 8 cycles of mDCF will be administered. In arm A, patients receive mDCF with a fixed dose of atezolizumab (800 mg every 2 weeks) and are followed up to 1 year. Secondary endpoints are overall survival, PFS, response rate, safety, health-related quality of life, and an extensive biomarker programme and its correlation with the treatment efficacy.

Discussion: Although the Epitopes-HPV02 trial has changed long-lasting prognosis of patients with SCCA in advanced stage disease, more than 50% of patients will progress at 12 months. The purpose of the SCARCE trial to establish the addition of atezolizumab to mDCF as a new standard in this rare disease. Associated biomarker studies and the control arm could contribute to better understanding of the potential synergic and tumour resistance mechanisms in SCCA.

Trial Registration: NCT03519295.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-06841-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183720PMC
April 2020

Circulating Tumor Cell Clusters: United We Stand Divided We Fall.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Apr 10;21(7). Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Toulouse, 31000 Toulouse, France.

The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and CTC clusters, also known as tumor microemboli, in biological fluids has long been described. Intensive research on single CTCs has made a significant contribution in understanding tumor invasion, metastasis tropism, and intra-tumor heterogeneity. Moreover, their being minimally invasive biomarkers has positioned them for diagnosis, prognosis, and recurrence monitoring tools. Initially, CTC clusters were out of focus, but major recent advances in the knowledge of their biogenesis and dissemination reposition them as critical actors in the pathophysiology of cancer, especially metastasis. Increasing evidence suggests that "united" CTCs, organized in clusters, resist better and carry stronger metastatic capacities than "divided" single CTCs. This review gathers recent insight on CTC cluster origin and dissemination. We will focus on their distinct molecular package necessary to resist multiple cell deaths that all circulating cells normally face. We will describe the molecular basis of their increased metastatic potential as compared to single CTCs. We will consider their clinical relevance as prognostic biomarkers. Finally, we will propose future directions for research and clinical applications in this promising topic in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21072653DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7177734PMC
April 2020

Organ preservation with chemoradiotherapy plus local excision for rectal cancer: 5-year results of the GRECCAR 2 randomised trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 05 7;5(5):465-474. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Colorectal Surgery, Haut-Lévèque Hospital, CHU Bordeaux, France.

Background: GRECCAR 2 was the first multicentre, randomised trial to compare local excision with total mesorectal excision in downstaged low rectal cancer. Encouraging oncological results were noted at 3 years' follow-up but needed to be corroborated with longer follow-up. In this study, we aimed to report the 5-year oncological outcomes, including local recurrence, metastatic disease, and survival.

Methods: Patients age 18 years and older with T2T3 low rectal cancer, of maximum size 4 cm, who were clinically good responders after chemoradiotherapy (residual tumour ≤2 cm) were randomly assigned before surgery to either local excision or total mesorectal excision. Randomisation was centralised and not stratified and used permuted blocks of size eight. In the local excision group, a completion total mesorectal excision was performed if pathological tumour stage was ypT2-3. The primary objective of this study was to assess the 5-year oncological outcomes of local recurrence, metastatic disease, disease-free survival, overall survival, and cancer-specific mortality, which were the secondary endpoints of GRECCAR 2. We used Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox modelling to estimate and compare recurrence and survival in modified intention-to-treat and as-treated populations. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00427375.

Findings: Between March 1, 2007, and Sept 24, 2012, 148 patients who were good clinical responders were randomly assigned to treatment, three patients were excluded after randomisation (because they had metastatic disease, tumour >8 cm from anal verge, or withdrew consent), leaving 145 for analysis: 74 in the local excision group and 71 in the total mesorectal excision group. Median follow-up was 60 months (IQR 58-60) in the local excision group and 60 months (57-60) in the total mesorectal excision group. 23 patients died and five were lost to follow-up. In the local excision group, 26 had a completion total mesorectal excision for ypT2-3 tumour. In the modified intention-to-treat analysis, there was no difference between the local excision and total mesorectal excision groups in 5-year local recurrence (7% [95% CI 3-16] vs 7% [3-16]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·71 [95% CI 0·19-2·58]; p=0·60), metastatic disease (18% [CI 11-30] vs 19% [11-31]; 0·86 [0·36-2·06]; p=0·73), overall survival (84% [73-91] vs 82% [71-90]; 0·92 [0·38-2·22]; p=0·85), disease-free survival (70% [58-79] vs 72% [60-82]; 0·87 [0·44-1·72]; p=0·68), or cancer-specific mortality (7% [3-17] vs 10% [5-20]; 0·65 [0·17-2·49]; p=0·53).

Interpretation: The 5-year results of this multicentre randomised trial corroborate the 3-year results, providing no evidence of difference in oncological outcomes between local excision and total mesorectal excision. Local excision can be proposed in selected patients having a small T2T3 low rectal cancer with a good clinical response after chemoradiotherapy.

Funding: National Cancer Institute of France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30410-8DOI Listing
May 2020

High Clinical Value of Liquid Biopsy to Detect Circulating Tumor Cells and Tumor Exosomes in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Patients Eligible for Up-Front Surgery.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Oct 26;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 26.

U1035 Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM), 33000 Bordeaux, France.

Purpose: Expediting the diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) would benefit care management, especially for the start of treatments requiring histological evidence. This study evaluated the combined diagnostic performance of circulating biomarkers obtained by peripheral and portal blood liquid biopsy in patients with resectable PDAC.

Experimental Design: Liquid biopsies were performed in a prospective translational clinical trial (PANC-CTC #NCT03032913) including 22 patients with resectable PDAC and 28 noncancer controls from February to November 2017. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were detected using the CellSearch method or after RosetteSep enrichment combined with CRISPR/Cas9-improved mutant alleles quantification by droplet digital PCR. CD63 bead-coupled Glypican-1 (GPC1)-positive exosomes were quantified by flow cytometry.

Results: Liquid biopsies were positive in 7/22 (32%), 13/22 (59%), and 14/22 (64%) patients with CellSearch or RosetteSep-based CTC detection or GPC1-positive exosomes, respectively, in peripheral and/or portal blood. Liquid biopsy performance was improved in portal blood only with CellSearch, reaching 45% of PDAC identification (5/11) versus 10% (2/22) in peripheral blood. Importantly, combining CTC and GPC1-positive-exosome detection displayed 100% of sensitivity and 80% of specificity, with a negative predictive value of 100%. High levels of GPC1-exosomes and/or CTC presence were significantly correlated with progression-free survival and with overall survival when CTC clusters were found.

Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate combined CTC and exosome detection to diagnose resectable pancreatic cancers. Liquid biopsy combining several biomarkers could provide a rapid, reliable, noninvasive decision-making tool in early, potentially curable pancreatic cancer. Moreover, the prognostic value could select patients eligible for neoadjuvant treatment before surgery. This exploratory study deserves further validation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11111656DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6895804PMC
October 2019

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas and European guidelines: importance of the surgery type in the decision-making process.

BMC Surg 2019 Aug 22;19(1):115. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Haut Leveque Hospital, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.

Background: The European Consensus 2018 established a new algorithm with absolute and relative criteria for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) management. The aim of this study was to validate these criteria and analyse the outcomes in function of the surgical procedure and IPMN subtype.

Methods: Clinical, radiological and surgical data (procedure, morbidity/mortality rates) of patients who underwent surgery for IPMN between 2007 and 2017. The predictive value of the different criteria was analysed.

Results: 124 patients (men 67%; mean age 65 years) underwent surgery for IPMN (n = 62 malignant tumours; 50%). Jaundice, cyst ≥4 cm and Wirsung duct size 5-9.9 mm or ≥ 10 mm were significantly associated with malignancy (4.77 < OR < 11.85 p < 0.0001). The positive predictive value of any isolated criterion ranged from 71 to 87%, whereas that of three relative criteria together reached 100%. The mortality and morbidity (grade III-IV complications according to the Dindo-Clavien classification) rates were 3 and 8%, respectively. Morbidity/mortality after duodenopancreatectomy and total pancreatectomy were significantly higher for benign IPMN (p = 0.01).

Conclusion: Considering the morbidity associated with extended surgery, particularly for benign IPMN, the results of the present study suggest that high-risk surgery should be considered only in the presence of three relative criteria and including the surgery type in the decision-making algorithm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-019-0580-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704670PMC
August 2019

CD63-GPC1-Positive Exosomes Coupled with CA19-9 Offer Good Diagnostic Potential for Resectable Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Transl Oncol 2019 Nov 7;12(11):1395-1403. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

INSERM U1035, Bordeaux, France; CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Tumor-released extracellular vesicles (EVs) contain tumor-specific cargo distinguishing them from healthy EVs, and making them eligible as circulating biomarkers. Glypican 1 (GPC1)-positive exosome relevance as liquid biopsy elements is still debated. We carried out a prospective study to quantify GPC1-positive exosomes in sera from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients undergoing up-front surgery, as compared to controls including patients without cancer history and patients displaying pancreatic preneoplasic lesions. Sera were enriched in EVs, and exosomes were pulled down with anti-CD63 coupled magnetic beads. GPC1-positive bead percentages determined by flow cytometry were significantly higher in PDAC than in the control group. Diagnosis accuracy reached 78% (sensitivity 64% and specificity 90%), when results from peripheral and portal blood were combined. In association with echo-guided-ultrasound-fine-needle-aspiration (EUS-FNA) negative predictive value was 80% as compared to 33% for EUS-FNA only. This approach is clinically relevant as a companion test to the already available diagnostic tools, since patients with GPC1-positive exosomes in peripheral blood showed decreased tumor free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2019.07.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6699195PMC
November 2019

Efficacy and Safety of Two Neoadjuvant Strategies With Bevacizumab in MRI-Defined Locally Advanced T3 Resectable Rectal Cancer: Final Results of a Randomized, Noncomparative Phase 2 INOVA Study.

Clin Colorectal Cancer 2019 09 3;18(3):200-208.e1. Epub 2019 May 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, Saint Antoine Hospital and Pierre et Marie Curie University, UMPC Paris, Paris, France.

Background: Recurrence and distant metastases remain a significant issue in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). Several multimodal strategies are assessed in clinical trials.

Patients And Methods: Patients with mid/low magnetic resonance imaging-defined high-risk LARC were randomized to arm A (12-week bevacizumab + FOLFOX-4 then bevacizumab-5-fluorouracil [5-FU]-radiotherapy [RT] before total mesorectal excision [TME]) or arm B (bevacizumab-5-FU-RT then TME). Long-term efficacy and safety up to 5 years' follow-up are reported. No comparison between arms was planned.

Results: Overall, 91 patients (46 in arm A and 45 in arm B) were included. Main results have been presented previously. During the late follow-up period (> 4 weeks after surgery), 4 patients (8.7%) in arm A and 4 (8.9%) in arm B experienced grade 3/4 adverse events related to bevacizumab; the most frequent were 2 anastomotic fistulas (both in arm A) and abscesses (1 in arm A and 2 in arm B). At 5 years' follow-up, 9 (19.6%) and 11 (24.4%) patients in arms A and B developed a fistula in the year after surgery, and 2 (4.3%) in arm A at > 1 year after surgery. Most resolved before study end. Five-year disease-free survival was 70% and 64.3% in arms A and B, respectively. Five-year overall survival was 90.5% (95% confidence interval, 76.7, 96.3) in arm A and 72.7% (95% confidence interval, 56.0, 83.9) in arm B.

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant bevacizumab + FOLFOX-4 may have the potential to increase survival outcomes when followed by bevacizumab-5-FU-RT and TME in LARC. Bevacizumab-5-FU-RT then TME was associated with a higher-than-projected rate of anastomotic fistulas. Further research of neoadjuvant strategies in LARC is encouraged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clcc.2019.04.006DOI Listing
September 2019

Tumor-proximal liquid biopsy to improve diagnostic and prognostic performances of circulating tumor cells.

Mol Oncol 2019 09 25;13(9):1811-1826. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Laboratory of Rare Human Circulating Cells, University Medical Centre of Montpellier, France.

Circulating tumor cell (CTC) detection and numeration are becoming part of the common clinical practice, especially for breast, colon, and prostate cancer. However, their paucity in peripheral blood samples is an obstacle for their identification. Several groups have tried to improve CTC recovery rate by developing highly sensitive cellular and molecular detection methods. However, CTCs are still difficult to detect in peripheral blood. Therefore, their recovery rate could be increased by obtaining blood samples from vessels close to the drainage territories of the invaded organ, when the anatomical situation is favorable. This approach has been tested mostly during tumor resection surgery, when the vessels nearest to the tumor are easily accessible. Moreover, radiological (including echo-guided based and endovascular techniques) and/or endoscopic routes could be utilized to obtain CTC samples close to the tumor in a less invasive way than conventional biopsies. The purpose of this article is to summarize the available knowledge on CTC recovery from blood samples collected close to the tumor (i.e., in vessels located in the drainage area of the primary tumor or metastases). The relevance of such an approach for diagnostic and prognostic evaluations will be discussed, particularly for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, and non-small-cell lung cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6717761PMC
September 2019

Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy in combination with chemoradiotherapy for the treatment of locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: Results of a phase I dose-escalation study with panitumumab (FFCD 0904).

Radiother Oncol 2019 11 8;140:84-89. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

CHU APHP - Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Background And Purpose: Standard treatment of epidermoid anal cancer is 5-fluorouracil (5FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) based chemoradiotherapy (CRT). This phase I study aims to evaluate the addition of panitumumab (Pmab) to CRT and to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of Pmab and 5-FU in combination with CRT.

Materials And Methods: Immunocompetent patients with locally advanced tumour without metastases (Stage T2, T3 or T4, whatever N stage; Stage N1-N3 whatever T stage) followed two RT periods (45 Gy in 5 weeks and 20 Gy in 2 weeks, separated by a 2-week break) with concomitant CT sessions of 5FU/MMC at RT weeks 1, 5 and 8. Pmab was administered on RT weeks 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10 according to a predefined dose escalation schedule.

Results: Ten patients were enroled. One was excluded due to unmet dose constraints respect. Three patients received dose level (DL) 0 (Pmab 3 mg/kg + 5FU 600 mg/m/day) and six received DL-1 (Pmab 3 mg/kg + 5FU 400 mg/m/day). Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in all patients at DL 0 and 2 at DL-1. Most common grade 3-4 toxicities observed at DL 0 were haematologic (100%), dermatitis (67%), and anaemia (67%). No death occurred. Four months after ending CRT, five and two patients had a local complete response and a partial response, respectively. One patient had a colostomy with abdomino-perineal amputation due to a tumour recurrence.

Conclusions: The MTD is 5FU at 400 mg/m/day, MMC at 10 mg/m and Pmab at 3 mg/kg. The effect of the MTD on tumour response is evaluated in the phase 2 study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.05.018DOI Listing
November 2019

FOLFIRINOX-based neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy for borderline and locally advanced pancreatic cancer: A pilot study from a tertiary centre.

Dig Liver Dis 2019 07 15;51(7):1043-1049. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

CHU Bordeaux, Department of Radiotherapy, Bordeaux, France; Bordeaux University, INSERM U1035, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Background: Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, potentially relevant to increase resection rate in pancreatic cancer, is still debated.

Aims: To assess tolerance, resection rate and outcomes of patients with non-metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated by concomitant chemoradiotherapy.

Methods: This monocentric study included all consecutive patients treated from 2010 to 2014 for non-metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Chemotherapy was followed by chemoradiotherapy in operable patients, surgical resectability being assessed by CT-scan.

Results: Seventy-nine patients were included: 41 patients had borderline and 38 locally advanced tumours. All patients were treated by chemotherapy (FOLFIRINOX), followed by chemoradiotherapy (median dose: 59 Gy, range 45-66 Gy) for 94% of patients. Thirty-seven patients (47%) could subsequently benefit from surgery with a complete R0 resection in 94% of cases, with a postoperative mortality of 5%. Median overall survival was 21.5 months (median follow-up: 48.8 months). Local control, overall and disease-free survival were significantly higher for patients who underwent resection compared to others, with 89.2% vs 59.5% (p = 0.01), 49.7 vs 17.4 months (p < 0.01) and 25.5 vs 9.2 months (p < 0.01), respectively.

Conclusion: Neoadjuvant treatment consisting of FOLFIRINOX chemotherapy followed by chemoradiotherapy is an efficient strategy for patients with borderline and locally advanced pancreatic cancer, resulting in a 43% rate of secondary complete surgical resection associated with high local control, overall and disease-free survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2019.03.004DOI Listing
July 2019

Combination treatment of resveratrol and capsaicin radiosensitizes pancreatic tumor cells by unbalancing DNA repair response to radiotherapy towards cell death.

Cancer Lett 2019 06 6;451:1-10. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

INSERM U1035, Bordeaux, France; CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France; Université de Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains one of the deadliest cancers because it is highly resistant to every available therapeutic strategy, in particular conventional chemotherapy or radiotherapy (RT). Sensitizing tumor cells to existing treatments remains a good option to obtain fast and applicable results. Considering that ionizing radiations induce radiolysis-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS), we hypothesized that ROS-inducing bioactive food components (BFCs) could exacerbate ROS-related cell damages, including DNA double stranded breaks (DSBs), leaving the cellular ROS scavenging systems overwhelmed, and precipitating tumor cell death. Combination of resveratrol and capsaicin radiosensitized radiosensitive tumor cells, but RT did not increase BFC combination toxicity in radioresistant tumor cells. BFC addition to RT increased ROS production and led to significant tumor volume reduction in xenografted mouse preclinical model. Strikingly, BFCs inhibited RT-induced DNA damage molecular response by strongly limiting the first steps of DSB repair, and by keeping cells in cell cycle, provoking exacerbated intrinsic apoptosis. This study positions BFCs as potent radiosensitizers when combined, and identifies an actionable molecular pathway by resveratrol and capsaicin combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2019.02.038DOI Listing
June 2019

Clinical Validity of HPV Circulating Tumor DNA in Advanced Anal Carcinoma: An Ancillary Study to the Epitopes-HPV02 Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 Apr 30;25(7):2109-2115. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie (GERCOR) Oncology Multidisciplinary Group, Paris, France.

Purpose: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is found in 90% of squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal (SCCA). We investigated the clinical validity of HPV circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) detection in patients enrolled in the Epitopes-HPV02 trial that demonstrated the efficacy of docetaxel, cisplatin, and 5-FU as first-line chemotherapy in advanced SCCA.

Experimental Design: According to the protocol, serum samples were collected before chemotherapy and on completion of chemotherapy. HPV16 ctDNA was quantified by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and correlated with prospectively registered patient characteristics and outcomes. A landmark was set at the time of chemotherapy completion for postchemotherapy progression-free survival (PFS) analyses.

Results: Among 57 patients with HPV16-related advanced SCCA, HPV ctDNA was detected in 91.1% (95% confidence interval, 81.1-96.2) of baseline samples. Baseline HPV ctDNA levels were not associated with any patient characteristics; baseline ctDNA level below the cutoff obtained by AUC (area under the curve) was associated with a longer PFS (HR = 2.1; = 0.04). Among the 36 patients who completed 5 months of chemotherapy, residual HPV ctDNA was detected after chemotherapy in 38.9% of patients. Residual HPV ctDNA detected at chemotherapy completion was associated with shorter postchemotherapy PFS (median PFS 3.4 months vs. not reached; HR = 5.5; < 0.001) and a reduction of 1-year overall survival rate (OR = 7.0; = 0.02).

Conclusions: This prospective study in advanced SCCA demonstrated a significant prognostic impact of HPV ctDNA level before first-line chemotherapy and HPV ctDNA negativity after chemotherapy completion. With a limited cost and short turnaround, this assay is a promising tool to optimize the therapeutic management of SCCA..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2984DOI Listing
April 2019

How Does Chemoradiotherapy Following Induction FOLFIRINOX Improve the Results in Resected Borderline or Locally Advanced Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma? An AGEO-FRENCH Multicentric Cohort.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Jan 25;26(1):109-117. Epub 2018 Oct 25.

Department of Hepato-Bilio-Pancreatic Surgery, Liver Transplant Center, Paul Brousse Hospital, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: Patients with borderline (BR) or locally advanced (LA) pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAC) are often treated with induction FOLFIRINOX (FLX). However, the role of additional preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is controversial. The aim of this study is to evaluate its impact in patients who underwent resection after induction FLX.

Patients And Methods: Retrospective analysis of prospective consecutive surgical BR or LA PAC patients after induction FLX in 23 French centers between November 2010 and December 2015, treated with or without preoperative additional CRT (FLX vs FLX + CRT groups).

Results: Two hundred three patients were included (106 BR, 97 LA PAC). Median number of FLX cycles was 6 (range 1-30); 50% (n = 102) of patients received additional CRT. Median duration between diagnosis and surgery was 5.4 and 8.7 months (P = 0.001) in the FLX and FLX + CRT group, respectively. The 90-day mortality, major complications, and pancreatic fistula rates were 4.4%, 17.7%, and 5.4%, respectively. After 45.1 months follow-up, overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival were 45.4 months and 16.2 months, respectively. Patients with additional CRT had higher R0 resection rate (89.2% vs 76.3%; P = 0.017), ypN0 rate (76.2% vs 48.5%; P < 0.001), and higher rate of pathologic major response (33.3% vs 12.9%; P = 0.001). In the FLX + CRT group, patients had lower rate of locoregional relapse (28.3% vs 50.7%; P = 0.004). Patients with additional CRT had longer OS than those receiving FLX alone (57.8 vs 35.5 months; P = 0.007).

Conclusions: Pathological results and survival data argue for interest in additional CRT. Prospective studies on an intention-to-treat basis are needed to confirm these results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-018-6931-6DOI Listing
January 2019

A prospective clinical and biological database for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: the BACAP cohort.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 16;18(1):986. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

The Department of Gastroenterology and Pancreatology, CHU - Rangueil and the University of Toulouse, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Background: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically.

Methods: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care). At least 1500 patients will be included. Clinical data collected include: disease presentation, epidemiological and social factors, baseline biology, radiology, endoscopic ultrasound, staging, pathology, treatments, follow-up (including biological and radiological), and survival. All these data are collected and stored through an e-observation system at a centralized data center. Biological samples and derived products (i.e. before any treatment): blood, saliva, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration materials from the primary tumor, fine needle biopsy of metastases and surgically resected tissue. DNA and RNA are extracted from fine needle aspiration materials and are quantified and characterized for quality. Whole blood, plasma and serum are isolated from blood samples. Frozen tissues were specifically allocated to the cohort. All derived products and saliva are stored at - 80 °C. Main end-points: i) to centralize clinical data together with multiple biological samples that are harmonized in terms of sampling, the post sampling process and storage; ii) to identify new molecular markers for the diagnosis, prognosis and possibly the predictive response to pancreatic cancer surgery and or chemotherapy.

Discussion: The BACAP cohort is a unique prospective biological clinical database that provides the opportunity to identify correlations between the presence/expression of a broad panel of biomarkers (DNA, RNA, miRNA, proteins, etc.), epidemiological and social data, various clinical situations, various stages and the differentiation of the tumor, treatments and survival.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02818829 . Registration date: June 30, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4906-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191891PMC
October 2018

Prognostic factors of colostomy free survival in patients presenting with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma: A pooled analysis of two prospective trials (KANAL 2 and ACCORD 03).

Radiother Oncol 2018 12 29;129(3):463-470. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

EA 4360 APEMAC, Université de Lorraine, Nancy, France; Inserm CIC 1433 Clinical Epidemiology, and Centre Hospitalier Régional Universitaire de Nancy, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

Background: To carry out a prognosis study of the prospective studies KANAL 2 and ACCORD 03 in order to highlight new prognostic factors of colostomy-free survival in patients with locally advanced anal canal carcinoma.

Patients And Methods: KANAL 2 and ACCORD 03 were phase 2 and phase 3 multicenter trials with same inclusion criteria: anal canal squamous cell carcinoma of ≥4 cm or pelvic node involvement treated with conformal radiotherapy (45 Gy/25 fractions plus a boost) and concomitant fluorouracyl and cisplatin at weeks 1 and 5. A multivariate analysis of potential factors (patients, tumors, and treatments) was carried out through Cox proportional hazard model. Results were presented as hazard ratio (HR).

Results: 387 patients were included. In multivariate analysis, age over 55 years (HR = 0.62, p = 0.013), the increase of circumferential tumor spread (between 1/3 and 2/3 and more than 2/3 compared to less than 1/3) (respectively 1.97, p = 0.015 and 2.94, p < 0.001), the skin ulceration (1.57, p = 0.03), the inguinal node involvement (1,98, p < 0.001) and the total radiotherapy dose above 60 Gy (between 60 and 65 Gy (HR = 0.37, p < 0.001) and >65 Gy (HR = 0.61, p = 0.028)) were associated with colostomy-free survival.

Conclusion: Our study highlights new favorable prognostic factors such as circumferential tumor damage of less than two thirds, age over 55 years, dose escalation boost irradiation and possibly a total radiation dose between 60 and 65 Gy (but the BED dose depends on the overall treatment time). These results could be considered for better selection or stratification of the target population in future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2018.08.008DOI Listing
December 2018

Prognostic factors in esophageal cancer treated with curative intent.

Dig Liver Dis 2018 10 9;50(10):991-996. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

Bordeaux University of Medicine, Bordeaux, France; Esophageal and Endocrine Surgery Unit, Visceral Surgery Department, Magellan Center, Bordeaux University Hospital, Pessac, France; INSERM, UMR1053 Bordeaux Research in Translational Oncology, BaRITOn, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address:

The overall prognosis of patients with esophageal cancer has improved in recent decades due to surgical and medical progress, but overall survival remains poor. Better patient selection and tailored treatment are needed. Different prognostic factors linked with the patient, tumoral characteristics and treatment with curative intent have been identified and are the purpose of this review. Tumor detection at an earlier stage, the advent of new molecules and therapeutic combinations, and the centralization of management in high-volume centers should help to improve the prognosis of esophageal cancer. Improved imaging techniques and a better prediction strategy should guide future treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2018.08.002DOI Listing
October 2018

Docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil chemotherapy for metastatic or unresectable locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma (Epitopes-HPV02): a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2018 08 2;19(8):1094-1106. Epub 2018 Jul 2.

Department of Oncology, University Hospital of Besancon, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Besançon, Besançon, France; Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy, Hôpital Nord Franche Comté, Montbéliard, France; Clinical Investigational Center, CIC-1431, University Hospital of Besançon, Besançon, France; INSERM, Unit 1098, University of Bourgogne Franche-Comté, Besançon, France; Groupe Coopérateur Multidisciplinaire en Oncologie (GERCOR) Oncology Multidisciplinary Group, Paris, France; Fédération Francophone de Cancérologie Digestive (FFCD), Dijon, France.

Background: The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma has been increasing markedly in the past few decades. Currently, there is no validated treatment for advanced-stage anal squamous cell carcinoma. Therefore, we aimed to validate the clinical activity and safety of docetaxel, cisplatin, and fluorouracil (DCF) chemotherapy in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma.

Methods: We did a multicentre, single-arm, phase 2 study. We recruited patients from 25 academic hospitals, cancer research centres, and community hospitals in France who were aged 18 years or older with histologically confirmed anal squamous cell carcinoma, with metastatic disease or with unresectable local recurrence; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1; and with at least one evaluable lesion according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (version 1.1). Chemotherapy-naive patients received either six cycles of standard DCF (75 mg/m docetaxel and 75 mg/m cisplatin on day 1 and 750 mg/m per day of fluorouracil for 5 days, every 3 weeks) or eight cycles of modified DCF (40 mg/m docetaxel and 40 mg/m cisplatin on day 1 and 1200 mg/m per day of fluorouracil for 2 days, every 2 weeks), which were administered intravenously. The choice between the standard versus modified regimens was recommended based on, but not limited to, age (≤75 years vs >75 years) and ECOG performance status (0 vs 1). The primary endpoint was investigator-assessed progression-free survival at 12 months from the first DCF cycle; for the primary endpoint to be met, at least 11 (17%) of 66 enrolled patients had to be alive without disease progression at 12 months. Efficacy and safety analyses were done in a modified intention-to-treat population, defined as all patients who were evaluable for progression at 12 months who received at least one cycle of DCF. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02402842, and the final results are presented here.

Findings: Between Sept 17, 2014, and Dec 7, 2016, we enrolled 69 patients. Of these patients, three did not receive DCF. Of the 66 patients who received treatment, 36 received the standard DCF regimen and 30 received modified DCF. The primary endpoint was met: 31 (47%) of 66 patients were alive and progression free at 12 months. 22 (61%) of 36 patients who received the standard DCF regimen and 18 (60%) of 30 patients who received the modified DCF regimen had disease progression at data cutoff. 46 (70%) of 66 patients had at least one grade 3-4 adverse event (30 [83%] of 36 in the standard DCF regimen and 16 [53%] of 30 in the modified DCF regimen). The most common grade 3-4 adverse events were neutropenia (15 [23%]; eight [22%] for standard DCF vs seven [23%] for modified DCF), diarrhoea (12 [18%]; nine [25%] vs three [10%]), asthenia (ten [15%]; eight [22%] vs two [7%]), anaemia (ten [15%]; six [17%] vs four [13%]), lymphopenia (eight [12%]; three [8%] vs five [17%]), mucositis (seven [11%]; seven [19%] vs none), and vomiting (seven [11%]; five [14%] vs two [7%]). No grade 4 non-haematological adverse events and febrile neutropenia were observed with modified DCF, whereas three (8%) grade 4 non-haematological adverse events and five (14%) cases of febrile neutropenia were reported with standard DCF. 97 serious adverse events were reported (69 in patients who received the standard DCF regimen [61 drug-related] and 28 in those given the modified DCF regimen [14 drug-related]). No treatment-related deaths were recorded.

Interpretation: Compared with standard DCF, modified DCF provided long-lasting response with good tolerability in patients with metastatic or unresectable locally recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma with ECOG performance status of 0-1 in the first-line setting, and therefore could be considered as a new standard of care for these patients. Regarding the elevated risk of high-grade and serious adverse events and febrile neutropenia, standard DCF cannot be recommended in this situation.

Funding: Besançon University Hospital and Ligue contre le cancer Grand-Est.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30321-8DOI Listing
August 2018

Gastric cancer: French intergroup clinical practice guidelines for diagnosis, treatments and follow-up (SNFGE, FFCD, GERCOR, UNICANCER, SFCD, SFED, SFRO).

Dig Liver Dis 2018 Aug 6;50(8):768-779. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Hepato-gastroenterology and Digestive Oncology, CHU Rouen, Rouen, France.

Introduction: This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines regarding the management of gastric cancer published in October 2016, available on the website of the French Society of Gastroenterology (SNFGE) (www.tncd.org), updated in October 2017.

Methods: This collaborative work was realized under the auspices of several French medical societies involved in management of gastric cancer. Recommendations are graded in three categories (A-C), according to the amount of evidence found in the literature until July 2017.

Results: There are several known risk factors for gastric cancer, including Helicobacter pylori and genetic predispositions, both requiring a specific screening for patients and their relatives. The diagnosis and staging evaluation are essentially based on gastroscopy plus biopsies and computed tomography scan. The endoscopic ultrasonography can be used for superficial tumors in case of discussion for endoscopic resection (T1N0). For local disease (N+ and/or T > T1), the strategic therapy is based on surgery associated with perioperative chemotherapy. In the absence of preoperative treatment (for any raison), the postoperative chemoradiotherapy (or chemotherapy) should be discussed for patients with stage II or III tumor. For metastatic disease, the treatment is based on "palliative" chemotherapy consisting in a doublet or triplet regimens depending of age, performance status and HER2 tumor status. For patients with limited metastatic disease, surgical resection could be discussed in multidisciplinary meeting in case of stable disease after chemotherapy.

Conclusion: These guidelines in gastric cancer are done to help decision for daily clinical practice. These recommendations are permanently being reviewed. Each individual case must be discussed within a multidisciplinary team.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2018.04.025DOI Listing
August 2018

Pre-treatment magnetic resonance-based texture features as potential imaging biomarkers for predicting event free survival in anal cancer treated by chemoradiotherapy.

Eur Radiol 2018 Jul 5;28(7):2801-2811. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Departement of Radiotherapy, Hopital Haut Lévêque, CHU de Bordeaux, 33600, Pessac, France.

Aim: To assess regular MRI findings and tumour texture features on pre-CRT imaging as potential predictive factors of event-free survival (disease progression or death) after chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) without metastasis.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively included 28 patients treated by CRT for pathologically proven ASCC with a pre-CRT MRI. Texture analysis was carried out with axial T2W images by delineating a 3D region of interest around the entire tumour volume. First-order analysis by quantification of the histogram was carried out. Second-order statistical texture features were derived from the calculation of the grey-level co-occurrence matrix using a distance of 1 (d1), 2 (d2) and 5 (d5) pixels. Prognostic factors were assessed by Cox regression and performance of the model by the Harrell C-index.

Results: Eight tumour progressions led to six tumour-specific deaths. After adjusting for age, gender and tumour grade, skewness (HR = 0.131, 95% CI = 0-0.447, p = 0.005) and cluster shade_d1 (HR = 0.601, 95% CI = 0-0.861, p = 0.027) were associated with event occurrence. The corresponding Harrell C-indices were 0.846, 95% CI = 0.697-0.993, and 0.851, 95% CI = 0.708-0.994.

Conclusion: ASCC MR texture analysis provides prognostic factors of event occurrence and requires additional studies to assess its potential in an "individual dose" strategy for ASCC chemoradiation therapy.

Key Points: • MR texture features help to identify tumours with high progression risk. • Texture feature maps help to identify intra-tumoral heterogeneity. • Texture features are a better prognostic factor than regular MR findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-017-5284-zDOI Listing
July 2018