Publications by authors named "Usama Gergis"

97 Publications

Haploidentical vs. sibling, unrelated, or cord blood hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Blood Adv 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, United States.

The role of haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is being defined. We performed a retrospective, multivariate analysis comparing outcomes of HCT approaches by donor for adults with ALL in remission. The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) between haploidentical HCT using PTCy and HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 8/8 HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) , 7/8 HLA-matched UD, or umbilical cord blood (UCB) HCT. Comparing haploidentical to MSD HCT, OS, leukemia-free survival (LFS), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were not different but chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was higher with MSD HCT. Compared to MUD HCT, OS, LFS, and relapse were not different but MUD HCT had increased NRM (HR 1.42, P=0.02), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.59, P=0.005), and cGVHD. Compared to 7/8 UD HCT, LFS and relapse were not different, but 7/8 UD HCT had worse OS (HR 1.38, P=0.01) and increased NRM (HR 2.13, P=<0.001), grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.86, P=0.003), and cGVHD (HR 1.72, P=<0.001). Compared to UCB HCT, late OS , late LFS, relapse, and cGVHD were not different but UCB HCT had worse early OS (≤18 months, HR 1.93, P<0.001), worse early LFS (HR 1.40, P=0.007) and increased incidences of NRM (HR 2.08, P<0.001) and grade 3-4 aGVHD (HR 1.97, P<0.001). Haploidentical HCT using PTCy showed no difference in survival but less GVHD compared to traditional MSD and MUD HCT and is the preferred alternative donor HCT option for adults with ALL in CR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004916DOI Listing
September 2021

Standardizing Definitions of Hematopoietic Recovery, Graft Rejection, Graft Failure, Poor Graft Function, and Donor Chimerism in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: A Report on Behalf of the American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):642-649

West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is potentially curative for certain hematologic malignancies and nonmalignant diseases. The field of allo-HCT has witnessed significant advances, including broadening indications for transplantation, availability of alternative donor sources, less toxic preparative regimens, new cell manipulation techniques, and novel GVHD prevention methods, all of which have expanded the applicability of the procedure. These advances have led to clinical practice conundrums when applying traditional definitions of hematopoietic recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, because these may vary based on donor type, cell source, cell dose, primary disease, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, and conditioning intensity, among other variables. To address these contemporary challenges, we surveyed a panel of allo-HCT experts in an attempt to standardize these definitions. We analyzed survey responses from adult and pediatric transplantation physicians separately. Consensus was achieved for definitions of neutrophil and platelet recovery, graft rejection, graft failure, poor graft function, and donor chimerism, but not for delayed engraftment. Here we highlight the complexities associated with the management of mixed donor chimerism in malignant and nonmalignant hematologic diseases, which remains an area for future research. We recognize that there are multiple other specific, and at times complex, clinical scenarios for which clinical management must be individualized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.007DOI Listing
August 2021

Second Transplant for Relapsed AML, Learning from Defeat.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 08;27(8):627-628

Thomas Jefferson University, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, 901 Walnut St, Philadelphia, PA, 19107, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.07.003DOI Listing
August 2021

Special issues related to the diagnosis and management of acquired aplastic anemia in countries with restricted resources, a report on behalf of the Eastern Mediterranean blood and marrow transplantation (EMBMT) group and severe aplastic anemia working party of the European Society for blood and marrow transplantation (SAAWP of EBMT).

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 19;56(10):2518-2532. Epub 2021 May 19.

Department of Cellular Therapy and Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation, Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.

Aplastic anemia is a relatively rare but potentially fatal disorder, with a reported higher incidence in developing countries in comparison to the West. There are significant variations in epidemiological as well as etiological factors of bone marrow failure syndromes in the developing countries in comparison to the developed world. Furthermore, the management of bone marrow failure syndromes in resource constraint settings has significant challenges including delayed diagnosis and referral, limited accessibility to healthcare facilities, treatment modalities as well as limitations related to patients who require allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Here we will provide a review of the available evidence related to specific issues of aplastic anemia in the developing countries and we summarize suggested recommendations from the Eastern Mediterranean blood and bone marrow transplantation (EMBMT) group and the severe aplastic anemia working party of the European Society of blood and marrow transplantation (SAAWP of EBMT) related to the diagnosis and therapeutic options in countries with restricted resources.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01332-8DOI Listing
October 2021

An Examination of Cytomegalovirus, Socioeconomic Status, Race, and Ethnicity on Outcomes after Haploidentical Hematopoietic Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 04 16;27(4):327.e1-327.e11. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center at Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Electronic address:

Previous analyses of the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on outcomes after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have suggested that minority populations and those in disadvantaged groups have inferior outcomes. However, the results of these studies have been inconsistent, potentially due to a multitude of factors, both medical and nonmedical, that have confounded results. In haploidentical (HI) HSCT, an expanding approach with the potential to enfranchise more minority patients, data on the effect of race and SES on outcomes are very limited. To identify and potentially correct factors that negatively impact outcomes after HI HSCT in disadvantaged groups at our institution, we performed a retrospective, multivariable analysis of the impact of race and SES as single and combined variables on HI HSCT outcomes of relapse, transplantation-related mortality, acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and overall survival (OS). In addition to controlling for race and SES, all patients had HI donors and were treated with the same 2-step approach, with consistent T cell dosing and GVHD prophylaxis to further reduce the impact of confounders in this complex area. The study cohort of 239 patients was 71% Caucasian, 19.7% African American, 4.6% Hispanic, and 4.2% Asian. The majority of minority patients were in areas of higher deprivation (P = .001) and had the highest incidence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seropositivity (P = .001) and the lowest likelihood of possessing a CMV immunodominant (IMD) allele (P = .001), which was previously associated with an OS benefit. Positive CMV serostatus was highly linked to post-transplantation CMV reactivation (P = .001) which was associated with higher relapse rates (hazard ratio [HR], 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.06 to 2.30; P = .026), higher TRM (HR, 2.10; 95% CI, 1.09 to 4.05; P = .027), and lower OS (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.18 to 2.65; P = .006). The lack of a CMV IMD allele largely replicated the results of CMV reactivation on HSCT results. Although race and SES did not directly correlate with either OS or relapse incidence, non-Caucasians in a more disadvantaged group had a higher incidence of chronic GVHD (HR, 2.55; 95% CI, 1.08 to 6.01; P = .033) compared with Caucasians and minorities in less disadvantaged groups. Regardless of SES, minorities had a lower incidence of acute GVHD than Caucasians in a more advantaged SES group (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.30 to 0.90; P = .020). The primary finding of this study is that CMV reactivation was the major driver of mortality after HI HSCT. CMV reactivation may have be associated with poor HSCT outcomes in HI HSCT recipients in disadvantaged areas, most of whom were minorities. The data suggest that the prevention of post-transplantation CMV reactivation possibly could have a major impact on HI HSCT outcomes, especially in minority recipients. The finding of different GVHD manifestations between races are intriguing and merits further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.017DOI Listing
April 2021

Bortezomib-Based Induction Is Associated with Superior Outcomes in Light Chain Amyloidosis Patients Treated with Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Regardless of Plasma Cell Burden.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 03 16;27(3):264.e1-264.e7. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Department of Medicine, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Electronic address:

The benefits of pre-transplant induction chemotherapy in light chain (AL) amyloidosis, a low burden plasma cell (PC) neoplasm associated with multiorgan dysfunction, is debatable, although with the availability of bortezomib, this approach is being increasingly pursued. We analyzed the outcomes of AL amyloidosis patients undergoing autologous hematopoietic cell transplant between 2014 and 2018 that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research database. Of 440 patients, 294 received bortezomib-based induction, and 146 received no induction. Patients receiving induction had greater PC burden compared to no induction (PC 10% or more, 39% versus 11%; P < .01). At 2 years, the induction group compared to no induction had lower relapse/progression: 13% (9% to 18%) versus 23% (16% to 32%) (P = .02); better progression-free survival (PFS): 82% (77% to 87%) versus 69% (61% to 77%) (P < .01); and similar overall survival (OS): 92% (88% to 95%) versus 89% (84% to 94%) (P = .22), findings that were confirmed on multivariate analysis. A subset analysis limited to patients with <10% PC also showed superior relapse/progression (hazard ratio [HR], .43; 95% confidence interval [CI], .24 to .78; P < .01) and PFS (HR, .43; 95% CI, .26 to .72; P < .01) for induction compared to no induction. Thus, we conclude that pre-transplant bortezomib-based induction was associated with improved relapse/progression and PFS in AL amyloidosis. Longer survival follow-up is warranted, as OS was excellent in both cohorts at 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2020.11.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010222PMC
March 2021

Sequential intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous or allogeneic transplantation for refractory lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 07 13;62(7):1629-1638. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Weill Cornell Medicine/New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

We evaluate the safety of bendamustine as a bridge to stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma and residual disease after salvage therapy. Thirty-four subjects without complete responses (CR) received bendamustine 200 mg/m/day for 2 days followed 14 days later by SCT. Sixteen subjects in partial remission (PR) with maximal FDG-PET SUVs ≤8 prior to bendamustine received autologous SCT, while 13 with suboptimal responses were allografted. Five subjects did not proceed to transplant. No bendamustine toxicities precluded transplantation and no detrimental effect on engraftment or early treatment-related mortality (TRM) was attributable to bendamustine. At 1 year, 75% of auto-recipients and 31% of allo-recipients were alive with CR. Two subjects in the autologous arm developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasia (t-MN). In conclusion, a bendamustine bridge to SCT can be administered without early toxicity to patients with suboptimal responses to salvage chemotherapy. However this approach may increase the risk of t-MN. (NCT02059239).Supplemental data for this article is available online at here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1881516DOI Listing
July 2021

Adoptive immunotherapy with CB following chemotherapy for patients with refractory myeloid malignancy: chimerism and response.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5146-5156

Division of Hematology/Oncology and.

We conducted a prospective evaluation of cord blood (CB)-derived adoptive cell therapy, after salvage chemotherapy, for patients with advanced myeloid malignancies and poor prognosis. Previously, we reported safety, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of this approach. We present updated results in 31 patients who received intensive chemotherapy followed by CB infusion and identify predictors of response. To enhance the antileukemic effect, we selected CB units (CBU) with shared inherited paternal antigens and/or noninherited maternal antigens with the recipients. Twenty-eight patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2 with myelodysplastic syndrome, and 1 in chronic myeloid leukemia myeloid blast crisis were enrolled; 9 had relapsed after allogeneic transplant. Response was defined as <5% blasts in hypocellular bone marrow at 2 weeks after treatment. Thirteen patients (42%) responded; a rate higher than historical data with chemotherapy only. Twelve had CBU-derived chimerism detected; chimerism was a powerful predictor of response (P < .001). CBU lymphocyte content and a prior transplant were associated with chimerism (P < .01). Safety was acceptable: 3 patients developed mild cytokine release syndrome, 2 had grade 1 and 2 had grade 4 graft-versus-host disease. Seven responders and 6 nonresponders (after additional therapy) received subsequent transplant; 5 are alive (follow-up, 5-47 months). The most common cause of death for nonresponders was disease progression, whereas for responders it was infection. CB-derived adoptive cell therapy is feasible and efficacious for refractory AML. Banked CBU are readily available for treatment. Response depends on chimerism, highlighting the graft-versus-leukemia effect of CB cell therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02508324.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594383PMC
October 2020

Community health status and outcomes after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States.

Cancer 2021 02 21;127(4):609-618. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: The association of community factors and outcomes after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has not been comprehensively described. Using the County Health Rankings and Roadmaps (CHRR) and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR), this study evaluated the impact of community health status on allogeneic HCT outcomes.

Methods: This study included 18,544 adult allogeneic HCT recipients reported to the CIBMTR by 170 US centers in 2014-2016. Sociodemographic, environmental, and community indicators were derived from the CHRR, an aggregate community risk score was created, and scores were assigned to each patient (patient community risk score [PCS]) and transplant center (center community risk score [CCS]). Higher scores indicated less healthy communities. The impact of PCS and CCS on patient outcomes after allogeneic HCT was studied.

Results: The median age was 55 years (range, 18-83 years). The median PCS was -0.21 (range, -1.37 to 2.10; standard deviation [SD], 0.42), and the median CCS was -0.13 (range, -1.04 to 0.96; SD, 0.40). In multivariable analyses, a higher PCS was associated with inferior survival (hazard ratio [HR] per 1 SD increase, 1.04; 99% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = .0089). Among hematologic malignancies, a tendency toward inferior survival was observed with a higher PCS (HR, 1.04; 99% CI, 1.00-1.08; P = .0102); a higher PCS was associated with higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM; HR, 1.08; 99% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = .0004). CCS was not significantly associated with survival, relapse, or NRM.

Conclusions: Patients residing in counties with a worse community health status have inferior survival as a result of an increased risk of NRM after allogeneic HCT. There was no association between the community health status of the transplant center location and allogeneic HCT outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7855526PMC
February 2021

Case Report: Tocilizumab for the Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in a Patient With Aplastic Anemia.

Front Oncol 2020 18;10:562625. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

While cytokine storm develops in a minority of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, novel treatment approaches are desperately needed for those in whom it does. Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 receptor antibody, has been utilized for the treatment of cytokine storm in a number of severe inflammatory conditions, including in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we present the first published case utilizing this therapy in a patient with underlying immunodeficiency. Our patient with aplastic anemia developed cytokine storm due to COVID-19 manifested by fever, severe hypoxia, pulmonary infiltrates, and elevated inflammatory markers. Following treatment with tocilizumab, cytokine storm resolved, and the patient was ultimately safely discharged from the hospital.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.562625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7531270PMC
September 2020

Comparison of outcomes of HCT in blast phase of BCR-ABL1- MPN with de novo AML and with AML following MDS.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(19):4748-4757

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Comparative outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for BCR-ABL1- myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) in blast phase (MPN-BP) vs de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and AML with prior myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs; post-MDS AML), are unknown. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared HCT outcomes in 177 MPN-BP patients with 4749 patients with de novo AML, and 1104 patients with post-MDS AML, using multivariate regression analysis in 2 separate comparisons. In a multivariate Cox model, no difference in overall survival (OS) or relapse was observed in patients with MPN-BP vs de novo AML with active leukemia at HCT. Patients with MPN-BP in remission had inferior OS in comparison with de novo AML in remission (hazard ratio [HR], 1.40 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12-1.76]) due to higher relapse rate (HR, 2.18 [95% CI, 1.69-2.80]). MPN-BP patients had inferior OS (HR, 1.19 [95% CI, 1.00-1.43]) and increased relapse (HR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.31-1.96]) compared with post-MDS AML. Poor-risk cytogenetics were associated with increased relapse in both comparisons. Peripheral blood grafts were associated with decreased relapse in MPN-BP and post-MDS AML (HR, 0.70 [95% CI, 0.57-0.86]). Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) was similar between MPN-BP vs de novo AML, and MPN-BP vs post-MDS AML. Total-body irradiation-based myeloablative conditioning was associated with higher NRM in both comparisons. Survival of MPN-BP after HCT is inferior to de novo AML in remission and post-MDS AML due to increased relapse. Relapse-prevention strategies are required to optimize HCT outcomes in MPN-BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002621DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7556156PMC
October 2020

Management of Patients With Hematologic Malignancies During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Practical Considerations and Lessons to Be Learned.

Front Oncol 2020 14;10:1439. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation, Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, United States.

The COVID-19 pandemic has created unprecedented hurdles to the delivery of care to patients with cancer. Patients with hematologic malignancies appear to have a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe disease due to myelosuppression and lymphopenia. The first challenge, therefore, is how to continue to deliver effective, curative therapy to vulnerable patients and at the same time avoid exposing them, and their health care teams (HCT), to SARS-CoV-2. An additional challenge is the timely completion of the diagnostic and staging studies required to formulate appropriate treatment plans. Deferred procedures and avoidance of multiple trips to the surgical, diagnostic, and laboratory suites require same day consolidation of all procedures. With laboratory medicine absorbed by the need to deploy large scale COVID-testing, the availability of routine molecular tests is affected. Finally, we are increasingly faced with the challenge of making complex treatment decisions in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients with aggressive but potentially curable blood cancers. When to treat, how to treat, when to wait, how long to wait, how to predict and manage toxicities, and how to avoid compromising cure rates remains unknown. We present an outline of the scientific, medical, and operational challenges posed by the COVID-19 pandemic at selected American and European institutions and offer our current view of the key elements of a response. While the peak of the pandemic may be past us, in the absence of a vaccine risks remain, and our alertness and response to future challenges need to be refined and consolidated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7456870PMC
August 2020

A Personalized Prediction Model for Outcomes after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplant in Patients with Myelodysplastic Syndromes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 11 8;26(11):2139-2146. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Blood & Marrow Transplant Program, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland, Ohio.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) remains the only potentially curative option for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Mortality after HCT is high, with deaths related to relapse or transplant-related complications. Thus, identifying patients who may or may not benefit from HCT is clinically important. We identified 1514 patients with MDS enrolled in the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research Registry and had their peripheral blood samples sequenced for the presence of 129 commonly mutated genes in myeloid malignancies. A random survival forest algorithm was used to build the model, and the accuracy of the proposed model was assessed by concordance index. The median age of the entire cohort was 59 years. The most commonly mutated genes were ASXL1(20%), TP53 (19%), DNMT3A (15%), and TET2 (12%). The algorithm identified the following variables prior to HCT that impacted overall survival: age, TP53 mutations, absolute neutrophils count, cytogenetics per International Prognostic Scoring System-Revised, Karnofsky performance status, conditioning regimen, donor age, WBC count, hemoglobin, diagnosis of therapy-related MDS, peripheral blast percentage, mutations in RAS pathway, JAK2 mutation, number of mutations/sample, ZRSR2, and CUX1 mutations. Different variables impacted the risk of relapse post-transplant. The new model can provide survival probability at different time points that are specific (personalized) for a given patient based on the clinical and mutational variables that are listed above. The outcomes' probability at different time points may aid physicians and patients in their decision regarding HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609542PMC
November 2020

The risk and prognosis of COVID-19 infection in cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 Jul 30. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Oncology Centre, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

Numerous studies have been published regarding outcomes of cancer patients infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus causing the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. However, most of these are single-center studies with a limited number of patients. To better assess the outcomes of this new infection in this subgroup of susceptible patients, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 infection on cancer patients. We performed a literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for studies that reported the risk of infection and complications of COVID-19 in cancer patients and retrieved 22 studies (1018 cancer patients). The analysis showed that the frequency of cancer among patients with confirmed COVID-19 was 2.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3) in the overall cohort. These patients had a mortality of 21.1% (95% CI: 14.7-27.6), severe/critical disease rate of 45.4% (95% CI: 37.4-53.3), intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate of 14.5% (95% CI: 8.5-20.4), and mechanical ventilation rate of 11.7% (95% CI: 5.5-18). The double-arm analysis showed that cancer patients had a higher risk of mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.23, 95% CI: 1.71-6.13), severe/critical disease (OR = 3.91, 95% CI: 2.70-5.67), ICU admission (OR = 3.10, 95% CI: 1.85-5.17), and mechanical ventilation (OR = 4.86, 95% CI: 1.27-18.65) than non-cancer patients. Furthermore, cancer patients had significantly lower platelet levels and higher D-dimer levels, C-reactive protein levels, and prothrombin time. In conclusion, these results indicate that cancer patients are at a higher risk of COVID-19 infection-related complications. Therefore, cancer patients need diligent preventive care measures and aggressive surveillance for earlier detection of COVID-19 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2020.07.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7390725PMC
July 2020

Reduced intensity conditioning for acute myeloid leukemia using melphalan- vs busulfan-based regimens: a CIBMTR report.

Blood Adv 2020 07;4(13):3180-3190

Texas Transplant Institute, San Antonio, TX.

There is a lack of large comparative study on the outcomes of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) transplantation using fludarabine/busulfan (FB) and fludarabine/melphalan (FM) regimens. Adult AML patients from Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who received first RIC allo-transplant between 2001 and 2015 were studied. Patients were excluded if they received cord blood or identical twin transplant, total body irradiation in conditioning, or graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with in vitro T-cell depletion. Primary outcome was overall survival (OS), secondary end points were leukemia-free survival (LFS), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and GVHD. Multivariate survival model was used with adjustment for patient, leukemia, and transplant-related factors. A total of 622 patients received FM and 791 received FB RIC. Compared with FB, the FM group had fewer transplant in complete remission (CR), fewer matched sibling donors, and less usage of anti-thymocyte globulin or alemtuzumab. More patients in the FM group received marrow grafts and had transplantation before 2005. OS was significantly lower within the first 3 months posttransplant in the FM group (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.82, P < .001), but was marginally superior beyond 3 months (HR = 0.87, P = .05). LFS was better with FM compared with FB (HR = 0.89, P = .05). NRM was significantly increased in the FM group during the first 3 months of posttransplant (HR = 3.85, P < .001). Long-term relapse was lower with FM (HR = 0.65, P < .001). Analysis restricted to patients with CR showed comparable results. In conclusion, compared with FB, the FM RIC showed a marginally superior long-term OS and LFS and a lower relapse rate. A lower OS early posttransplant within 3 months was largely the result of a higher early NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362362PMC
July 2020

Poor graft function after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 14;61(12):2894-2899. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

PGF implies persistent cytopenia in the presence of predominant donor chimerism. We examined contributors to PGF in 104 HCT recipients who survived ≥100 days without relapse or major complications. Surrogate parameters for PGF were: Hg <10 g/dl, RBC transfusion dependence, platelet count <20 × 10/L or ANC < 0.5 × 10/L. All patients received T cell depletion with alemtuzumab or ATG. The 2-year OS and PFS probabilities were 66%, 95%CI (56 - 75%) and 51%, 95%CI (41-60%) respectively. Fifty-four patients (52%) met one or more PGF criteria. There was significant association between major ABO incompatibility and platelet <20 × 109/L (OR = 4.7, 95%CI 1.05-21.26,  = .043), acute GVHD and Hg <10 g/dl (OR 3.7, 95%CI 1.4-9.6,  = .005) and CMV viremia and ANC < 0.5 × 10/L (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0, 8.7,  = .043). NRM was significantly higher in the PGF group compared to patients with adequate graft function (45.5% vs 16.7%,  = .014).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1789622DOI Listing
December 2020

Low Nonrelapse Mortality after HLA-Matched Related 2-Step Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus-Host Disease Prophylaxis and the Potential Impact of Non- Cyclophosphamide-Exposed T Cells on Outcomes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 10 3;26(10):1861-1867. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Medical Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

The use of cyclophosphamide (CY) for bidirectional tolerization of recipient and donor T cells is associated with reduced rates of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) after HLA-matched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). However, recurrent disease remains the primary barrier to long-term survival. We extended our 2-step approach to HLA-matched related HSCT using a radiation-based myeloablative conditioning regimen combined with a high dose of T cells in an attempt to reduce relapse rates while maintaining the beneficial effects of CY tolerization. After conditioning, patients received their grafts in 2 components: (1) a fixed dose of 2 × 10/kg T cells, followed 2 days later by CY, and (2) a CD34-selected graft containing a small residual amount of non-CY-exposed T cells, at a median dose of 2.98 × 10/kg. Forty-six patients with hematologic malignancies were treated. Despite the myeloablative conditioning regimen and use of high T cell doses, the cumulative incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD, chronic GVHD, and NRM at 1 year and 5 years were very low, at 13%, 9%, and 4.3%, respectively. This contributed to a high overall survival of 89.1% at 1 year and 65.8% at 5 years. Relapse was the primary cause of mortality, with a cumulative incidence of 23.9% at 1 year and 45.7% at 5 years. In a post hoc analysis, relapse rates were significantly lower in patients receiving greater than versus those receiving less than the group median of non-CY-exposed residual T cells in the CD34 product (19.3% versus 58.1%; P = .009), without a concomitant increase in NRM. In its current form, this 2-step regimen was highly tolerable, but strategies to reduce relapse, potentially the addition of T cells not exposed to CY, are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.06.021DOI Listing
October 2020

Cord blood transplants supported by unrelated donor CD34 progenitor cells.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 12 9;55(12):2298-2307. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Alternative donor transplantation with the haplo-cord platform allows the use of a lower-dose single umbilical cord blood unit (CBU) by co-infusion of third-party CD34-selected cells from a haploidentical relative, which provides early transient engraftment while awaiting durable CBU engraftment. In our experience, ~15% of patients lack a suitable haploidentical donor. Here we report 26 patients who underwent haplo-cord transplant using CD34-selected partially matched unrelated donor grafts. Twenty-four were conditioned with fludarabine/melphalan +/- low-dose TBI (n = 16). Twenty-five received ATG and all received posttransplant tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery was 11 and 18 days. CBU engraftment, with CD33 and CD3 >5% cord chimerism in the myeloid/lymphoid compartment by day +60, occurred in 20 of 24 patients (83%). Incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 27% at day +100, and chronic GVHD was 4% at 1 year. Overall survival at 1 year was 54%. For patients in need of an alternative transplant who lack a haploidentical donor, haplo-cord transplantation using CD34-selected partially matched unrelated donor grafts results in rapid engraftment with no increased rate of cord graft failure or GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0959-5DOI Listing
December 2020

The Impact of Donor Type on Outcomes and Cost of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Pediatric Leukemia: A Merged Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research and Pediatric Health Information System Analysis.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 09 25;26(9):1747-1756. Epub 2020 May 25.

Cancer Care Manitoba, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHCT) may be associated with significant morbidity and mortality, resulting in increased healthcare utilization (HCU). To date, no multicenter comparative cost analyses have specifically evaluated alloHCT in children with acute leukemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we examined the relationship between survival and HCU while investigating the hypothesis that matched sibling donor (MSD) alloHCT has significantly lower inpatient HCU with unrelated donor (URD) alloHCT, and that among URDs, umbilical cord blood (UCB) alloHCT will have higher initial utilization but lower long-term utilization. Clinical and transplantation outcomes data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) were merged with inpatient cost data from the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database using a probabilistic merge methodology. The merged dataset comprised US patients age 1 to 21 years who underwent alloHCT for acute leukemia between 2004 and 2011 with comprehensive CIBMTR data at a PHIS hospital. AlloHCT was analyzed by donor type, with specific analysis of utilization and costs using PHIS claims data. The primary outcomes of overall survival (OS), leukemia-free survival (LFS), and inpatient costs were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox and Poisson models. A total of 632 patients were identified in both the CIBMTR and PHIS data. The 5-year LFS was 60% for MSD alloHCT, 47% for well-matched matched unrelated donor bone marrow (MUD) alloHCT, 48% for mismatched unrelated donor alloHCT, and 45% for UCB alloHCT (P = .09). Total adjusted costs were significantly lower for MSD alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT by day 100 (adjusted cost ratio [ACR], .73; 95% confidence interval [CI], .62 to .86; P < .001), and higher for UCB alloHCT versus MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.45; P < .001). By 2 years, total adjusted costs remained significantly lower for MSD alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, .67; 95% CI, .56 to .81; P < .001) and higher for UCB alloHCT compared with MUD alloHCT (ACR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.02 to 1.52; P = .0280). Our data show that UCB and MUD alloHCT provide similar survival outcomes; however, MUD alloHCT has a significant advantage in cost by day 100 and 2 years. More research is needed to determine whether the cost difference among URD alloHCT approaches remains significant with a larger sample size and/or beyond 2 years post-alloHCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.016DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7518194PMC
September 2020

Risk Factors for Graft-versus-Host Disease in Haploidentical Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation Using Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 08 17;26(8):1459-1468. Epub 2020 May 17.

(7)Division of Hematology/Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, Florida.

Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has significantly increased the successful use of haploidentical donors with a relatively low incidence of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). Given its increasing use, we sought to determine risk factors for GVHD after haploidentical hematopoietic cell transplantation (haplo-HCT) using PTCy. Data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research on adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome, or chronic myeloid leukemia who underwent PTCy-based haplo-HCT (2013 to 2016) were analyzed and categorized into 4 groups based on myeloablative (MA) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) and bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood (PB) graft source. In total, 646 patients were identified (MA-BM = 79, MA-PB = 183, RIC-BM = 192, RIC-PB = 192). The incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD at 6 months was highest in MA-PB (44%), followed by RIC-PB (36%), MA-BM (36%), and RIC-BM (30%) (P = .002). The incidence of chronic GVHD at 1 year was 40%, 34%, 24%, and 20%, respectively (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, there was no impact of stem cell source or conditioning regimen on grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD; however, older donor age (30 to 49 versus <29 years) was significantly associated with higher rates of grade 2 to 4 acute GVHD (hazard ratio [HR], 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11 to 2.12; P = .01). In contrast, PB compared to BM as a stem cell source was a significant risk factor for the development of chronic GVHD (HR, 1.70; 95% CI, 1.11 to 2.62; P = .01) in the RIC setting. There were no differences in relapse or overall survival between groups. Donor age and graft source are risk factors for acute and chronic GVHD, respectively, after PTCy-based haplo-HCT. Our results indicate that in RIC haplo-HCT, the risk of chronic GVHD is higher with PB stem cells, without any difference in relapse or overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.05.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7391266PMC
August 2020

Ofatumumab for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2020 May 11. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Medical Oncology, Division of Hematological Malignancies, Sidney Kimmel Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) includes a range of abnormal lymphoid proliferation following solid organ or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), often associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Treatment generally incudes rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody directed against CD20. Here we present a 56-year-old woman with EBV-associated PTLD following allogeneic HSCT who was intolerant of rituximab. The patient was instead treated with ofatumumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody directed against CD20, with significant response in EBV viral load and lymphadenopathy. Ofatumumab could represent an important treatment option for patients unable to tolerate rituximab.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2020.04.004DOI Listing
May 2020

Composite GRFS and CRFS Outcomes After Adult Alternative Donor HCT.

J Clin Oncol 2020 06 4;38(18):2062-2076. Epub 2020 May 4.

Division of Clinical Hematology, Hospital de la Santa Creu I Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Purpose: There is no consensus on the best choice of an alternative donor (umbilical cord blood [UCB], haploidentical, one-antigen mismatched [7/8]-bone marrow [BM], or 7/8-peripheral blood [PB]) for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for patients lacking an HLA-matched related or unrelated donor.

Methods: We report composite end points of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)-free relapse-free survival (GRFS) and chronic GVHD (cGVHD)-free relapse-free survival (CRFS) in 2,198 patients who underwent UCB (n = 838), haploidentical (n = 159), 7/8-BM (n = 241), or 7/8-PB (n = 960) HCT. All groups were divided by myeloablative conditioning (MAC) intensity or reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), except haploidentical group in which most received RIC. To account for multiple testing, < .0071 in multivariable analysis and < .00025 in direct pairwise comparisons were considered statistically significant.

Results: In multivariable analysis, haploidentical group had the best GRFS, CRFS, and overall survival (OS). In the direct pairwise comparison of other groups, among those who received MAC, there was no difference in GRFS or CRFS among UCB, 7/8-BM, and 7/8-PB with serotherapy (alemtuzumab or antithymocyte globulin) groups. In contrast, the 7/8-PB without serotherapy group had significantly inferior GRFS, higher cGVHD, and a trend toward worse CRFS (hazard ratio [HR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.13 to 1.69; = .002) than the 7/8-BM group and higher cGVHD and trend toward inferior CRFS (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.63; = .0006) than the UCB group. Among patients with RIC, all groups had significantly inferior GRFS and CRFS compared with the haploidentical group.

Conclusion: Recognizing the limitations of a registry retrospective analysis and the possibility of center selection bias in choosing donors, our data support the use of UCB, 7/8-BM, or 7/8-PB (with serotherapy) grafts for patients undergoing MAC HCT and haploidentical grafts for patients undergoing RIC HCT. The haploidentical group had the best GRFS, CRFS, and OS of all groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7302955PMC
June 2020

Impact of autologous blood transfusion after bone marrow harvest on unrelated donor's health and outcome: a CIBMTR analysis.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 11 30;55(11):2121-2131. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA, USA.

Pre-harvest autologous blood collection from bone marrow (BM) donors is performed to meet potential post-operative transfusion needs. This study examines the impact of autologous blood transfusion on BM donor's health and safety. The study included first-time unrelated BM donors from the United States whose BM harvest was facilitated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) centers between 2006 and 2017. Examination of 7024 BM donors revealed that 60% received at least one unit of autologous blood. The donors who received autologous blood were older, had lower hemoglobin pre-harvest, underwent longer duration of anesthesia, and higher volume BM harvest. Only donors who underwent high-volume BM harvest, defined as a BM harvest volume >27% of donor's blood volume, benefited from autologous transfusion. After a high-volume BM harvest, autologous blood transfusion was shown to decrease grade 2 to 4 collection-associated toxicities within 48 h of BM donation (p = 0.010) and shorten the time to donor-reported "complete" recovery from donation-associated symptoms (p < 0.001). Therefore, autologous transfusion could be avoided as support of marrow donation in the majority of unrelated BM donors and should be limited to cases where the planned BM harvest volume is expected to exceed 27% of donor's blood volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0911-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7606543PMC
November 2020

Collection of Peripheral Blood Progenitor Cells in 1 Day Is Associated with Decreased Donor Toxicity Compared to 2 Days in Unrelated Donors.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 20;26(6):1210-1217. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Department of Hematology and Oncology, Dokkyo Medical University, Tochigi, Japan.

Peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) have been increasingly used for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation instead of bone marrow stem cells. Current National Marrow Donor Program policy recommends 5 days of daily filgrastim, followed by either 1 or 2 days of apheresis for unrelated donors, depending on collection center choice. To date, there are no published studies comparing the differences in donor experience between 1 day and 2 days of apheresis. We examined 22,348 adult unrelated donor collections in 184 centers between 2006 and 2016. Of these 22,348 donors, 20,004 (89.5%) had collection on 1 day, and the other 2344 (9.5%) had collection over 2 days. Information on why donors underwent apheresis in 1 day or 2 days was not available. Donors who underwent apheresis in 1 day were more likely to be male (67% versus 46%; P < .001), younger (age <30 years, 48% versus 36%; P < .001), and have a higher body weight (83.0 kg versus 75.9 kg; P< .001) and body mass index (BMI; >30, 30% versus 22%; P < .001). Successful collection of the requested CD34 cell count was achieved on the first day in 82% of 1-day collections and in 16% of 2-day collections. Despite not administering filgrastim the evening after the first day of collection in patients who underwent 2 days of apheresis, the median concentration of CD34 cells/L in the product was higher on the second day of apheresis compared with the first day (23.8 × 10 CD34/L on day 1 versus 28.7 × 10 CD34/L on day 2; P< .001). Donors who underwent collection in 1 day were less likely to experience citrate toxicity (36% versus 52%; P< .001), hospitalization (1% versus 6%; P< .001), and other side effects related to apheresis (Modified Toxicity Criteria incidence: 20% versus 26%; P < .001). Female sex, older age, collection via central lines, and higher BMI were factors associated with greater likelihood for the development of toxicity, whereas less toxicity was noted in those with higher CD34 counts and more blood processed on the first day of collection. We conclude that although unrelated donors can be successfully collected in 1 day or 2 days, 1-day apheresis procedures were associated with less overall toxicity, and thus we recommend single-day collections, especially if the requested number of cells have been collected in 1 day.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.02.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7347029PMC
June 2020

The Role of Donor Lymphocyte Infusion (DLI) in Post-Hematopoietic Cell Transplant (HCT) Relapse for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) in the Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI) Era.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 06 14;26(6):1137-1143. Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Division of Hematology, Oncology and Blood & Marrow Transplantation, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California.

Treatment for relapse of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) includes tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) with or without donor lymphocyte infusions (DLIs), but the most effective treatment strategy is unknown. This study was performed through the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database. We retrospectively reviewed all patients reported to the CIBMTR registry from 2002 to 2014 who underwent HCT for CML and were alive 30 days postrelapse. A total of 215 HCT recipients relapsed and were analyzed in the following groups: (1) TKI alone (n = 128), (2) TKI with DLI (n = 48), and (3) DLI without TKI (n = 39). In multivariate analysis, disease status prior to HCT had a significant effect on overall survival (OS). Patients who received a DLI alone compared with a TKI with a DLI had inferior survival (hazard ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 4.24; P= .009). Those who received a TKI alone had similar survival compared with those who received a TKI with a DLI (P = .81). These data support that despite use of TKIs pretransplantation, TKI salvage therapy continues to provide significant survival following relapse in patients with CML following HCT. These data do not suggest that adding a DLI to a TKI adds an improvement in OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.02.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7367282PMC
June 2020

Outcomes of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant for Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 04 28;26(4):789-797. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, improved HLA matching, and better supportive care allow allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) to be offered to older patients. Only a small percentage of eligible patients between ages 65 and 74 years actually undergo alloSCT, and comprehensive outcome data from the aging population are still lacking. We examined the outcome of older patients who underwent alloSCT using melphalan-based RIC for hematologic malignancies at our institution. We identified 125 patients older than 65 years (median, 69; range, 66 to 77) who underwent matched related donor, matched unrelated donor, or combined haploidentical/umbilical cord alloSCT between 2012 through November, 2017. Among them, 52 (41.6%) and 70 (56%) had, respectively, intermediate and high/very high Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) disease risk index (DRI). One hundred six patients (85%) received fludarabine/melphalan-based RIC regimen with either antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range, 8 to 37) and platelet engraftment 17 days (range, 9 to 169). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 11.5% at 100 days and 30.1% and 34.8% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 35% and 40% at 1 and 2 years. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 and 6 months was 29.5% and 34.5%, and chronic GVHD at 6, 12, and 24 months was 2.5%, 5.2%, and 6.3%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 34.6%, 24.4%, and 16.5%, respectively. The graft GVHD-free survival was 24.6%, 16.1%, and 9.3%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 44.5%, 30.7%, and 26.5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, low albumin was predictive of poor PFS and OS and high hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index, and CIBMTR DRI was predictive of worse graft GVHD-free survival. Among long-term survivors the median Karnofsky performance status was 80. Older patients, even when referred with advanced disease, can benefit from melphalan-based alloSCT with HLA-matched or alternative donor sources without discernible impact of donor source on outcome. Using alemtuzumab- or ATG-based in vivo T cell depletion, the incidence of chronic GVHD is extremely low. Performance status in survivors is excellent. Better predictors for outcome in this patient population need to be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.12.766DOI Listing
April 2020
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