Publications by authors named "Ung Vibol"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Treatment-Decision Score for HIV-Infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis.

Pediatrics 2019 09;144(3)

Service de Pneumologie et d'Allergologie Pédiatriques, and.

Background: Diagnosis of tuberculosis should be improved in children infected with HIV to reduce mortality. We developed prediction scores to guide antituberculosis treatment decision in HIV-infected children with suspected tuberculosis.

Methods: HIV-infected children with suspected tuberculosis enrolled in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam (ANRS 12229 PAANTHER 01 Study), underwent clinical assessment, chest radiography, Quantiferon Gold In-Tube (QFT), abdominal ultrasonography, and sample collection for microbiology, including Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert). We developed 4 tuberculosis diagnostic models using logistic regression: (1) all predictors included, (2) QFT excluded, (3) ultrasonography excluded, and (4) QFT and ultrasonography excluded. We internally validated the models using resampling. We built a score on the basis of the model with the best area under the receiver operating characteristic curve and parsimony.

Results: A total of 438 children were enrolled in the study; 251 (57.3%) had tuberculosis, including 55 (12.6%) with culture- or Xpert-confirmed tuberculosis. The final 4 models included Xpert, fever lasting >2 weeks, unremitting cough, hemoptysis and weight loss in the past 4 weeks, contact with a patient with smear-positive tuberculosis, tachycardia, miliary tuberculosis, alveolar opacities, and lymph nodes on the chest radiograph, together with abdominal lymph nodes on the ultrasound and QFT results. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves were 0.866, 0.861, 0.850, and 0.846, for models 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. The score developed on model 2 had a sensitivity of 88.6% and a specificity of 61.2% for a tuberculosis diagnosis.

Conclusions: Our score had a good diagnostic performance. Used in an algorithm, it should enable prompt treatment decision in children with suspected tuberculosis and a high mortality risk, thus contributing to significant public health benefits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2018-2065DOI Listing
September 2019

Isolation of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Southeast Asian and African Human Immunodeficiency Virus-infected Children With Suspected Tuberculosis.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 05;68(10):1750-1753

Epidemiology and Public Health Unit, Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

We enrolled 427 human immunodeficiency virus-infected children (median age, 7.3 years), 59.2% severely immunodeficient, with suspected tuberculosis in Southeast Asian and African settings. Nontuberculous mycobacteria were isolated in 46 children (10.8%); 45.7% of isolates were Mycobacterium avium complex. Southeast Asian origin, age 5-9 years, and severe immunodeficiency were independently associated with nontuberculous mycobacteria isolation.

Clinical Trials Registration: NCT01331811.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6495014PMC
May 2019

Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Among HIV-infected Children and Adolescents Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2018 08;37(8):788-793

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Background: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

Methods: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently <25 years old receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013. HBV coinfection was defined as having either a positive HBsAg test or being anti-HBc positive and anti-HBs negative, reflective of past HBV infection. HBV seroprotection was defined as having a positive anti-HBs test.

Results: A total of 3380 patients from 6 countries (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were included. The current median (interquartile range) age was 11.2 (7.8-15.1) years. Of the 2755 patients (81.5%) with HBsAg testing, 130 (4.7%) were positive. Of 1558 (46%) with anti-HBc testing, 77 (4.9%) were positive. Thirteen of 1037 patients with all 3 tests were anti-HBc positive and HBsAg and anti-HBs negative. One child was positive for anti-HBc and negative for anti-HBs but did not have HBsAg tested. The prevalence of HBV coinfection was 144/2759 (5.2%) (95% confidence interval: 4.4-6.1). Of 1093 patients (32%) with anti-HBs testing, 257 (23.5%; confidence interval: 21.0-26.0) had positive tests representing HBV seroprotection.

Conclusions: The estimated prevalence of HBV coinfection in this cohort of Asian HIV-infected children and adolescents on ART was 5.2%. The majority of children and adolescents tested in this cohort (76.5%) did not have protective HBV antibody. The finding supports HBV screening of HIV-infected children and adolescents to guide revaccination, the use of ART with anti-HBV activity and future monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000001901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6097529PMC
August 2018

Mortality and its determinants in antiretroviral treatment-naive HIV-infected children with suspected tuberculosis: an observational cohort study.

Lancet HIV 2018 02 23;5(2):e87-e95. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

Unité d'Immunologie Hématologie Rhumatologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Necker Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: Tuberculosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children, but is difficult to diagnose. We studied mortality and its determinants in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naive HIV-infected children presenting with suspected tuberculosis.

Methods: In this observational cohort study, HIV-infected children aged 13 years or younger with suspected tuberculosis were followed up for 6 months as part of the ANRS 12229 PAANTHER 01 cohort in eight hospitals in four countries (Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam). Children started ART and antituberculosis treatment at the clinician's discretion and were retrospectively classified into one of three groups by tuberculosis documentation: confirmed by culture or Xpert MTB/RIF, unconfirmed, and unlikely. We assessed mortality and associated factors using Kaplan-Meier methods and Cox proportional hazard models. The ANRS 12229 PAANTHER 01 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01331811.

Findings: 266 (61%) of 438 children enrolled in the study between April 27, 2011, and May 31, 2014, were ART-naive and included in the analysis (40 had confirmed tuberculosis, 119 unconfirmed tuberculosis, and 107 unlikely tuberculosis). 112·5 person-years of follow-up were available. 154 children (58%) started antituberculosis treatment and 212 (80%) started ART. 50 children (19%) died. Mortality by 6 months was higher in children with confirmed tuberculosis (14 deaths; 2 month survival probability 65·0% [95% CI 50·2-79·8]) compared with unconfirmed tuberculosis (19 deaths; 83·5% [76·8-90·3]) and unlikely tuberculosis (17 deaths; 83·5% [76·3-90·7]; log-rank p=0·0141) and was lower in children with confirmed or unconfirmed tuberculosis who started antituberculosis treatment (p<0·0001 for both). In a multivariate analysis, ART started during the first month of follow-up (hazard ratio 0·08; 95% CI 0·01-0·67), confirmed tuberculosis (6·33; 2·15-18·64), young age (5·90; 2·02-17·19), CD4 less than 10% (2·63; 1·25-5·53), miliary features (4·08; 1·56-10·66), and elevated serum transaminases (4·40; 1·82-10·65) were all independently associated with mortality.

Interpretation: In our cohort, mortality was high in the first 6 months after suspicion of tuberculosis in ART-naive children. ART should be started early, particularly in children with factors associated with high mortality. Documented or empirical tuberculosis treatment decision should be accelerated to reduce mortality and allow early ART initiation.

Funding: ANRS and Fondation Total.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(17)30206-0DOI Listing
February 2018

Kaposi Sarcoma Risk in HIV-Infected Children and Adolescents on Combination Antiretroviral Therapy From Sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Asia.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 11 30;63(9):1245-1253. Epub 2016 Aug 30.

Background: The burden of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children and adolescents on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has not been compared globally.

Methods: We analyzed cohort data from the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS and the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research in Europe. We included HIV-infected children aged <16 years at cART initiation from 1996 onward. We used Cox models to calculate hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for region and origin, sex, cART start year, age, and HIV/AIDS stage at cART initiation.

Results: We included 24 991 children from eastern Africa, southern Africa, Europe and Asia; 26 developed KS after starting cART. Incidence rates per 100 000 person-years (PYs) were 86 in eastern Africa (95% confidence interval [CI], 55-133), 11 in southern Africa (95% CI, 4-35), and 81 (95% CI, 26-252) in children of sub-Saharan African (SSA) origin in Europe. The KS incidence rates were 0/100 000 PYs in children of non-SSA origin in Europe (95% CI, 0-50) and in Asia (95% CI, 0-27). KS risk was lower in girls than in boys (adjusted HR [aHR], 0.3; 95% CI, .1-.9) and increased with age (10-15 vs 0-4 years; aHR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.2-10.1) and advanced HIV/AIDS stage (CDC stage C vs A/B; aHR, 2.4; 95% CI, .8-7.3) at cART initiation.

Conclusions: HIV-infected children from SSA but not those from other regions, have a high risk of developing KS after cART initiation. Early cART initiation in these children might reduce KS risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5064163PMC
November 2016

Performance of Xpert MTB/RIF and Alternative Specimen Collection Methods for the Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in HIV-Infected Children.

Clin Infect Dis 2016 May 7;62(9):1161-1168. Epub 2016 Feb 7.

Service de Pneumologie et d'Allergologie Pédiatriques, Hôpital Necker-Enfants Malades, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Background: The diagnosis of tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children is challenging. We assessed the performance of alternative specimen collection methods for tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children using Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert).

Methods: HIV-infected children aged ≤13 years with suspected intrathoracic tuberculosis were enrolled in 8 hospitals in Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, and Vietnam. Gastric aspirates were taken for children aged <10 years and expectorated sputum samples were taken for children aged ≥10 years (standard samples); nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool were taken for all children, and a string test was performed if the child was aged ≥4 years (alternative samples). All samples were tested with Xpert. The diagnostic accuracy of Xpert for culture-confirmed tuberculosis was analyzed in intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol approaches.

Results: Of 281 children enrolled, 272 (96.8%) had ≥1 specimen tested with Xpert (intention-to-diagnose population), and 179 (63.5%) had all samples tested with Xpert (per-protocol population). Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in 29/272 (10.7%) children. Intention-to-diagnose sensitivities of Xpert performed on all, standard, and alternative samples were 79.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60.3-92.0), 72.4% (95% CI, 52.8-87.3), and 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7), respectively. Specificities were ≥97.5%. Xpert combined on nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool had intention-to-diagnose and per-protocol sensitivities of 75.9% (95% CI, 56.5-89.7) and 75.0% (95% CI, 47.6-92.7), respectively.

Conclusions: The combination of nasopharyngeal aspirate and stool sample is a promising alternative to methods usually recommended by national programs. Xpert performed on respiratory and stools samples enables rapid confirmation of tuberculosis diagnosis in HIV-infected children.

Clinical Trials Registration: The ANRS (Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida) 12229 PAANTHER (Pediatric Asian African Network for Tuberculosis and HIV Research) 01 study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01331811).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciw036DOI Listing
May 2016

Factors associated with the failure of first and second-line antiretroviral therapies therapy, a case control study in Cambodian HIV-1 infected children.

BMC Res Notes 2016 Feb 5;9:69. Epub 2016 Feb 5.

University of Health Science, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Background: Little is known about the efficacy of first and and second-line antiretroviral therapies (ART) for HIV-1 infected children in resource limited Southeast Asian settings. Previous studies have shown that orphans are at a higher risk for virological failure (VF) in Cambodia. Consequently most of them required transfer to second-line ART. We assessed the factors associated with VF among HIV-1 infected children who were either under first-line (mostly 3TC + D4T + NVP) or under second-line (mostly ABC + DDI + LPV) therapies at a referral hospital in Cambodia.

Methods: A case-control study was conducted from February to July 2013 at the National Pediatric Hospital among HIV-1 infected children (aged 1-15 years) under second-line ART (cases) or first-line (matched controls at a ratio of 1:3) regimens. Children were included if a HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load (VL) result was available for the preceding 12 months. A standardized questionnaire explored family sociodemographics, HIV history, and adherence to ART. Associations between VF (HIV-1 RNA levels ≥1000 copies/ml) and the children's characteristics were assessed using bivariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: A total of 232 children, 175 (75.4 %) under first-line and 57 (24.6 %) under second-line ART, for a median of 72.0 (IQR: 68.0-76.0) months, were enrolled. Of them, 94 (40.5 %) were double orphans and 51 (22.0 %) single orphans, and 77 (33.2 %) were living in orphanages. A total of 222 children (95.6 %) were deemed adherent to ART. Overall, 18 (7.7 %; 95 % CI 4.6-11.9) showed a VF, 14 (8.6 %; 95 % CI 4.8-14.0) under first-line and 4 (7.0 %; 95 % CI 1.9-17.0) under second-line ART (p = 0.5). Their median CD4 percentage was 8 % (IQR 2.9-12.9) at ART initiation. Children under second-line ART were older; more often double orphans, and had lower CD4 cell counts at the last control. In the multivariate analysis, having the last CD4 percentage below 15 % was the only factor associated with VF for ART regimen separately or when combined (OR 40.4; 95 % CI 11-134).

Conclusions: The pattern of risk factors for VF in children is changing in Cambodia. Improved adherence evaluation and intensified monitoring of children with low CD4 counts is needed to decrease the risk of VF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-016-1884-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4744409PMC
February 2016

Soluble CD163 and monocyte populations in response to antiretroviral therapy and in relationship with neuropsychological testing among HIV-infected children.

J Virus Erad 2015;1(3):196-202. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT) Research Collaboration, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Monocytes play a central role in HIV neuropathogenesis, but there are limited data on monocyte subsets and markers of monocyte activation in perinatally HIV-infected children.

Objective: To determine the relationship between monocyte subsets, the sCD163 monocyte activation marker, and neuropsychological performance among perinatally HIV-infected children initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Methods: ART-naïve children from the PREDICT study were categorised into two groups: those on ART for ≥24 weeks (ART group, =201) and those untreated (no ART group, =79). This analysis used data from the baseline and week 144 including sCD163 and frequencies of activated monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+), perivascular monocytes (CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+), and neuropsychological testing scores: Verbal and Performance Intelligence Quotient (VIQ and PIQ), Beery Visuomotor Integration (VMI) and Children's Color Trails 2 (CT2).

Results: Baseline demographic and HIV disease parameters were similar between groups. The median age was 6 years, CD4 was 20% (620 cells/mm), and HIV RNA was 4.8 log. By week 144, the ART the no ART group had significantly higher CD4 (938 552 cells/mm) and lower HIV RNA (1.6 4.38 log copies/mL, <0.05). sCD163 declined in the ART no ART group (median changes -2533 -159 ng/mL, <0.0001). Frequencies of all monocyte subsets declined in the treated but not the untreated group ( <0.05). Higher CD14+/CD16+/HLA-DR+ percentage was associated with higher VIQ, Beery VMI and CT2 scores. Higher percentages of CD14+/CD16+/CD163+ and CD14low/CD16+/CD163+ were associated with higher CT2 and VIQ, respectively.

Conclusion: ART significantly reduced sCD163 levels and frequencies of activated and perivascular monocytes. Higher frequencies of these cells correlated with better neuropsychological performance suggesting a protective role of monocyte-macrophage immune activation in perinatal HIV infection in terms of neuropsychological function.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4729380PMC
June 2015

Final Height and Associated Factors in Perinatally HIV-infected Asian Adolescents.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2016 Feb;35(2):201-4

From the *HIV-NAT, the Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand; †The Kirby Institute, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; ‡Research Institute for Health Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; §Department of Pediatrics, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; ¶Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; ‖Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Pediatrics, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; **Research Unit, National Centre for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; ††Department of Public Health, University of Health Sciences, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; ‡‡Pediatric TB/HIV/AIDS Care Department, National Pediatric Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; §§YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India; ¶¶Department of Pediatrics, Penang Hospital, Penang, Malaysia; ‖‖Infectious Disease Department, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; ***Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia; †††TREAT Asia/amfAR, The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand; and ‡‡‡Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

We analyzed final height of 273 perinatally HIV-infected Asian adolescents older than 18 years at their last clinic visit. By the World Health Organization child growth reference, 30% were stunted, but by the Thai child growth reference, 19% were stunted. Half of those who were stunted at antiretroviral therapy initiation remained stunted over time. Being male and having a low baseline height-for-age Z score of less than -1.0 were associated with low final height Z score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000000961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4712093PMC
February 2016

The long-term outcomes of antiretroviral treatment initiated with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in HIV-1-infected children: an Asian observational study.

J Virus Erad 2015;1(3):192-195. Epub 2015 Jun 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand.

After a median of 115.9 months of follow-up, 90% of 206 HIV-1-infected children in a cohort in Asia who initiated antiretroviral treatment (ART) with mono or dual nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were alive and had comparable immunological and virological outcomes as compared to the 1,915 children who had started with highly active antiretroviral regimens. However, these children had higher rates of treatment-related adverse events, opportunistic infections, and cumulative mortality, and were more likely to require protease inhibitor-containing regimens or other more novel ART-based regimens.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827263PMC
June 2015

Perceived stigma by children on antiretroviral treatment in Cambodia.

BMC Pediatr 2014 Dec 10;14:300. Epub 2014 Dec 10.

University of Health Science, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Background: HIV-related stigma diminishes the quality of life of affected patients. Little is known about perceived and enacted stigma of HIV-infected children in resources-limited settings. We documented the prevalence of perceived stigma and associated factors associated among children on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at a referral hospital in Cambodia.

Methods: After informed consent, a standardized pre-tested 47-item questionnaire was confidentially administered to consecutive children (7 to 15 years) or their guardians if the child was 18 months to 6 years, during their routine ART visits. The questionnaire explored the sociodemographics of the child and the parents, HIV history, adherence to ART, tolerance of ART and perceived stigma. Associations between perceived stigma and the children's characteristics were measured by bivariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Of 183 children, 101 (55.2%) had lost at least one and 45 (24.6%) both parents; 166 (90.7%) went to school. Of 183 children (female: 84, 45.9%, median age 7.0 years, interquartile range: 2.0-9.6), 79 (43.2%) experienced perceived stigma, including rejection by others (26.8%), no invitations to social activities (18.6%) and exclusion from games (14.2%). A total of 43 (23.5%) children were fearful of their disease and 61 (53.9%) of 113 older than 6 years reported knowledge of their HIV status. Of 136 children over five years and eligible for education, 7 (3.8%) could not go to school due to perceived stigma. Incomplete adherence to ART was reported for 17 (9.2%) children. In multivariate analysis, school attendance (odds ratio [OR]: 3.9; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-7.9) and income of less than one dollar per person per day (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.1-4.5) were associated with perceived stigma. Conversely, receipt of social support (OR: 0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.9) was associated with lower risk of perceived stigma.

Conclusion: Perceived stigma in pediatric ART patients remains a significant issue in Cambodia. Psychological support and interventions should be developed in hospitals, schools, and underprivileged communities to prevent HIV-related stigma for affected children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-014-0300-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4276259PMC
December 2014

Neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed-uninfected children versus those not exposed to HIV.

AIDS Care 2014 30;26(11):1327-35. Epub 2014 May 30.

a HIV-NAT , The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre , Bangkok , Thailand.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative children born to HIV-infected mothers may exhibit differences in neurodevelopment (ND) compared to age- and gender-matched controls whose lives have not been affected by HIV. This could occur due to exposure to HIV and antiretroviral agents in utero and perinatally, or differences in the environment in which they grow up. This study assessed neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) children enrolled as controls in a multicenter ND study from Thailand and Cambodia. One hundred sixty HEU and 167 HUU children completed a neurodevelopmental assessment using the Beery Visual Motor Integration (VMI) test, Color Trails, Perdue Pegboard, and Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Thai children (n = 202) also completed the Wechsler Intelligence Scale (IQ) and Stanford-Binet II memory tests. In analyses adjusted for caregiver education, parent as caregiver, household income, age, and ethnicity, statistically significant lower scores were seen on verbal IQ (VIQ), full-scale IQ (FSIQ), and Binet Bead Memory among HEU compared to HUU. The mean (95% CI) differences were -6.13 (-10.3 to -1.96), p = 0.004; -4.57 (-8.80 to -0.35), p = 0.03; and -3.72 (-6.57 to -0.88), p = 0.01 for VIQ, FSIQ, and Binet Bead Memory, respectively. We observed no significant differences in performance IQ, other Binet memory domains, Color Trail, Perdue Pegboard, Beery VMI, or CBCL test scores. We conclude that HEU children evidence reductions in some neurodevelopmental outcomes compared to HUU; however, these differences are small and it remains unclear to what extent they have immediate and long-term clinical significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2014.920949DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4122621PMC
January 2015

Weight as predictors of clinical progression and treatment failure: results from the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2014 Sep;67(1):71-6

*The Kirby Institute, Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia; †TREAT Asia/amfAR-The Foundation for AIDS Research, Bangkok, Thailand; ‡Programs for HIV Prevention and Treatment, Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, France, and Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; §YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and Education, Chennai, India; ‖Infectious Disease Department, Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; ¶Infectious Disease Department, National Hospital of Pediatrics, Hanoi, Vietnam; #Pediatric Department, Chiangrai Prachanukroh Hospital, Chiang Rai, Thailand; **Pediatric Department , Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; ††Pediatric Department , Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; ‡‡Infectious Disease Department, Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; §§Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand; ‖‖TB/HIV Department, National Pediatric Hospital, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; ¶¶Research Unit, National Centre for HIV/AIDS, Dermatology and STDs, Phnom Penh, Cambodia; ##HIV-NAT/Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand; ***Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Raja Perempuan Zainab II, Kelantan, Malaysia; †††Pediatric Allergy-Immunology Division, Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; ‡‡‡Pediatric Institute, Hospital Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; §§§Department of Pediatrics, Hospital Likas, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia; ‖‖‖Department of Pediatrics, Penang Hospital, Penang, Malaysia; and ¶¶¶Allergy-Immunology Division, Sanglah Hospital, Udayana University, Bali, Indonesia.

Objective: To evaluate the value of time-updated weight and height in predicting clinical progression, and immunological and virological failure in children receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).

Methods: We used Cox regression to analyze data of a cohort of Asian children.

Results: A total of 2608 children were included; median age at cART was 5.7 years. Time-updated weight for age z score < -3 was associated with mortality (P < 0.001) independent of CD4% and < -2 was associated with immunological failure (P ≤ 0.03) independent of age at cART.

Conclusions: Weight monitoring provides useful data to inform clinical management of children on cART in resource-limited settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAI.0000000000000227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4134392PMC
September 2014

Impact of antiretroviral therapy on quality of life in HIV-infected Southeast Asian children in the PREDICT study.

AIDS Patient Care STDS 2013 Nov;27(11):596-603

1 HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT) Research Collaboration, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center , Bangkok, Thailand .

Quality of life (QOL) is an important antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcome. We compared QOL among 299 Thai and Cambodian children ages 1-12 years-old, CD4 15-24% randomized to early (ART at week 0, N=149) versus deferred groups (ART when at CD4 <15%, N=150) and also compared with QOL data from age-matched healthy controls (N=275). Primary caregivers completed PACTG QOL questionnaires at week 0 and every 24 weeks until 144 weeks. Children were enrolled during March 2006 to September 2008. Mean (SD) age of children was 6.3 (2.8) years, 58% were female, 60% were Thai, %CDC N:A:B:C was 2:62:36:0%. During 144 weeks, all children in the early-group and 69 (46%) of deferred-group children started ART. There was no significant difference of QOL scores between treatment groups at baseline (all p>0.05) and at week 144 (all p>0.05). By multivariate analysis, the early-group had higher QOL score changes in five domains, including health perception (p=0.04), physical resilience (p=0.02), psychosocial well-being (p=0.04), social and role functioning (p<0.01), and symptoms (p=0.01) compared to the deferred group. QOL of HIV-infected children in both groups were lower than healthy control in all 7 domains at baseline (all p<0.05) and 5 of 7 domains at weeks 144 (p<0.01). In conclusion, no significant difference of QOL scores between treatment groups. Early ART commencement associated with greater increase of QOL scores over 144 weeks. QOL scores in HIV-infected children were lower than healthy controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.2013.0203DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820144PMC
November 2013

Cognitive function and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV-infected Children older than 1 year of age randomized to early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy: the PREDICT neurodevelopmental study.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 May;32(5):501-8

HIV-NAT, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Centre, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: We previously reported similar AIDS-free survival at 3 years in children who were >1 year old initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) and randomized to early versus deferred ART in the Pediatric Randomized to Early versus Deferred Initiation in Cambodia and Thailand (PREDICT) study. We now report neurodevelopmental outcomes.

Methods: Two hundred eighty-four HIV-infected Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4 counts between 15% and 24% and no AIDS-defining illness were randomized to initiate ART at enrollment ("early," n = 139) or when CD4 count became <15% or a Centers for Disease Control (CDC) category C event developed ("deferred," n = 145). All underwent age-appropriate neurodevelopment testing including Beery Visual Motor Integration, Purdue Pegboard, Color Trails and Child Behavioral Checklist. Thai children (n = 170) also completed Wechsler Intelligence Scale (intelligence quotient) and Stanford Binet Memory test. We compared week 144 measures by randomized group and to HIV-uninfected children (n = 319).

Results: At week 144, the median age was 9 years and 69 (48%) of the deferred arm children had initiated ART. The early arm had a higher CD4 (33% versus 24%, P < 0.001) and a greater percentage of children with viral suppression (91% versus 40%, P < 0.001). Neurodevelopmental scores did not differ by arm, and there were no differences in changes between arms across repeated assessments in time-varying multivariate models. HIV-infected children performed worse than uninfected children on intelligence quotient, Beery Visual Motor Integration, Binet memory and Child Behavioral Checklist.

Conclusions: In HIV-infected children surviving beyond 1 year of age without ART, neurodevelopmental outcomes were similar with ART initiation at CD4 15%-24% versus <15%, but both groups performed worse than HIV-uninfected children. The window of opportunity for a positive effect of ART initiation on neurodevelopment may remain in infancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e31827fb19dDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3664246PMC
May 2013

Early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for children older than 1 year infected with HIV (PREDICT): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial.

Lancet Infect Dis 2012 Dec 9;12(12):933-41. Epub 2012 Oct 9.

HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The optimum time to start antiretroviral therapy for children diagnosed with HIV infection after 1 year of age is unknown. We assessed whether antiretroviral therapy could be deferred until CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% without affecting AIDS-free survival.

Methods: In our multicentre, randomised, open-label trial at nine research sites in Thailand and Cambodia, we enrolled children aged 1-12 years who were infected with HIV and had CD4 percentages of 15-24%. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) by a minimisation scheme to start antiretroviral therapy at study entry (early treatment group) or antiretroviral therapy to start when CD4 percentages declined to less than 15% (deferred treatment group). The primary endpoint was AIDS-free survival (based on US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention category C events) at week 144, assessed with the Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log-rank approach. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00234091.

Findings: Between March 28, 2006, and Sept 10, 2008, we enrolled 300 Thai and Cambodian children infected with HIV, with a median age of 6·4 years (IQR 3·9-8·4). 150 children were randomly allocated early antiretroviral therapy (one participant was excluded from analyses after withdrawing before week 0) and 150 children were randomly allocated deferred antiretroviral therapy. Median baseline CD4 percentage was 19% (16-22%). 69 children (46%) in the deferred treatment group started antiretroviral therapy during the study. AIDS-free survival at week 144 in the deferred treatment group was 98·7% (95% CI 94·7-99·7; 148 of 150 patients) compared with 97·9% (93·7-99·3; 146 of 149 patients) in the early treatment group (p=0·6).

Interpretation: AIDS-free survival in both treatment groups was high. This low event rate meant that our study was underpowered to detect differences between treatment start times and thus additional follow-up of study participants or future studies are needed to answer this clinical question.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(12)70242-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541427PMC
December 2012

Prevalence of human leukocyte antigen-B*5701 among HIV-infected children in Thailand and Cambodia: implications for abacavir use.

Pediatr Infect Dis J 2013 Mar;32(3):252-3

HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand (HIV-NAT) Research Collaboration, The Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*5701 allele is associated with abacavir hypersensitivity. Limited data among Asians showed lower rates of HLA-B*5701 compared with Caucasians. In 296 children with HIV in Thailand and Cambodia, the prevalence of HLA-B*5701 was 4.0% (95% confidence interval: 1.6-8.0%) among Thai and 3.4% (95% confidence interval: 0.9-8.5%) among Cambodian children. HLA-B*5701 carriage is not uncommon among Thai and Cambodian children; it is close to the prevalence found in European and higher than the prevalence found in East Asian and African studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/INF.0b013e3182745dbaDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3955121PMC
March 2013

Prevalence of anemia and underlying iron status in naive antiretroviral therapy HIV-infected children with moderate immune suppression.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2012 Dec 25;28(12):1679-86. Epub 2012 Jul 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.

Anemia is common in HIV-infected children and iron deficiency is thought to be a common cause. This study investigates the prevalence of anemia, thalassemia, and underlying iron status in Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV disease to determine the necessity of routine iron supplementation. Antiretroviral (ARV)-naive HIV-infected Asian children aged 1-12 years, with CD4 15-24%, CDC A or B, and hemoglobin (Hb) ≥7.5 g/dl were eligible for the study. Iron studies, serum ferritin, Hb typing, and C-reactive protein were assessed. Anemia was defined as Hb <11.0 g/dl in children <5 years of age or <11.5 g/dl in children 5-12 years. We enrolled 299 children; 57.9% were female and the mean (SD) age was 6.3 (2.9) years. The mean (SD) CD4% and HIV-RNA were 20% (4.6) and 4.6 (0.6) log(10) copies/ml, respectively. The mean (SD) Hb and serum ferritin were 11.2 (1.1) g/dl and 78.3 (76.4) μg/liter, respectively. The overall iron deficiency anemia (IDA) prevalence was 2.7%. One hundred and forty-eight (50%) children had anemia, mostly of a mild degree. Of these, 69 (46.6%) had the thalassemia trait, 62 (41.8%) had anemia of chronic disease (ACD), 9 (6.1%) had thalassemia diseases, 3 (2.0%) had iron deficiency anemia, and 5 (3.4%) had IDA and the thalassemia trait. The thalassemia trait was not associated with increased serum ferritin levels. Mild anemia is common in ARV-naïve Thai and Cambodian children without advanced HIV. However, IDA prevalence is low; with the majority of cases caused by ACD. A routine prescription of iron supplement in anemic HIV-infected children without laboratory confirmation of IDA should be discouraged, especially in regions with a high prevalence of thalassemia and low prevalence of IDA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2011.0373DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3505043PMC
December 2012

High prevalence of lipid abnormalities among antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected Asian children with mild-to-moderate immunosuppression.

Antivir Ther 2011 ;16(8):1351-5

Nakornping Hospital, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Background: Dyslipidaemia is a common complication among HIV-infected children after antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, HIV itself can cause abnormal lipid metabolism. There is limited information of lipid profiles among Asian HIV-infected children naive to ART.

Methods: A total of 274 HIV-infected ART-naive Thai and Cambodian children aged 1-12 years with CD4% between 15% and 24% were included. Patients were fasted for ≥4 h before blood was drawn. Abnormal lipid levels were defined as triglyceride (TG)>130 mg/dl, total cholesterol (TC)>200 mg/dl, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)>130 mg/dl and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)≤40 mg/dl.

Results: The mean (±SD) was 76.6 (33.8) months for age and -1.3 (1.0) for weight Z-score. Mean (±SD) CD4% was 19.9 (4.8) % and HIV RNA was 4.6 (0.6) log(10) copies/ml. The median (±SD) fasting time was 13.0 (2.7) h. Mean (±SD) for lipids were 116 (62) mg/dl for TG, 139 (29) mg/dl for TC, 73 (29) mg/dl for LDL and 45 (19) mg/dl for HDL. Overall 63.9% had dyslipidaemia with hypertriglyceridaemia and hypo-HDL being the most common (28% and 45%, respectively), while 2% had hypercholesterolaemia or hyper-LDL. After adjusting for age, having HIV RNA>5 log(10) copies/ml was associated with hypo-HDL with ORs of 8.1 (95% CI 2.7-24.3).

Conclusions: Up to two-thirds of ART-naive, HIV-infected Asian children with mild-to-moderate immune suppression had dyslipidaemia. Low HDL was the most common and was associated with high HIV viraemia. The long-term consequence of low HDL deserves further investigation in children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3851/IMP1897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3530027PMC
April 2012

Poor quality of life among untreated Thai and Cambodian children without severe HIV symptoms.

AIDS Care 2012 21;24(1):30-8. Epub 2011 Jul 21.

HIV Netherlands Australia Thailand Research Collaboration, Thai Red Cross AIDS Research Center, Bangkok, Thailand.

There are limited data on quality of life (QOL) 1 in untreated HIV-infected children who do not have severe HIV symptoms. Moreover, such data do not exist for Asian children. Poor QOL could be a factor in deciding if antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated. Thai and Cambodian children (n=294), aged 1-11 years, naïve to ART, with mild to moderate HIV symptoms and CD4 15-24% were enrolled. Their caregivers completed the Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group QOL questionnaire prior to ART commencement. Six QOL domains were assessed using transformed scores that ranged from 0 to 100. Higher QOL scores indicated better health. Mean age was 6.1 (SD 2.8) years, mean CD4 was 723 (SD 369) cells/mm(3), 57% was female, and%CDC N:A:B was 2:63:35%. One-third knew their HIV diagnosis. Mean (SD) scores were 69.9 (17.6) for health perception, 64.5 (16.2) for physical resilience, 84.2 (15.6) for physical functioning, 77.9 (16.3) for psychosocial well-being, 74.7 (28.7) for social and role functioning, 90.0 (12.1) for health care utilization, and 87.4 (11.3) for symptoms domains. Children with CD4 counts above the 2008 World Health Organization (WHO) ART-initiation criteria (n=53) had higher scores in health perception and health care utilization than those with lower CD4 values. Younger children had poorer QOL than older children despite having similar mean CD4%. In conclusion, untreated Asian children without severe HIV symptoms had relatively low QOL scores compared to published reports in Western countries. Therapy initiation criteria by the WHO identified children with lower QOL scores to start ART; however, children who did not fit ART-initiation criteria and those who were younger also displayed poor QOL. QOL assessment should be considered in untreated children to inform decisions about when to initiate ART.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2011.592815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3525829PMC
May 2012