Publications by authors named "Usman Sunusi"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of nerol on paracetamol-induced liver damage in Wistar albino rats.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Aug 12;140:111732. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Electronic address:

Nerol, a monoterpene is evident to possess diverse biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-microbial, anti-spasmodic, anthelmintic, and anti-arrhythmias. This study aims to evaluate its hepatoprotective effect against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity in a rat model. Five groups of rats (n = 7) were orally treated (once daily) with 0.05% tween 80 dissolved in 0.9% NaCl solution (vehicle), paracetamol 640 mg/kg (negative control), 50 mg/kg silymarin (positive control), or nerol (50 and 100 mg/kg) for 14 days, followed by the hepatotoxicity induction using paracetamol (PCM). The blood samples and livers of the animals were collected and subjected to biochemical and microscopical analysis. The histological findings suggest that paracetamol caused lymphocyte infiltration and marked necrosis, whereas maintenance of the normal hepatic structural was observed in group pre-treated with silymarin and nerol. The rats pre-treated with nerol significantly and dose-dependently reduced the hepatotoxic markers in animals. Nerol at 100 mg/kg significantly reversed the paracetamol-induced altered situations, including the liver enzymes, plasma proteins, antioxidant enzymes and serum bilirubin, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and cholesterol [e.g., total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c)] levels in animals. Taken together, nerol exerted significant hepatoprotective activity in rats in a dose-dependent manner. PCM-induced toxicity and nerol induced hepatoprotective effects based on expression of inflammatory and apoptosis factors will be future line of work for establishing the precise mechanism of action of nerol in Wistar albino rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111732DOI Listing
August 2021

Three Selected Edible Crops of the Genus as Potential Sources of Phytochemicals: Biochemical, Nutritional, and Medicinal Values.

Front Pharmacol 2021 13;12:625546. Epub 2021 May 13.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

species (Family Cucurbitaceae) are cultivated throughout the world for their edible fruits, leaves, shoots and seeds. Among the species of the genus there are three selected species that are used as vegetable, and for medicinal purposes, L (Bitter melon), Schumach (Bitter cucumber) and L (African pumpkin). The fruits and leaves of these species are rich in primary and secondary metabolites such as proteins, fibers, minerals (calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc), -carotene, foliate, ascorbic acid, among others. The extracts from species are used for the treatment of a variety of diseases and ailments in traditional medicine. species extracts are reputed to possess anti-diabetic, anti-microbial, anthelmintic bioactivity, abortifacient, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and play chemo-preventive functions. In this review we summarize the biochemical, nutritional, and medicinal values of three species (, and ) as promising and innovative sources of natural bioactive compounds for future pharmaceutical usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.625546DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8155620PMC
May 2021

Nigella Plants - Traditional Uses, Bioactive Phytoconstituents, Preclinical and Clinical Studies.

Front Pharmacol 2021 26;12:625386. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Phytochemistry Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

is a small genus of the family Ranunculaceae, which includes some popular species due to their culinary and medicinal properties, especially in Eastern Europe, Middle East, Western, and Central Asia. Therefore, this review covers the traditional uses and phytochemical composition of and, in particular, . The pharmacological studies reported , and in humans have also been reviewed. One of the main strength of the use of is that the seeds are rich in the omega-6 fatty acid linoleic acid and provide an extra-source of dietary phytochemicals, including the bioactive thymoquinone, and characteristics saponins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. Among species, . L. is the most studied plant from the genus. Due to the phytochemical composition and pharmacological properties, the seed and seed oil from this plant can be considered as good candidates to formulate functional ingredients on the basis of folklore and scientific knowledge. Nonetheless, the main limations are that more studies, especially, clinical trials are required to standardize the results, e.g. to establish active molecules, dosage, chemical profile, long-term effects and impact of cooking/incorporation into foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.625386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8107825PMC
April 2021

Variation of Deoxynivalenol Levels in Corn and Its Products Available in Retail Markets of Punjab, Pakistan, and Estimation of Risk Assessment.

Toxins (Basel) 2021 04 22;13(5). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Food Toxicology Lab, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

This study investigated the natural incidence of deoxynivalenol (DON) in corn and corn products from corn-producing districts of Punjab, Pakistan. The analysis was carried out using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector and immunoaffinity cleanup columns. The detection limit (LOD) and limit of quantification were 25 and 50 µg/kg, respectively. A total of 1220 samples of corn and corn products were analyzed to detect DON, and 539 (44.2%) samples were observed to be contaminated with DON ( ≥ LOD). Furthermore, 92 (7.5%) samples of corn and corn products had DON levels that were higher than the proposed limits of the EU. The data are significantly different from a normal distribution of DON in samples of corn and corn products from different locations ( < 0.05) for Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov values. However, a significant difference in DON levels was found between corn and corn-derived products ( ≤ 0.05). The lowest and highest exposures, and hazard quotient (HQ) values of 0.92 and 9.68 µg/kg bw/day, were documented in corn flour samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/toxins13050296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8143574PMC
April 2021

Patulin Contamination of Citrus Fruits from Punjab and Northern Pakistan and Estimation of Associated Dietary Intake.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 02 25;18(5). Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang, Selangor 43400, Malaysia.

This research aims to assess the natural occurrence of patulin (PAT) in selected citrus fruits from central cities of Punjab and Pakistan's northern cities. A total of 2970 fruit samples from 12 citrus cultivars were examined using liquid chromatography fitted with a UV detector. The detection limit (LOD) and quantification limit were 0.04 and 0.12 µg/kg, respectively. About 56% of samples of citrus fruits from Punjab's central cities, Pakistan, were found to be contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 1150 µg/kg in samples from central Punjab cities. Furthermore, 31.7% of samples of citrus fruits from northern cities of Pakistan were contaminated with PAT, with values ranging from 0.12 to 320 µg/kg. About 22.1% of citrus fruit samples had PAT levels greater than the suggested limits established by the European Union (EU). The dietary intake levels of PAT ranged from 0.10 to 1.11 µg/kg bw/day in the central cities of Punjab, Pakistan, and 0.13 to 1.93 µg/kg bw/day in the northern cities of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052270DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956212PMC
February 2021

Microplastics Pollution as an Invisible Potential Threat to Food Safety and Security, Policy Challenges and the Way Forward.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 21;17(24). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Technological advances, coupled with increasing demands by consumers, have led to a drastic increase in plastic production. After serving their purposes, these plastics reach our water bodies as their destination and become ingested by aquatic organisms. This ubiquitous phenomenon has exposed humans to microplastics mostly through the consumption of sea food. This has led the World Health Organization (WHO) to make an urgent call for the assessment of environmental pollution due to microplastics and its effect on human health. This review summarizes studies between 1999 and 2020 in relation to microplastics in aquatic ecosystems and human food products, their potential toxic effects as elicited in animal studies, and policies on their use and disposal. There is a paucity of information on the toxicity mechanisms of microplastics in animal studies, and despite their documented presence in food products, no policy has been in place so far, to monitor and regulates microplastics in commercial foods meant for human consumption. Although there are policies and regulations with respect to plastics, these are only in a few countries and in most instances are not fully implemented due to socioeconomic reasons, so they do not address the problem across the entire life cycle of plastics from production to disposal. More animal research to elucidate pathways and early biomarkers of microplastic toxicity that can easily be detected in humans is needed. This is to create awareness and influence policies that will address this neglected threat to food safety and security.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17249591DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767491PMC
December 2020

Seasonal Variation in Aflatoxin Levels in Edible Seeds, Estimation of Its Dietary Intake and Vitamin E Levels in Southern Areas of Punjab, Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 12 2;17(23). Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Food Toxicology Lab, Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

A total of 779 samples of edible nuts (melon seeds, watermelon seeds, pumpkin seeds, and cantaloupe seeds) from Southern Punjab (Pakistan), were collected during the summer and the winter seasons. The natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AFs) and vitamin E (tocopherols) levels were investigated using HPLC. The results have shown that 180 (43.4%) of samples from the winter season and 122 (33.4%) samples from the summer season were found positive for AFs. Elevated average levels of total AFs (20.9 ± 3.10 μg/kg, dry weight) were observed in watermelon seeds without shell, and the lowest average amount (15.9 ± 3.60 μg/kg) were documented in melon seeds without shell samples from the winter season. An elevated average amount of total AFs 17.3 ± 1.50 μg/kg was found in pumpkin seeds available without a shell. The results have documented a significant difference in total AFs levels in edible seeds available with shells versus without shells (α = 0.05 & 0.01). The highest dietary intake of 6.30 μg/kg/day was found in female individuals from consuming pumpkin seeds (without shell) in the winter season. A value of 3.00 μg/kg/day was found in pumpkin seed without shell in the summer season in female individuals. The highest total tocopherol levels were 22.2 ± 7.70 ng/100 g in pumpkin seeds samples from the winter season and 14.5 ± 5.50 mg/100 g in melon seed samples from the summer season. The variation of total tocopherol levels in edible seeds among the winter and summer seasons showed a significant difference ( ≤ 0.0054), except watermelon seeds samples with non-significant differences ( ≥ 0.183).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7730547PMC
December 2020

Assessment of Deoxynivalenol in Wheat, Corn and Its Products and Estimation of Dietary Intake.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 08 3;17(15). Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Plant Production Division, NIAB, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan.

The main goal of the present research was to explore the seasonal variation of deoxynivalenol (DON) in wheat, corn, and their products, collected during 2018-2019. Samples of 449 of wheat and products and 270 samples of corn and their products were examined using reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a UV detector. The findings of the present work showed that 104 (44.8%) samples of wheat and products from the summer season, and 91 (41.9%) samples from winter season were contaminated with DON (concentration limit of detections (LOD) to 2145 µg/kg and LOD to 2050 µg/kg), from summer and winter seasons, respectively. In corn and products, 87 (61.2%) samples from summer and 57 (44.5%) samples from winter season were polluted with DON with levels ranging from LOD to 2967 µg/kg and LOD to 2490 µg/kg, from the summer and winter season, respectively. The highest dietary intake of DON was determined in wheat flour 8.84 µg/kg body weight/day from the summer season, and 7.21 µg/kg body weight/day from the winter season. The findings of the work argued the need to implement stringent guidelines and create awareness among farmers, stakeholders, and traders of the harmful effect of DON. It is mostly observed that cereal crops are transported and stockpiled in jute bags, which may absorb moisture from the environment and produce favorable conditions for fungal growth. Therefore, these crops must store in polyethylene bags during transportation and storage, and moisture should be controlled. It is highly desirable to use those varieties that are more resistant to fungi attack. Humidity and moisture levels need to be controlled during storage and transportation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17155602DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7432857PMC
August 2020