Publications by authors named "Ulrike Lohwasser"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Regions of Chromosome 2A of Bread Wheat ( L.) Associated with Variation in Physiological and Agronomical Traits under Contrasting Water Regimes.

Plants (Basel) 2021 May 20;10(5). Epub 2021 May 20.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, 06466 Gatersleben, Germany.

Understanding the genetic architecture of drought tolerance is of great importance for overcoming the negative impact of drought on wheat yield. Earlier, we discovered the critical role of chromosome 2A for the drought-tolerant status of wheat spring cultivar Saratovskaya 29. A set of 92 single-chromosome recombinant double haploid (SCRDH) lines were obtained in the genetic background of Saratovskaya 29. The lines carry fragments of chromosome 2A from the drought-sensitive cultivar Yanetzkis Probat. The SCRDH lines were used to identify regions on chromosome 2A associated with the manifestation of physiological and agronomical traits under distinct water supply, and to identify candidate genes that may be associated with adaptive gene networks in wheat. Genotyping was done with Illumina Infinium 15k wheat array using 590 SNP markers with 146 markers being polymorphic. In four identified regions of chromosome 2A, 53 out of 58 QTLs associated with physiological and agronomic traits under contrasting water supply were mapped. Thirty-nine candidate genes were identified, of which 18 were transcription factors. The region 73.8-78.1 cM included the largest number of QTLs and candidate genes. The variation in SNPs associated with agronomical and physiological traits revealed among the SCRDH lines may provide useful information for drought related marker-assisted breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10051023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161357PMC
May 2021

Untargeted metabotyping to study phenylpropanoid diversity in crop plants.

Physiol Plant 2021 May 7. Epub 2021 May 7.

Leibniz Institute for Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany.

Plant genebanks constitute a key resource for breeding to ensure crop yield under changing environmental conditions. Because of their roles in a range of stress responses, phenylpropanoids are promising targets. Phenylpropanoids comprise a wide array of metabolites; however, studies regarding their diversity and the underlying genes are still limited for cereals. The assessment of barley diversity via genotyping-by-sequencing is in rapid progress. Exploring these resources by integrating genetic association studies to in-depth metabolomic profiling provides a valuable opportunity to study barley phenylpropanoid metabolism; but poses a challenge by demanding large-scale approaches. Here, we report an LC-PDA-MS workflow for barley high-throughput metabotyping. Without prior construction of a species-specific library, this method produced phenylpropanoid-enriched metabotypes with which the abundance of putative metabolic features was assessed across hundreds of samples in a single-processed data matrix. The robustness of the analytical performance was tested using a standard mix and extracts from two selected cultivars: Scarlett and Barke. The large-scale analysis of barley extracts showed (1) that barley flag leaf profiles were dominated by glycosylation derivatives of isovitexin, isoorientin, and isoscoparin; (2) proved the workflow's capability to discriminate within genotypes; (3) highlighted the role of glycosylation in barley phenylpropanoid diversity. Using the barley S42IL mapping population, the workflow proved useful for metabolic quantitative trait loci purposes. The protocol can be readily applied not only to explore the barley phenylpropanoid diversity represented in genebanks but also to study species whose profiles differ from those of cereals: the crop Helianthus annuus (sunflower) and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ppl.13458DOI Listing
May 2021

QTL analysis of seed germination traits in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

J Appl Genet 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK), Gatersleben, Germany.

Genetic mapping of seed germination traits has been performed with many plant species. In tobacco, however, investigations are rare. In the present study, a bi-parental mapping population consisting of 118 doubled haploid lines and derived from a cross between 'Beinhart-1000' and 'Hicks' was investigated. Four germination-related traits, total germination (TG), normal germination (NG), time to reach 50% of total germination (T50), and the area under the curve after 200 h of germination (AUC) were considered by examining seeds either untreated or after a moderate controlled deterioration (CD). Quantitative trait loci were found for all traits distributed on 11 out of the 24 linkage groups. It was demonstrated that, as in many other species, germination-related traits are very complex and under polygenic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-021-00623-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Document or Lose It-On the Importance of Information Management for Genetic Resources Conservation in Genebanks.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Aug 18;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 18.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK) Gatersleben, Corrensstr. 3, 06466 Seeland, Germany.

Genebanks play an important role in the long-term conservation of plant genetic resources and are complementary to the conservation of diversity in farmers' fields and in nature. In this context, documentation plays a critical role. Without well-structured documentation, it is not possible to make statements about the value of a resource, especially with regard to its potential for breeding and research. In particular, comprehensive information management is a prerequisite for the further development of genebank collections. This requires detailed information about the composition of a collection, thus allowing statements about which species and/or regions of origin are under-represented. This task is of strategic importance, especially due to the threats to crop plants and their wild relatives caused by advancing climate change. Both the actual conservation management and the fulfilment of legal obligations depend on information. Hence, documentation units have been established in almost all genebanks worldwide. They all face the challenge that knowledge about genebank accessions must be permanently managed and passed on across generations. International standards such as Multi-Crop Passport Descriptors (MCPD) have been established for the exchange of data between genebanks, and allow the operation of international information systems, such as the World Information and Early Warning System on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (WIEWS), the European Search Catalogue for Plant Genetic Resources (EURISCO) or Genesys.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9081050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7465628PMC
August 2020

Diversity of Secondary Metabolites in Roots from L.

Plants (Basel) 2020 Jul 24;9(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Research (IPK), Corrensstraße 3, 06466 Seeland, OT Gatersleben, Germany.

Background: is known as highly toxic plant, due to piperidine alkaloids present in the aerial parts. In a first attempt, in various tap root samples, however, alkaloids could not be detected. The present study describes active compounds in the tap roots from 16 populations harvested at maturity. The compounds were extracted with dichloromethane from root pieces of single plants and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ten bioactive compounds were evaluated: five furocoumarins, two prenylated coumarins, two aliphatic C-polyacetylenes and the phenylpropanoid elemicin. A high variability could be observed, the highest concentrations were measured for falcarindiol, xanthotoxin and isopimpinellin, the lowest for elemicin. In sum roots contained comparable amounts of compounds that are characteristic for Apiaceae, and also occur in vegetables as carrots, parsnip, parsley or celeriac.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9080939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464025PMC
July 2020

Genetic analysis of drought response of wheat following either chemical desiccation or the use of a rain-out shelter.

J Appl Genet 2019 May 4;60(2):137-146. Epub 2019 Apr 4.

Genebank Department, Leibniz-Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK Gatersleben), Seeland, Germany.

Simulating drought stress during the breeding process has been proposed as a way to select varieties under naturally non-stressful conditions. The aim of the study was to characterise the genetic basis of the response of 111 spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties and landraces to chemical desiccation and to rain-out shelter drought. The effect of the rain-out shelter was a 15% reduction in plant height, spike length and thousand seed weight (TSW); in contrast, the desiccant treatment induced a 15% reduction in seed number, a 35-72% loss in TSW and a reduction in subsequent germination of 12%. A genome-wide association analysis revealed 263 significant marker-trait associations (MTAs), of which 246 involved days to anthesis, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets, seed number, TSW and germination from the non-treated plants. Only four and five MTAs involved TSW from plants grown under the rain-out shelter and the chemical desiccation, respectively, and harboured the Sugar-Dependent6 gene. Seven MTAs involved seed number for chemical desiccated plants. Both, chemical desiccation and rain-out shelter drought identified same tolerant genotypes. Concluding, both approaches are suitable to simulate different drought scenarios. However, there was a strong environmental impact for chemical desiccation which may increase the complexity of this tolerance mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-019-00494-yDOI Listing
May 2019

Whole-Genome Resequencing of a Worldwide Collection of Rapeseed Accessions Reveals the Genetic Basis of Ecotype Divergence.

Mol Plant 2019 01 22;12(1):30-43. Epub 2018 Nov 22.

Institute of Crop Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

Rapeseed (Brassica napus), an important oilseed crop, has adapted to diverse climate zones and latitudes by forming three main ecotype groups, namely winter, semi-winter, and spring types. However, genetic variations underlying the divergence of these ecotypes are largely unknown. Here, we report the global pattern of genetic polymorphisms in rapeseed determined by resequencing a worldwide collection of 991 germplasm accessions. A total of 5.56 and 5.53 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as well as 1.86 and 1.92 million InDels were identified by mapping reads to the reference genomes of "Darmor-bzh" and "Tapidor," respectively. We generated a map of allelic drift paths that shows splits and mixtures of the main populations, and revealed an asymmetric evolution of the two subgenomes of B. napus by calculating the genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium parameters. Selective-sweep analysis revealed genetic changes in genes orthologous to those regulating various aspects of plant development and response to stresses. A genome-wide association study identified SNPs in the promoter regions of FLOWERING LOCUS T and FLOWERING LOCUS C orthologs that corresponded to the different rapeseed ecotype groups. Our study provides important insights into the genomic footprints of rapeseed evolution and flowering-time divergence among three ecotype groups, and will facilitate screening of molecular markers for accelerating rapeseed breeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2018.11.007DOI Listing
January 2019

Biodiversity within Melissa officinalis: Variability of Bioactive Compounds in a Cultivated Collection.

Molecules 2018 Jan 31;23(2). Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Institute of Animal Nutrition and Functional Plant Compounds, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinaerplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

Phytochemical characters were evaluated in a five-year-old lemon balm collection consisting of 15 and 13 subspecies and accessions, respectively. Stems were lower in essential oil than leaves. First cut leaves (June) gave more oil than those of the second cut (August). Subspecies plants had leaf oils rich in geranial, neral and citronellal in various proportions in the first cut. However, in the second cut the oils from all accessions appeared very similar with 80-90% geranial plus neral. Leaf oils of subsp. contained sesquiterpenes (β-caryophyllene, caryophyllene oxide, germacrene D) and also further monoterpenes in the second cut. Leaves had higher rosmarinic acid (RA) contents than stems. More RA was in subsp. than subsp. leaves. First cut leaves were richer in RA than those from second cut. Total phenolics and antioxidant parameters showed that lemon balm is a valuable source of plant antioxidants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23020294DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6017880PMC
January 2018

Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

J Biosci 2017 Mar;42(1):81-89

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben, Germany.

The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical and chemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183 bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over some decades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageing procedures. A phenotype-genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observed variation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait. Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implying some non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevity appear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12038-016-9661-6DOI Listing
March 2017

Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

PLoS One 2016 11;11(8):e0160745. Epub 2016 Aug 11.

National Center for Genetic Resources Preservation, United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service, Fort Collins, Colorado, United States of America.

Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160745PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4981475PMC
July 2017

Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Anther Extrusion in Hexaploid Spring Wheat.

PLoS One 2016 18;11(5):e0155494. Epub 2016 May 18.

Department of Breeding Research, Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research (IPK-Gatersleben), 06466, Stadt Seeland, Germany.

In a number of crop species hybrids are able to outperform line varieties. The anthers of the autogamous bread wheat plant are normally extruded post anthesis, a trait which is unfavourable for the production of F1 hybrid grain. Higher anther extrusion (AE) promotes cross fertilization for more efficient hybrid seed production. Therefore, this study aimed at the genetic dissection of AE by genome wide association studies (GWAS) and determination of the main effect QTL. We applied GWAS approach to identify DArT markers potentially linked to AE to unfold its genetic basis in a panel of spring wheat accessions. Phenotypic data were collected for three years and best linear unbiased estimate (BLUE) values were calculated across all years. The extent of the AE correlation between growing years and BLUE values ranged from r = +0.56 (2013 vs 2015) to 0.91 (2014 vs BLUE values). The broad sense heritability was 0.84 across all years. Six accessions displayed stable AE >80% across all the years. Genotyping data included 2,575 DArT markers (with minimum of 0.05 minor allele frequency applied). AE was influenced both by genotype and by the growing environment. In all, 131 significant marker trait associations (MTAs) (|log10 (P)| >FDR) were established for AE. AE behaved as a quantitative trait, with five consistently significant markers (significant across at least two years with a significant BLUE value) contributing a minor to modest proportion (4.29% to 8.61%) of the phenotypic variance and affecting the trait either positively or negatively. For this reason, there is potential for breeding for improved AE by gene pyramiding. The consistently significant markers linked to AE could be helpful for marker assisted selection to transfer AE to high yielding varieties allowing to promote the exploitation of hybrid-heterosis in the key crop wheat.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155494PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871436PMC
July 2017

The inheritance of wheat grain longevity: a comparison between induced and natural ageing.

J Appl Genet 2016 Nov 16;57(4):477-481. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstr. 3, 06466, Stadt Seeland, OT Gatersleben, Germany.

Seed longevity is an important trait for both ex situ genebanks and the seed industry. It is partially determined by genetic factors, but is also dependent on the environmental conditions experienced by the mother plant during seed maturation, as well as those imposed during the post-harvest and storage periods. For practical reasons, the variation in longevity has repeatedly been analysed by treating fresh seed to various induced ageing protocols, but the extent to which these procedures mimic the natural ageing process remains debatable. Here, a comparison was attempted between the wheat genomic regions identified by biparental mapping as harbouring determinants of viability loss identified in grain which had been either aged artificially or had been stored long term. Only one locus proved to be shared, but even here, the parental origin of the positive allele differed. Correlation analysis revealed no relationship between various induced ageing treatments and long-term storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13353-016-0348-3DOI Listing
November 2016

Qualitative and quantitative analyses of secondary metabolites in aerial and subaerial of Scorzonera hispanica L. (black salsify).

Food Chem 2015 Apr 20;173:321-31. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacognosy, University of Innsbruck, CCB, Innrain 80-82, Innsbruck, Austria.

Scorzonera hispanica commonly known as black salsify is a perennial herbaceous plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. The subaerial parts of black salsify are cultivated in Central and Southern Europe as a vegetable. There are only few reports on the chemical composition of S.hispanica. The aim of the present study was to determine the chemical composition of subaerial and aerial parts of this species. In total, twelve compounds were isolated and identified with spectroscopic methods, including a series of seven rare sesquiterpenoids - five bisabolane and two curcumenal derivatives. Furthermore, a fully validated HPLC-DAD-CAD method for the quantification of phenolic compounds of S. hispanica was developed. The cytotoxicities of lignan [(-)-syringaresinol (1)] and bisabolane derivatives from S. hispanica against several cancer cell lines were studied. (-)-Syringaresinol was the only compound active against myeloma cell lines and was also active against colon cancer cell lines. However, this lignan was also found to be cytotoxic for normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Two bisabolane derivatives were active against colon cancer cell lines and may be interesting as lead structures for the development of new anti-colon cancer agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.10.006DOI Listing
April 2015

Molecular markers in management of ex situ PGR-a case study.

J Biosci 2012 Nov;37(5):871-7

Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Corrensstrasse 3 06466 Gatersleben, Germany.

Worldwide germplasm collections contain about 7.4 million accessions of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture. One of the 10 largest ex situ genebanks of our globe is located at the Leibniz Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research in Gatersleben, Germany. Molecular tools have been used for various gene bank management practices including characterization and utilization of the germplasm. The results on genetic integrity of longterm- stored gene bank accessions of wheat (self-pollinating) and rye (open-pollinating) cereal crops revealed a high degree of identity for wheat. In contrast, the out-pollinating accessions of rye exhibited shifts in allele frequencies. The genetic diversity of wheat and barley germplasm collected at intervals of 40 to 50 years in comparable geographical regions showed qualitative rather than a quantitative change in diversity. The inter- and intraspecific variation of seed longevity was analysed and differences were detected. Genetic studies in barley, wheat and oilseed rape revealed numerous QTL, indicating the complex and quantitative nature of seed longevity. Some of the loci identified were in genomic regions that co-localize with genes determining agronomic traits such as spike architecture or biotic and abiotic stress response. Finally, a genome-wide association mapping analysis of a core collection of wheat for flowering time was performed using diversity array technology (DArT) markers. Maker trait associations were detected in genomic regions where major genes or QTL have been described earlier. In addition, new loci were also detected, providing opportunities to monitor genetic variation for crop improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12038-012-9250-2DOI Listing
November 2012

Investigation of antioxidant and rosmarinic acid variation in the sage collection of the genebank in Gatersleben.

J Agric Food Chem 2010 Mar;58(6):3813-9

Department of Farm Animal and Public Health in Veterinary Medicine, Institute for Applied Botany and Pharmacognosy, University of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinarplatz 1, Vienna, Austria.

The total phenolic and flavonoid contents and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reduction antioxidant power (FRAP) antioxidant capacities of 19 accessions of Salvia officinalis from the sage collection of the genebank in Gatersleben (Germany) were evaluated. The major phenolic compounds of sage, that is, rosmarinic acid, caffeic acid, carnosol, and carnosic acid, were quantified by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The aerial parts of different individual plants of each accession were collected in two consecutive years from the same experimental field at the beginning of their flowering period. The results demonstrated a high variability between accessions. A general decreasing tendency from 2007 to 2008 was observed in most of the estimated parameters, that is, total phenolic, total flavonoid, rosmarinic acid, and caffeic acid contents and DPPH antioxidant activity. A slight opposite trend was obtained with the FRAP antioxidant capacity. Low but variable quantities of carnosol and carnosic acid were evaluated in the sample extracts. Individual plants within accessions were identified with high phenolic content and strong antioxidant activity. The rosmarinic acid content showed up to 8-fold differences between the lowest and the highest values. Overall, the study demonstrated a high variability in secondary metabolites present in sage, which could be used for breeding of highly antioxidative genotypes of S. officinalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf903993fDOI Listing
March 2010

Bibenzyls and dihydroisocoumarins from white salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. porrifolius).

Phytochemistry 2005 Jul;66(14):1691-7

Institut für Pharmazie der Universität Innsbruck, Josef-Moeller-Haus, Innrain 52, A-6020 Innsbruck, Austria.

A phytochemical investigation of three accessions of Tragopogon porrifolius L. subsp. porrifolius (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) yielded three new bibenzyl derivatives, 5,4'-dihydroxy-3-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, 2-carboxyl-3,4'-dihydroxy-5-beta-d-xylopyranosyloxybibenzyl, tragopogonic acid (2'carboxyl-3',5',4''-trihydroxyphenylethanone) and three dihydroisocoumarin derivatives, including the new natural product 6-O-methylscorzocreticoside I. One of the isolated bibenzyl derivatives is considered to be a precursor to the biosynthesis of dihydroisocoumarins. Structures of new compounds were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, radical scavenging activities of the polyphenolic compounds were measured using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay; two of the bibenzyls showed moderate and two of the dihydroisocoumarins showed weak radical scavenging activities. The chemosystematic impact of bibenzyls and dihydroisocoumarins is discussed briefly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2005.05.004DOI Listing
July 2005