Publications by authors named "Uwe Treiber"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prospective evaluation of [C]Choline PET/CT in therapy response assessment of standardized docetaxel first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced castration refractory prostate cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 Nov 17;43(12):2105-2113. Epub 2016 Jun 17.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate the value of [C] Choline PET/CT in monitoring early and late response to a standardized first-line docetaxel chemotherapy in castration refractory prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients.

Methods: Thirty-two patients were referred for [C] Choline PET/CT before the start of docetaxel chemotherapy, after one and ten chemotherapy cycles (or - in case of discontinuation - after the last administered cycle) for therapy response assessment. [C] Choline uptake (SUV, SUV), CT derived Houndsfield units (HU, HU), and volume of bone, lung, and nodal metastases and local recurrence were measured semi-automatically at these timepoints. Change in SUV, SUV, HU, HU and volume was assessed between PET 2 and 1 (early response assessment, ERA) and PET 3 and 1 (late response assessment, LRA) on a patient and lesion basis. Results of PET/CT were compared to clinically used RECIST 1.1 and clinical criteria based therapy response assessment including PSA for defining progressive disease (PD) and non-progressive disease (nPD), respectively. Relationships between changes of SUV and SUV (early and late) and changes of PSA and PSA were evaluated. Prognostic value of initial SUV and SUV was assessed. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS.

Results: In the patient-based ERA and LRA there were no statistically significant differences in change of choline uptake, HU, and volume between PD and nPD applying RECIST or clinical response criteria. In the lesion-based ERA, decrease in choline uptake of bone metastases was even higher in PD (applying RECIST criteria), whereas in LRA the decrease was higher in nPD (applying clinical criteria). There were only significant correlations between change in choline uptake and PSA in ERA in PD, in LRA no significant correlations were discovered. Initial SUV and SUV were statistically significantly higher in nPD (applying clinical criteria).

Conclusion: There is no significant correlation between change in choline uptake in [C] Choline PET/CT and clinically routinely used objective response assessment during the early and late course of docetaxel chemotherapy. Therefore, [C] Choline PET/CT seems to be of limited use in therapy response assessment in standardized first-line chemotherapy in mCRPC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-016-3439-9DOI Listing
November 2016

Comparison of [(11)C]Choline ([(11)C]CHO) and [(18)F]Bombesin (BAY 86-4367) as Imaging Probes for Prostate Cancer in a PC-3 Prostate Cancer Xenograft Model.

Mol Imaging Biol 2016 06;18(3):393-401

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum Rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives are commonly used in prostate cancer imaging in the clinical setting for staging and re-staging of prostate cancer. Due to a limited detection rate of established positron emission tomography (PET) tracers, there is a clinical need for innovative tumor-specific PET compounds addressing new imaging targets. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(18)F]Bombesin (BAY 86-4367) as an innovative biomarker for prostate cancer imaging targeting the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor and [(11)C]Choline ([(11)C]CHO) in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small animal PET/X-ray computed tomography (CT).

Procedures: We carried out a dual-tracer small animal PET/CT study comparing [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC-3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of nu/nu NMRI mice (n = 10) (PET/CT measurements of two [(11)C]Choline mice could not be analyzed due to technical reasons). [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO PET/CT imaging was performed about 3-4 weeks after the implantation of PC-3 cells on two separate days. After the intravenous tail vein injection of 14 MBq [(18)F]Bombesin and 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO, respectively, a dynamic study over 60 min was acquired in list mode using an Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions). The sequence of [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO was randomized. Image analysis was performed using summed images as well as dynamic data. To calculate static and dynamic tumor-to-muscle (T/M), tumor-to-blood (T/B), liver-to-blood (L/B), and kidney-to-blood (K/B) ratios, 4 × 4 × 4 mm(3) volumes of interest (VOIs) of tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood derived from transversal slices were used.

Results: The mean T/M ratio of [(18)F]Bombesin and [(11)C]CHO was 6.54 ± 2.49 and 1.35 ± 0.30, respectively. The mean T/B ratio was 1.83 ± 0.79 for [(18)F]Bombesin and 0.55 ± 0.10 for [(11)C]CHO. The T/M ratio as well as the T/B ratio for [(18)F]Bombesin were significantly higher compared to those for [(11)C]CHO (p < 0.001, respectively). Kidney and liver uptake was statistically significantly lower for [(18)F]Bombesin (K/B 3.41 ± 0.81, L/B 1.99 ± 0.38) compared to [(11)C]CHO [K/B 7.91 ± 1.85 (p < 0.001), L/B 6.27 ± 1.99 (p < 0.001)]. The magnitudes of the time course of T/M and T/B ratios (T/M and T/Bdyn ratios) were statistically significantly different (showing a higher uptake of [(18)F]Bombesin compared to [(11)C]CHO); additionally, also the change of the T/M and T/B ratios over time was significantly different between both tracers in the dynamic analysis (p < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, there was a statistically significantly different change of the K/B and L/B ratios over time between the two tracers in the dynamic analysis (p = 0.026 and p < 0.001, respectively).

Conclusions: [(18)F]Bombesin (BAY 86-4367) visually and semi-quantitatively outperforms [(11)C]CHO in the PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model. [(18)F]Bombesin tumor uptake was significantly higher compared to [(11)C]CHO. [(18)F]Bombesin showed better imaging properties compared to the clinically utilized [(11)C]CHO due to a higher tumor uptake as well as a lower liver and kidney uptake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-015-0901-1DOI Listing
June 2016

11C-Choline PET/pathology image coregistration in primary localized prostate cancer.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2014 Dec 4;41(12):2242-8. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Freiburg, Robert Koch Str. 3, 79106, Freiburg, Germany,

Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for the comparison of pathology specimens after prostatectomy (post-S) with PET images obtained before surgery (pre-S). This method was used to evaluate the merit of (11)C-choline PET/CT for delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) in prostate cancer (PC).

Methods: In 28 PC patients, (11)C-choline PET/CT was performed before surgery. PET/CT data were coregistered with the pathology specimens. GTV on PET images (GTV-PET) was outlined automatically and corrected manually. Tumour volume in the prostate (TVP) was delineated manually on the pathology specimens. Based on the coregistered PET/pathology images, the following parameters were assessed: SUVmax and SUVmean in the tumoral and nontumoral prostate (NP), GTV-PET (millilitres) and TVP (millilitres).

Results: PET/pathology image coregistration was satisfactory. Mean SUVmax in the TVP was lower than in the NP: 5.0 and 5.5, respectively (p = 0.093). Considering the entire prostate, SUVmax was located in the TVP in two patients, in the TVP and NP in 12 patients and exclusively in NP in 14 patients. Partial overlap the TVP and GTV-PET was seen in 71% of patients, and complete overlap in 4%.

Conclusion: PET/pathology image coregistration can be used for evaluation of different imaging modalities. (11)C-Choline PET failed to distinguish tumour from nontumour tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-014-2861-0DOI Listing
December 2014

Comparison of [¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]CHO) and S(+)-β-methyl-[¹¹C]choline ([¹¹C]SMC) as imaging probes for prostate cancer in a PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model.

Mol Imaging Biol 2015 Apr;17(2):248-56

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University of Munich, 81675, Munich, Germany,

Purpose: Carbon-11- and fluorine-18-labeled choline derivatives have been introduced as promising tracers for prostate cancer imaging. However, due to limited specificity and sensitivity, there is a need for new tracers with higher sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing prostate cancer to improve tracer uptake and enhance imaging contrast. The aim of this study was to compare the properties of [(11)C]choline ([(11)C]CHO) with S(+)-β-methyl-[(11)C]choline ([(11)C]SMC) as tracer for prostate cancer imaging in a human prostate tumor mouse xenograft model by small-animal positron emission tomography/X-ray computed tomography (PET/CT).

Procedures: We carried out a dual-tracer small-animal PET/CT study comparing [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC. The androgen-independent human prostate tumor cell line PC3 was implanted subcutaneously in the flanks of Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) (nu/nu) mice (n = 11). Mice-6 weeks post-xenograft implantation-were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]CHO via the tail vein. On a separate day, the mice were injected with 37 MBq [(11)C]SMC. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 min with the Inveon animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions) on two separate days (randomizing the sequence of the tracers). The dynamic PET images were acquired in list mode. Regions of interest (5 × 5 × 5 mm) were placed in transaxial slices in tumor, muscle (thigh), liver, kidney, and blood. Image analysis was performed calculating tumor to muscle (T/M) ratios based on summed images as well as dynamic data.

Results: For [(11)C]SMC, the mean T/M ratio was 2.24 ± 0.56 while the corresponding mean [(11)C]CHO T/M ratio was 1.35 ± 0.28. The T/M ratio for [(11)C]SMC was significant higher compared to [(11)C]CHO (p < 0.001). The time course of T/M ratio (T/Mdyn ratio) of [(11)C]SMC was higher compared to [(11)C]CHO with a statistically significant difference between the magnitudes of the T/M ratios and a significant different change of the T/M ratios over time between [(11)C]CHO and [(11)C]SMC.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that [(11)C]SMC is taken up by the tumor in the PC-3 prostate cancer xenograft model. [(11)C]SMC uptake was significantly higher compared to the clinically utilized [(11)C]CHO tracer with a higher contrast allowing imaging of a prostate cancer xenograft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11307-014-0782-8DOI Listing
April 2015

Prognostic value of 11C-choline PET/CT and CT for predicting survival of bladder cancer patients treated with radical cystectomy.

Urol Int 2014 9;93(2):207-13. Epub 2014 Jul 9.

Department of Urology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Background: In patients with bladder cancer (BCa) preoperative staging with (11)C-choline positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) could be used to derive prognostic information and hence stratify patients preoperatively with respect to disease management.

Methods: From June 2004 to May 2007, 44 patients with localized BCa were staged with (11)C-choline PET/CT before radical cystectomy. The results of imaging were correlated to overall survival (OS) and cumulative incidence of cancer-specific death (CSD).

Results: There was no statistically significant difference in OS and CSD between the patient groups when stratified for organ-confined versus non-organ-confined disease or lymph node involvement defined by either (11)C-choline PET/CT (OS: p = 0.262, hazard ratio [HR] = 1.60; p = 0.527, HR = 0.76; CSD: p = 0.144, HR = 2.25; p = 0.976, HR = 0.98) or CT (OS: p = 0.518, HR = 1.34; p = 0.228, HR = 1.67; CSD: p = 0.323, HR = 1.90; p = 0.136, HR = 2.38). The limitation of this study is the small number of included patients.

Conclusion: In our prospective trial neither CT nor (11)C-choline PET/CT were able to sufficiently predict OS or CSD in BCa patients treated with radical cystectomy albeit trends and moderately increased HRs could be demonstrated without significant differences between CT or (11)C-choline PET/CT. However, these trends might prove statistically significant in bigger patient cohorts. Therefore initial transsectional imaging might be of clinical relevance in respect to prognosis and could play a role in the counseling of BCa patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000357686DOI Listing
June 2015

Long-term results of a phase II study with neoadjuvant docetaxel chemotherapy and complete androgen blockade in locally advanced and high-risk prostate cancer.

J Hematol Oncol 2014 Mar 5;7:20. Epub 2014 Mar 5.

Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str, 22, Munich 81675, Germany.

Background: Patients with locally advanced and high-risk prostate cancer (LAPC) are prone to experience biochemical recurrence despite radical prostatectomy (RP). We evaluated feasibility, safety and activity of a neoadjuvant chemohormonal therapy (NCHT) with 3-weekly full dose docetaxel and complete androgen blockade (CAB) in locally advanced and high-risk prostate cancer patients (LAPC) undergoing RP.

Methods: Patients (n = 30) were selected by Kattans' preoperative score and received trimestral buserelin 9,45 mg, bicalutamide 50 mg/day and 3 cycles docetaxel (75 mg/m²) followed by RP. Primary endpoints were biochemical (PSA) and local downstaging. Secondary endpoints included toxicity and operability assessments, pathological complete response (pCR), time to PSA progression, 5-year biochemical recurrence free survival (bRFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Median baseline PSA was 25.8 ng/ml (2.1-293), and the predicted probability of 5-year bRFS was 10% (0-55). NCHT induced PSA-reduction was 97.3% (81.3-99.9%; p < 0.001) and post-RP 96.7% of patients were therapy responders, with undetectable PSA-values. Post- vs. pretreatment MRI indicated a median tumor volume reduction of 46.4% (-31.3-82.8; p < 0.001). A pathological downstaging was observed in 48.3%. Severe hematologic toxicities (≥CTC3) were frequent with 53.8% leucopenia, 90% neutropenia and 13.3% febrile neutropenia. RP was performed in all patients. While resectability was hindered in 26.7%, continence was achieved in 96.7%. Pathologic analyses revealed no pCR. Lymph node- and extracapsular involvement was observed in 36.7% and 56.7% with 33.3% positive surgical margins. After a median of 48.6 (19.9-87.8) months, 55.2% of therapy responders experienced PSA-recurrence. The estimated median time to PSA-progression was 38.6 months (95%CI 30.9-46.4) and 85.3 months (95%CI 39.3-131.3) for OS. The 5-year bRFS was improved to 40%, but limiting for interpretation adjuvant treatment was individualized.

Conclusions: NCHT is feasible despite high hematotoxicity, with excellent functional results. Significant downstaging was observed without pCR. NCHT seems to improve the cohort adjusted 5-year bRFS, but clinical value needs further investigation in randomized trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-8722-7-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3974001PMC
March 2014

Utility of ATP7B in prediction of response to platinum-based chemotherapy in urothelial bladder cancer.

Anticancer Res 2013 Sep;33(9):3731-7

Urologische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany. http://www.mri.tum.de/urologie.

Background: Platinum-based chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for metastatic urothelial carcinoma, which is limited by primary and secondary resistance of the tumour. The Cu(2+) transporting beta polypeptide ATPase (ATP7B) is believed to play a role in this resistance. The aim of this study was to screen the ATP7B gene for mutations and loss of heterozygosity in bladder cancer and to evaluate their impact on chemotherapy resistance.

Materials And Methods: DNA extracted from 17 patients with metastatic bladder cancer was analyzed by DNA sequencing, and microsatellite analysis.

Results: We found 12 non-synonymous mutations and 20 synonymous mutations out of which 11 and 15, respectively, have not been previously described. Results were correlated with response to platinum-based chemotherapy: 65% of patients exhibited LOH of the ATP7B locus on chromosome 13q14.3, with a tendency to have a better response to chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Although resistance is complex, LOH at the ATP7B locus might be useful in predicting chemotherapy response and needs further evaluation.
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September 2013

Tumour volume delineation in prostate cancer assessed by [11C]choline PET/CT: validation with surgical specimens.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2013 Jun 7;40(6):824-31. Epub 2013 Feb 7.

Nuklearmedizinische Klinik und Poliklinik, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: PET has been proven to be helpful in the delineation of gross tumour volume (GTV) for external radiation therapy in several tumour entities. The aim of this study was to determine if [(11)C]choline PET could be used to localize the carcinomatous tissue within the prostate in order to specifically target this area for example with high-precision radiation therapy.

Methods: Included in this prospective study were 20 patients with histological proven prostate carcinoma who underwent [(11)C]choline PET/CT before radical prostatectomy. After surgical resection, specimens were fixed and cut into 5-mm step sections. In each section the area of the carcinoma was delineated manually by an experienced pathologist and digitalized, and the histopathological tumour volume was calculated. Shrinkage due to resection and fixation was corrected using in-vivo and ex-vivo CT data of the prostate. Histopathological tumour location and size were compared with the choline PET data. Different segmentation algorithms were applied to the PET data to segment the intraprostatic lesion volume.

Results: A total of 28 carcinomatous lesions were identified on histopathology. Only 13 (46 %) of these lesions had corresponding focal choline uptake. In the remaining lesions, no PET uptake (2 lesions) or diffuse uptake not corresponding to the area of the carcinoma (13 lesions) was found. In the patients with corresponding PET lesions, no suitable SUV threshold (neither absolute nor relative) was found for GTV segmentation to fit the volume to the histological tumour volume.

Conclusion: The choline uptake pattern corresponded to the histological localization of prostate cancer in fewer than 50 % of lesions. Even when corresponding visual choline uptake was found, this uptake was highly variable between patients. Therefore SUV thresholding with standard algorithms did not lead to satisfying results with respect to defining tumour tissue in the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-013-2345-7DOI Listing
June 2013

Nuclear matrix protein 22 for bladder cancer detection: comparative analysis of the BladderChek® and ELISA.

Anticancer Res 2012 Nov;32(11):5093-7

Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Urology, Ismaninger Str. 22, 81675 Munich, Germany.

Aim: To compare nuclear matrix protein 22 expression by BladderChek® and ELISA, as urine-based assays for bladder cancer (BC) detection.

Patients And Methods: Urine samples of 100 BC patients and 100 controls were analyzed. Comparative statistical evaluations were based on sensitivity and specificity.

Results: Seventy-one patients had primary and 29 recurrent BC. The sensitivity of BladderChek® was significantly higher compared to ELISA in the overall cancer cohort and in patients with primary BC (p<0.0001 and p=0.0001, respectively). Both tests demonstrated significant correlation of sensitivities and tumor stage/grade for the overall cancer cohort and for patients with primary BC. Both tests had specificity values of 100% in healthy individuals. Specificity was 93% for BladderChek® and 99% for ELISA in patients with benign diseases (p=0.048).

Conclusion: BladderChek® may be clinically more useful for BC detection. Due to high specificity, BladderChek® could be used for high-risk screening. However, due to its low sensitivity, BladderChek® cannot replace but only complement cystoscopy for BC detection.
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November 2012

Gender and body mass index as risk factors for bladder perforation during primary transurethral resection of bladder tumors.

J Urol 2012 May 14;187(5):1566-70. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Department of Urology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: Bladder cancer is the second most common tumor of the genitourinary system. Although transurethral resection is the standard diagnostic and therapeutic procedure, it is not morbidity free. Bladder perforation is the second most common complication and it can lead to severe further complications. We evaluated risk factors for bladder perforation in patients treated with transurethral resection of bladder tumors.

Materials And Methods: We retrospectively studied the records of 1,284 patients with bladder cancer who underwent transurethral resection of bladder tumors between 1986 and 2006. Data on risk factors for bladder perforation, including age, gender, body mass index, nicotine use, gross hematuria, transurethral catheterization, bladder stones, tumor stage and grade, number of tumors and resection weight, were analyzed with the chi-square or Fisher exact test.

Results: Of the 49 bladder perforations (3.8%) 89.8% were extraperitoneal and 10.2% were intraperitoneal. The risk of bladder perforation was associated with gender (female and male 7.2% and 2.6%, p <0.001), body mass index (less than 25, 25 to 30 and greater than 30 kg/m(2) 5.5%, 3.4% and 0.6%, p = 0.016), tumor stage (pTis, pTa, pT1 and pT2 or greater 3.7%, 2.6%, 4.5% and 6.7%, p = 0.049), infiltration depth (superficial and muscle invasive 3.2% and 6.6%, p = 0.023) and resection weight (less than 2.5 and 20 gm or greater 2.4% and 9.2%, respectively, p = 0.003). Patient age, nicotine use, gross hematuria at diagnosis, transurethral catheterization, bladder stones, number of tumors and tumor grade were not risk factors for bladder perforation.

Conclusions: Aside from tumor characteristics female gender and low body mass index were risk factors for inadvertent bladder perforation during transurethral resection of bladder tumors. Each factor is readily apparent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.juro.2011.12.114DOI Listing
May 2012

Diagnostic efficacy of [11C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared with conventional computed tomography in lymph node staging of patients with bladder cancer prior to radical cystectomy.

Eur Urol 2012 May 14;61(5):1031-8. Epub 2011 Dec 14.

Department of Urology, Technische Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich, Germany.

Background: Current imaging techniques are of limited value for lymph node (LN) staging in bladder cancer (BCa) patients scheduled for radical cystectomy (RC).

Objective: Evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of [11C]choline positron emission tomography in combination with computed tomography (PET/CT) for LN staging of patients with BCa scheduled for RC and compare that efficacy with the diagnostic efficacy of CT and the gold standard of histopathologic evaluation.

Design, Setting, And Participants: From June 2004 to May 2007, 44 patients with localized BCa were staged with [11C]choline PET with low-dose CT for attenuation correction and simultaneous intravenous and rectal contrast-enhanced diagnostic CT before RC and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND). LNs were dissected from the internal and external iliac arteries up to the origin of the inferior mesentery artery according to a template with 14 predefined anatomic fields.

Intervention: Diagnostic [11C]choline PET/CT before RC and regional LN dissection.

Measurements: Histopathologic findings of resected LN were correlated with the results of [11C]choline PET/CT and CT alone in a patient- and field-based manner. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy of [11C]choline PET/CT and CT were assessed.

Results And Limitations: LN metastases were found in 12 of 44 patients (27%). On patient-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for [11C]choline PET/CT were calculated as 58%, 66%, 39%, 81%, and 64%, respectively; and for CT the calculated percentages were 75%, 56%, 39%, 86%, and 61%, respectively. Twenty-five of 471 dissected LN fields (5%) showed metastases. On field-based analysis, sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy for [11C]choline PET/CT were 28%, 95%, 21%, 96%, and 91%, respectively; for CT, the calculated percentages were 39%, 92%, 20%, 96%, and 90%, respectively. Limitations of this study are small patient number and the fact that not all patients underwent extensive PLND.

Conclusions: In patients with BCa who were scheduled for RC, preoperative LN staging with [11C]choline PET/CT was not able to improve diagnostic efficacy compared with conventional CT alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2011.12.009DOI Listing
May 2012

The sensitivity of [11C]choline PET/CT to localize prostate cancer depends on the tumor configuration.

Clin Cancer Res 2011 Jun 14;17(11):3751-9. Epub 2011 Apr 14.

Department of Nuclear Medicine,Technische Universität München, München, Germany.

Purpose: To evaluate the dependency of the sensitivity of [(11)C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for detecting and localizing primary prostate cancer (PCa) on tumor configuration in the histologic specimen.

Experimental Design: Forty-three patients with biopsy-proven PCa were included. They underwent radical prostatectomy within 31 days after [(11)C]choline PET/CT. The transaxial image slices and the histologic specimens were analyzed by comparing the respective slices. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) were calculated in each segment and correlated with histopathology. The tumor configuration in the histologic specimen was grouped as: I, unifocal; II, multifocal; III, rind-like shaped; IV, size <5 mm. Data analysis included the investigation of detection of PCa by SUV(max), the assessment of the influence of potential contributing factors on tumor prediction, and the evaluation of whether SUV could discriminate cancer tissue from benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), prostatitis, HGPIN (high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasm), or normal prostate tissue. General estimation equation models were used for statistical analysis.

Results: Tumor configuration in histology was classified as I in 21 patients, as II in 9, as III in 5, and as IV in 8. The prostate segment involved by cancer is identified in 79% of the patients. SUV(max) was located in the same side of the prostate in 95% of patients. Tumor configuration was the only factor significantly negatively influencing tumor prediction (P < 0.001). PCa-SUV(max) (median SUV(max) = 4.9) was not significantly different from BPH-SUV (median SUV(max) = 4.5) and prostatitis-SUV (median SUV(max) = 3.9), P = 0.102 and P = 0.054, respectively.

Conclusions: The detection and localization of PCa in the prostate with [(11)C]choline PET/CT is impaired by tumor configuration. Additionally, in our patient population, PCa tissue could not be distinguished from benign pathologies in the prostate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-2093DOI Listing
June 2011

Imaging of prostate cancer with PET/CT and radioactively labeled choline derivates.

Urol Oncol 2013 May 8;31(4):427-35. Epub 2011 Mar 8.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany.

PET- and PET/CT using [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-labeled choline derivates are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET- and PET/CT with [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-labeled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. PET/CT, in comparison to PET, improves especially the lesion localization as well as characterization. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-labeled choline derivates--the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis, or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time, [(11)C]-choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-labeled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA value at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/ml. Even at PSA values below 1 ng/ml, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately one-third of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-choline derivates can be helpful in the clinical setting for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. Especially important for the choice of treatment is the exact localization of the site of recurrence: local recurrence, recurrence as lymph node metastasis, or systemic recurrence, as it has direct influence on individual therapy. This article reviews the use of PET and PET/CT with [(11)C]- and [(18)F]-labeled choline derivates in prostate cancer imaging with special emphasis on patients with biochemical recurrence. We briefly provide an overview of PET tracers for prostate cancer imaging, the rationale of using choline derivatives for prostate cancer imaging and discuss the contribution of choline PET/CT in patients suffering from prostate cancer with an emphasis on recurrent disease. Furthermore, we provide an outlook on future prospects of choline PET/CT imaging for therapy guidance and monitoring in the framework of therapy individualization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2010.08.008DOI Listing
May 2013

[11C]Choline as pharmacodynamic marker for therapy response assessment in a prostate cancer xenograft model.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2010 Oct 30;37(10):1861-8. Epub 2010 May 30.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Str 22, 81675 München, Munich, Germany.

Purpose: [(11)C]Choline has been established as a PET tracer for imaging prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether [(11)C]choline can be used for monitoring the effects of therapy in a prostate cancer mouse xenograft model.

Methods: The androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC-3 was implanted subcutaneously into the flanks of 13 NMRI (nu/nu) mice. All mice were injected 4-6 weeks after xenograft implantation with 37 MBq [(11)C]choline via a tail vein. Dynamic imaging was performed for 60 min with a small-animal PET/CT scanner (Siemens Medical Solutions). Six mice were subsequently injected intravenously with docetaxel twice (days 1 and 5) at a dose of 3 mg/kg body weight. Seven mice were treated with PBS as a control. [(11)C]Choline imaging was performed prior to and 1, 2 and 3 weeks after treatment. To determine choline uptake the images were analysed in terms of tumour-to-muscle (T/M) ratios. Every week the size of the implanted tumour was determined with a sliding calliper.

Results: The PC-3 tumours could be visualized by [(11)C]choline PET. Before treatment the T/M(mean) ratio was 1.6+/-0.5 in the control group and 1.8+/-0.4 in the docetaxel-treated group (p=0.65). There was a reduction in the mean [(11)C]choline uptake after docetaxel treatment as early as 1 week after initiation of therapy (T/M ratio 1.8+/-0.4 before treatment, 0.9+/-0.3 after 1 week, 1.1+/-0.3 after 2 weeks and 0.8+/-0.2 after 3 weeks). There were no decrease in [(11)C]choline uptake in the control group following treatment (T/M ratio 1.6+/-0.5 before treatment, 1.7+/-0.4 after 1 week, 1.8+/-0.7 after 2 weeks and 1.7+/-0.4 after 3 weeks). For analysis of the dynamic data, a generalized estimation equation model revealed a significant decrease in the T/M(dyn) ratios 1 week after docetaxel treatment, and the ratio remained at that level through week 3 (mean change -0.93+/-0.24, p<0.001, after 1 week; -0.78+/-0.21, p<0.001, after 2 weeks; -1.08+/-0.26, p<0.001, after 3 weeks). In the control group there was no significant decrease in the T/M(dyn) ratios (mean change 0.085+/-0.39, p=0.83, after 1 week; 0.31+/-0.48, p=0.52, after 2 weeks; 0.11+/-0.30, p=0.72, after 3 weeks). Metabolic changes occurred 1 week after therapy and preceded morphological changes of tumour size during therapy.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that [(11)C]choline has the potential for use in the early monitoring of the therapeutic effect of docetaxel in a prostate cancer xenograft animal model. The results also indicate that PET with radioactively labelled choline derivatives might be a useful tool for monitoring responses to taxane-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-010-1493-2DOI Listing
October 2010

Influence of body mass index on operability, morbidity and disease outcome following radical cystectomy.

Urol Int 2009 8;82(4):432-9. Epub 2009 Jun 8.

Department of Urology, Technical University of Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munchen, Germany.

Introduction: Obesity may influence postoperative outcome after tumor surgery. We evaluated the impact of patients' body mass index (BMI) on peri- and postoperative morbidity and outcome following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer.

Patients And Methods: 390 consecutive patients who underwent radical cystectomy due to bladder cancer from January 1986 to December 2004 were reviewed. According to WHO criteria, patients were divided into normal weight (NW, 45.6%), overweight (OW, 44.4%) and obese (10.0%) subgroups. The BMI of patients was associated to the time of surgery, amount of intraoperative blood units, TNM stage, postoperative complication rate as well as overall survival.

Results: The time of cystectomy increased with the degree of patients' obesity (NW, 330 min; OW, 355 min; p = 0.007). Between NW and OW patients no significant differences were noted in respect to intraoperative blood transfusion rate (NW, 3.0; OW, 2.0; p = 0.47), postoperative TNM stage (pTis-pT2b: 42.6 vs. 48.6%; pT3a-4: 38.2 vs. 27.2%; pN+: 20.2 vs. 24.2%) and postoperative complications, except for postoperative bleeding, which was more common in OW patients (p = 0.02). Mean overall survival times showed no significant differences between NW and OW patients receiving ileal conduits (5-year survival rate: 34.0 vs. 41.1%; p = 0.140) or ileal neobladders (5-year survival rate: 65.1 vs. 70.8%; p = 0.127).

Conclusions: Increased BMI poses a greater challenge for surgical interventions such as radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients. However, in our series, intra- and postoperative morbidity was not significantly elevated in OW patients. Overall survival was not reduced in OW compared to NW patients. Therefore, elevated BMI is not an exclusion criterion for radical cystectomy in bladder cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000218533DOI Listing
August 2009

A single-arm, multicenter, open-label phase 2 study of lapatinib as the second-line treatment of patients with locally advanced or metastatic transitional cell carcinoma.

Cancer 2009 Jul;115(13):2881-90

Department of Urology, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: The treatment of recurrent transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) remains an unmet clinical need. This study assessed lapatinib, a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and HER-2, as second-line therapy in patients with locally advanced or metastatic TCC.

Methods: This was a single-arm, multicenter, open-label, prospective phase 2 study. Patients with TCC whose disease progressed on prior platinum-based chemotherapy received lapatinib until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity, with evaluations for response by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors criteria performed every 8 weeks. The primary endpoint of the current study was objective tumor response rate. Secondary endpoints included safety, time to disease progression, and overall survival.

Results: Fifty-nine patients were enrolled in the study, 25 of whom (42%) could not be evaluated for response. The primary endpoint of an objective response rate (ORR) >10% was observed in 1.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.0%-9.1%) of patients; however, 18 (31%; 95% CI, 19%-44%) patients achieved stable disease (SD). The median time to disease progression and overall survival (OS) were 8.6 weeks (95% CI, 8.0 weeks-11.3 weeks) and 17.9 weeks (95% CI, 13.1 weeks-30.3 weeks), respectively. Clinical benefit (ORR and SD) was found to be correlated with EGFR overexpression (P = .029), and, to some extent, HER-2 overexpression. The median OS was significantly prolonged in patients with tumors that overexpressed EGFR and/or HER-2 (P = .0001). Lapatinib was well tolerated.

Conclusions: The study was considered to be negative because it did not meet its primary endpoint; however, further analysis demonstrated an improvement in OS in a subset of patients with tumors overexpressing EGFR and/or HER-2, which is encouraging and warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.24337DOI Listing
July 2009

Characterization of choline uptake in prostate cancer cells following bicalutamide and docetaxel treatment.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009 Sep 8;36(9):1434-42. Epub 2009 Apr 8.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universität München, Ismaninger Strasse 22, Munich, 81675, Germany.

Purpose: Choline derivatives labelled with positron emitters are successfully used for PET imaging of prostate cancer patients. Since little is known about uptake mechanisms, the aim of this study was to characterize choline uptake in prostate cancer cells, also following anti-androgen treatment or chemotherapy.

Methods: Choline uptake in prostate cancer cells (LNCaP, PC-3) and Michaelis-Menten kinetics were analysed using different concentrations of (3)H-choline via liquid scintillation counting. Inhibition of (3)H-choline uptake was assayed in the presence of hemicholinium-3 (HC-3), unlabelled choline, guanidine and tetraethylammonium (TEA), an inhibitor of the organic cation transporter (OCT). Changes in choline uptake triggered by bicalutamide and docetaxel were evaluated and choline transporters were detected via Western blotting.

Results: Michaelis-Menten kinetics yielded a saturable transport with K(m) values of 6.9 and 7.0 micromol/l choline for LNCaP and PC-3 cells, respectively. Treatment of cells with bicalutamide and docetaxel caused an increase in total choline uptake but had no significant effect on K(m) values. Uptake of (3)H-choline was NaCl dependent and 4.5-fold higher in LNCaP cells than in PC-3 cells. (3)H-Choline uptake was reduced by 92-96% using HC-3 and unlabelled choline, by 63-69% using guanidine and by 20% using TEA. The high-affinity choline transporter was detected via Western blotting.

Conclusion: Choline uptake in prostate cancer cells is accomplished both by a transporter-mediated and a diffusion-like component. Results of inhibition experiments suggest that uptake is mediated by a selective choline transporter rather than by the OCT. Bicalutamide- and docetaxel-induced changes in total choline uptake could affect PET tumour imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-009-1117-xDOI Listing
September 2009

Metastatic renal cell carcinoma: results of a population-based study with 25 years follow-up.

Eur J Cancer 2008 Nov 8;44(16):2485-95. Epub 2008 Sep 8.

Munich Cancer Registry (MCR) of the Munich Cancer Centre (MCC), Department of Medical Informatics, Biometrics and Epidemiology (IBE), Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany.

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the sixth leading cause of death in developed countries. A third of all RCC patients are confronted with metastatic disease. Since their approval in 2005 and 2006 in the USA, new targeted therapies may lead to substantial progress. Thus, the aim of this cohort study was to present clinical characteristics and survival in metastatic RCC in a population-based sample before widespread implementation of these new therapies.

Methods: Patients (2264) with metastatic RCC registered between 1978 and 2005 in the cancer registry of Munich, Bavaria were analysed.

Results: Median survival and 5 year relative survival from the 1st metastases were 14.4 months and 21%, respectively. Median survival has slightly improved from 13.2 months in 1978-1987 to 15.6 months since 2002.

Conclusion: Survival of patients with metastatic RCC did not substantially improve within the last three decades. Assuming that new targeted therapies are successful in the treatment of metastatic RCC, population-based data like these can provide a basis for assessing the progress shown in clinical studies and for surveying critically the future implementation of new therapies in routine care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2008.07.039DOI Listing
November 2008

Inhibition of the multidrug-resistant phenotype by targeting YB-1 with a conditionally oncolytic adenovirus: implications for combinatorial treatment regimen with chemotherapeutic agents.

Cancer Res 2006 Jul;66(14):7195-202

Institute of Experimental Oncology and Department of Urology, Technical University of Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Germany.

Bearing in mind the limited success of available treatment modalities for the therapy of multidrug-resistant tumor cells, alternative and complementary strategies need to be developed. It is known that the transcriptional activation of genes, such as MDR1 and MRP1, which play a major role in the development of a multidrug-resistant phenotype in tumor cells, involves the Y-box protein YB-1. Thus, YB-1 is a promising target for new therapeutic approaches to defeat multidrug resistance. In addition, it has been reported previously that YB-1 is an important factor in adenoviral replication because it activates transcription from the adenoviral E2-late promoter. Here, we report that an oncolytic adenovirus, named Xvir03, expressing the viral proteins E1B55k and E4orf6, leads to nuclear translocation of YB-1 and in consequence to viral replication and cell lysis in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, we show that Xvir03 down-regulates the expression of MDR1 and MRP1, indicating that recruiting YB-1 to the adenoviral E2-late promoter for viral replication is responsible for this effect. Thus, nuclear translocation of YB-1 by Xvir03 leads to resensitization of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs. These data reveal a link between chemotherapy and virotherapy based on the cellular transcription factor YB-1 and provide the basis for formulating a model for a novel combined therapy regimen named Mutually Synergistic Therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2339DOI Listing
July 2006

Value of 11C-choline PET and contrast-enhanced CT for staging of bladder cancer: correlation with histopathologic findings.

J Nucl Med 2006 Jun;47(6):938-44

Department of Nuclear Medicine, IBFM-CNR, Scientific Institute H San Raffaele, Milan, Italy.

Unlabelled: Lymph node involvement is a major prognostic factor in bladder cancer, but the accuracy of conventional imaging modalities for the prediction of regional and distant metastatic diseases is limited. This study was performed to compare the diagnostic accuracies of contrast-enhanced CT and PET with (11)C-choline for the staging of urothelial bladder cancer.

Methods: Twenty-seven patients (median age, 69.1 y) who had urothelial bladder cancer and who were referred for radical cystectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) on the basis of a histologic evaluation after transurethral resection of bladder cancer (TURB) were studied. PET scanning, using 2 multiring whole-body tomographs, was performed 5 min after intravenous injection of approximately 370-500 MBq of (11)C-choline. In addition, conventional bone scintigraphy and contrast-enhanced CT were performed. After imaging, cystectomy and PLND were performed in all patients. Pathologic (11)C-choline uptake that could not be explained by intestinal activity was noted as a positive result. Node positivity was determined by size on CT: nodes measuring more than 1 cm in the long axis were described as being positive for tumor. Histopathologic findings were used as a reference.

Results: The presence of residual bladder cancer (pTa-pT4) was correctly detected in 21 of 25 histologically tumor-positive patients (84%) by CT and in 24 of 25 patients (96%) by (11)C-choline PET. Lymph node involvement was correctly detected in 4 of 8 patients (50%) by CT and in 5 of 8 patients (62%) by (11)C-choline PET. The median size of the 3 nodes with false-negative PET results was 9 mm (range, 6-21 mm), and the median size of the metastatic lesions within the lymph nodes was 3 mm (range, 1-15 mm). CT resulted in 6 (22%) false-positive lymph nodes, whereas none was demonstrated by (11)C-choline PET; these data indicated a significantly higher accuracy of PET than of CT (P < 0.01). Both modalities missed a small peritoneal metastasis verified by histologic evaluation. No positive results were obtained from bone scintigraphy.

Conclusion: These preliminary data suggest that (11)C-choline PET is comparable to CT for detecting residual bladder cancer after TURB but appears to be superior to CT for the evaluation of potential additional lymph node metastases. (11)C-choline PET should be further evaluated for staging in patients who have bladder cancer and who are scheduled for radical cystectomy.
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June 2006

Statistical analysis of combined dose effects for experiments with two agents.

Artif Intell Med 2006 May 21;37(1):65-71. Epub 2006 Feb 21.

Institut für Medizinische Statistik und Epidemiologie der Technischen Universität München, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Ismaninger Str. 22, D-81675 München, Germany.

Objective: Classical isobologram analysis offers a way for analysing combined drug effects in dose-response experiments statistically. The aim is to determine as to whether two agents or drugs can be considered synergistic or antagonistic in their effect.

Methods And Materials: We describe a MATLAB-based software tool for automated isobologram analysis and computation of combination indices. Statistical issues like estimation together with respective confidence intervals are of key interest. Additional predictive values are computed to facilitate a more easy interpretation of obtained results.

Results: Analysis of an experimental and a real in vitro data set demonstrates the approach and the way of interpreting results. Results are summarized in two ways: tables and graphical displays containing classical isobolograms.

Conclusion: Our package supplements the clinical software-equipment and is a tool for automatic evaluation of combined dose-response experiments in experimental oncology in the urologic clinic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.artmed.2005.01.011DOI Listing
May 2006

Recent improvements in transurethral high-frequency electrosurgery of the prostate.

BJU Int 2006 Feb;97(2):243-6

Department of Urology, Technical University, Munich, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-410X.2006.05872.xDOI Listing
February 2006

In vitro cytotoxic effects of imatinib in combination with anticancer drugs in human prostate cancer cell lines.

Prostate 2005 Jun;63(4):385-94

Department of Urology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technical University Munich, Germany.

Background: The platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDFG-r), a tyrosine kinase, is expressed in 88% of primary prostate cancer and in 80% of the metastases. The tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib blocks the PDGF signaling pathway by inhibiting PDGF-r autophosphorylation. We examined the cytotoxic effects of imatinib in combination with other anticancer agents in the human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP, PC-3, and DU 145.

Methods: The cells were exposed to imatinib and to the other drugs simultaneously for 5 days. Cell growth inhibition was determined by XTT assay. The cytotoxic effects in combinations were evaluated at the inhibitory concentration of 50% level by the isobologram.

Results: Imatinib produced additive effects with estramustine phosphate (EMP) and 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide in all three cell lines. In combination with etoposide imatinib produced additive effects in two of three cell lines. Imatinib with docetaxel produced antagonistic effects in PC-3 and additive to antagonistic effects in LNCaP and DU 145 cells.

Conclusions: The simultaneous exposure of imatinib and EMP would be effective against hormone sensitive and hormone insensitive cell lines and this combination should be evaluated in clinical trials. In contrast, the simultaneous exposure of imatinib and docetaxel would have little therapeutic efficacy. Although there are gaps between in vitro studies and clinical trials, the present findings provide useful information for the establishment of clinical protocols involving imatinib in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.20201DOI Listing
June 2005

Immunohistochemical assessment of a testicular tumor in a 63-year-old patient: proposal for an integrated clinicopathologic approach.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2003 Mar;11(1):96-100

Institute of Pathology, Technische Universität München, Ismaningerstrasse 22, D-81675 Munich, Germany.

A 63-year-old man was admitted to our hospital for complaints of a painless knot in his right testicle. The patient underwent orchiectomy for suspicion of malignancy. Pathologic examination detected a firm, circumscribed mass that consisted histologically of noncohesive, large, undifferentiated tumor cells diffusely infiltrating the testicular interstice. Because of the patient's advanced age and the structure of the neoplastic cells, the differential diagnosis favored a lymphoma over a malignant germ cell tumor but also included a dedifferentiated metastatic neoplasm. Immunohistochemistry was tailored accordingly and was completed using three successive panels of antibodies. Immunostaining with the first panel of antibodies directed against leukocyte epitopes (CD45, CD20, and CD3) remained negative and made a lymphoma unlikely. The subsequent panel (cytokeratin AE1/3, cytokeratin 18, and HMB-45) helped to rule out a malignant melanoma and aided to settle the diagnosis of a metastatic carcinoma. The reaction pattern of the last panel of antibodies pointed to a pulmonary origin of the putative primary tumor (PSA-negative, TTF-1-positive, and CK20-negative). The diagnosis of a metastasized poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was confirmed by autopsy 5 months later. This case represents the extremely rare occurrence of a testicular metastasis as a primary manifestation of an occult neoplasm and shows the usefulness of an integrated site-specific clinicomorphologic approach that should precede and guide the choice of diagnostic immunoreagents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00129039-200303000-00016DOI Listing
March 2003