Publications by authors named "Ulrike Lindequist"

83 Publications

Medicinal Mushrooms for Prevention and Therapy of Osteoporosis (Review).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2021 ;23(4):13-22

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Greifswald, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Str. 17, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Osteoporosis is an important public health challenge. Several medicinal mushrooms are able to improve bone stability by influencing different steps of bone formation, mineralization, or resorption. In nearly all investigations, the effects have been shown in vitro or in animal assays and only very few in clinical studies. Positive results exist for medicinal mushrooms of the genera Cordyceps/Ophiocordyceps, Ganoderma, Grifola, Lentinula, Phellinus, Pleurotus, Taiwanofungus, Trametes, and Wolfiporia. The results for Hericium are not consistent. This article critically reviews these investigations and describes challenges for the future.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2021038084DOI Listing
January 2021

Enhancing the Extraction Yield from Shiitake Culinary-Medicinal Mushroom, Lentinus edodes (Agaricomycetes), by Pulsed Electric Fields Treatment.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(12):1225-1235

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Greifswald, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Str. 17, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Medicinal mushrooms contain highly valuable substances with proven positive effects on human health. To extract these components, different methods are available. Most of them suffer from individual disadvantages, therefore making them economically unviable. Pulsed electric fields (PEFs) could provide an opportunity to improve these processes. PEFs cause pore formation of cell membranes, facilitating substance transport out of cells. Thus, the influence of this technique on the extraction yield of medicinal mushrooms was studied for the first time. Lentinus edodes was used as model case and PEF treatment was compared with standard Soxhlet extraction alone. A square pulse generator (Electro Square Porator™ ECM 830) with a voltage of 3 kV and pulse length of 100 μs was used for PEF treatment. Extraction was studied for fresh and dried fruiting bodies, and dichloromethane and hot water extracts were analyzed. Extracts were quantified gravimetrically, and carbohydrate yields were also determined qualitatively with GC-MS and quantitatively with anthrone method. PEFs could increase in particular the yield of water-soluble compounds of fresh mushroom material. However, the lipid fraction was not affected by PEF in neither fresh nor dried material.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020036998DOI Listing
January 2020

Medicinal Mushrooms for Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes: An Update on Clinical Trials.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2020 ;22(9):845-854

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Greifswald, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Str. 17, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Several medicinal mushrooms exhibit hypoglycaemic activities in vitro and in animal studies. In contrast to the high number of experimental results, only a few clinical trials and/or case reports have been published. They exist for mushrooms of the genera Agaricus, Coprinus, Ganoderma, Grifola, and Pleurotus. This article critically reviews these clinical investigations and describes which tasks need to be done to explore the potential of mushrooms for supportive treatment of type 2 diabetes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2020035863DOI Listing
January 2020

Laccase-catalyzed derivatization of 6-aminopenicillanic, 7-aminocephalosporanic and 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid.

AMB Express 2020 Oct 2;10(1):177. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Institute of Pharmacy University Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 17, Greifswald, 17487, Germany.

Trametes spec. laccase (EC 1.10.3.2.) mediates the oxidative coupling of 6-aminopenicillanic, 7-aminocephalosporanic, and 7-aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid derivatives to form new penicillin and cephalosporin structures, respectively. The heteromolecular hybrid dimers are formed by nuclear amination of the p-hydroquinones with the primary amines and inhibited in vitro the growth of Staphylococcus species, including some multidrug-resistant strains.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-020-01117-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532246PMC
October 2020

European medicinal mushrooms: Do they have potential for modern medicine? - An update.

Phytomedicine 2020 Jan 2;66:153131. Epub 2019 Nov 2.

Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, F.-l.-Jahn-Str. 17, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

Background: The application of mushrooms for health purposes has a long tradition and is very common in Asian countries. This trend is also becoming increasingly popular in the western hemisphere. However, mushrooms from European tradition are being treated in a restrained manner despite having significant potential as drugs or as sources of pure bioactive substances.

Aim: The present review provides an overview of the most important mushrooms used in European ethnomedical traditions and explores their pharmacological potential and the challenges for the development of new drugs from these sources of natural products.

Method: Mushroom species were selected based on information in old herbal books and dispensaries, uninterrupted use and scientific literature in the PubMed database up to June 2019.

Results: Traditional experiences and modern studies have demonstrated that medical mushrooms used in European traditions have promising distinct pharmacological potential mediated through defined mechanisms (anti-tumour, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-bacterial). However, the number of modern chemical, biological and pharmacological studies remains relatively small, and some mushroom species have not been studied at all. Unfortunately, no valid clinical studies can be found. Unlike the case with herbal and fungal drugs from traditional Chinese medicine, we are far from comprehensively exploring this potential.

Conclusions: Mushrooms from traditional European medicine have the potential to be used in modern medicine. Considerable research, interdisciplinary collaboration, involvement of the pharmaceutical industry, time and money are necessary to explore this potential not only in the form of dietary supplements but also in the form of approved drugs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153131DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Birch Polypore Mushroom, Piptoporus betulinus (Agaricomycetes), the "Iceman's Fungus", on Human Immune Cells.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2018 ;20(12):1135-1147

Center for Complementary Medicine, Institute for Infection Prevention and Hospital Epidemiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.

Piptoporus betulinus, the mushroom that has been carried by Ötzi the "Iceman", has a long tradition of use in medicinal practice for its antiseptic, anticancer, and immune-enhancing properties. With this study, we aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of P. betulinus on primary human immunocompetent cells. The influence of P. betulinus water and methanol extract on apoptosis and necrosis induction of T cells and monocytes was analyzed using annexin V/propidium iodide staining and proliferation of T cells by carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester staining using flow cytometry. The effects on T-cell activation (CD69/CD25) and dendritic cell maturation (CD83, CD86, and CD14) were assessed using flow cytometric analysis of distinct marker expression. Alterations of the secretion of effector mediators interferon (IFN)-γ by T cells and interleukin (IL)-8 by monocytes and dendritic cells were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. None of the P. betulinus extracts had a significant influence on apoptosis and necrosis induction, T-cell proliferation, or T-cell activation status, but P. betulinus water extract caused a strong increase in IFN-γ release. The same extract was slightly protective against apoptosis of monocytes and further triggered IL-8 secretion by monocytes and dendritic cells. Moreover, P. betulinus water extract induced dendritic cell maturation. Our results demonstrate the immune-enhancing properties of P. betulinus.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2018029154DOI Listing
June 2019

Ergosterol Peroxide: A Mushroom-Derived Compound with Promising Biological Activities-A Review.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2017 ;19(2):93-105

Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Ergosterol peroxide (EP; 5α,8α-epidioxy-22E-ergosta-6,22-dien-3β-ol) is a C28-sterol and a component of many medicinal mushrooms. Since its discovery nearly a century ago, many sources and biological effects of this compound have been described. Effects range from antimicrobial to cytotoxic to immunosuppressive and other activities. This review covers biological investigations of EP, its activities, and possible mechanisms of action. EP is a promising candidate for drug development and contributes to the health-promoting effects of medicinal mushrooms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v19.i2.10DOI Listing
January 2018

Effects of extracts and compounds from Tricholoma populinum Lange on degranulation and IL-2/IL-8 secretion of immune cells.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2017 Jul;72(7-8):277-283

Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Tricholoma populinum Lange is an edible basidiomycete from the family Tricholomataceae. Extracts, fractions, and different metabolites isolated from the fruiting bodies of this mushroom were tested for degranulation-inhibiting activities on RBL-2H3 cells (rat basophils). Dichloromethane extracts decreased degranulation significantly, as did a fraction after column chromatography. In addition, the extract decreased the IL-2 release from Jurkat T cells and the release of IL-8 from HMC-1 human mast cells. The results show the significant effects of extracts of T. populinum on cells of the innate (basophils and mast cells) and adaptive (T cells) immune system and indicate the influence of the mushroom on different immunological processes. As one fraction showed activity, it seems to be possible that it includes an active principle. The compounds responsible for this effect, however, could not be identified as the contents oleic acid (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), and 9,11-dehydroergosterol peroxide (3) showed no effects. Nevertheless, the mushroom could be used for supporting allergy treatment in future studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/znc-2016-0247DOI Listing
July 2017

Mitochondrial functions of THP-1 monocytes following the exposure to selected natural compounds.

Toxicology 2017 02 21;377:57-63. Epub 2016 Dec 21.

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, D17489 Greifswald, Germany.

The immune system is an important target of various xenobiotics, which may lead to severe adverse effects including immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation. Mitochondrial toxicity is one possibility by which xenobiotics exert their toxic effects in cells or organs. In this study, we investigated the impact of three natural compounds, cyclosporine A (CsA), deoxynivalenol (DON) and cannabidiol (CBD) on mitochondrial functions in the THP-1 monocytic cell line. The cells were exposed for 24h to two different concentrations (IC and IC determined by MTT) of each compound. The cells showed concentration-dependent elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) and induction of apoptosis (except DON) in response to the three test compounds. Mitochondrial functions were characterized by using bioenergetics profiling experiments. In THP-1 monocytes, the IC of CsA decreased basal and maximal respiration as well as ATP production with an impact on spare capacity indicating a mitochondrial dysfunction. Similar reaction patterns were observed following CBD exposure. The basal respiration level and ATP-production decreased in the THP-1 cells exposed to the IC of DON with no major impact on mitochondrial function. In conclusion, impaired mitochondrial function was accompanied by elevated iROS and apoptosis level in a monocytic cell line exposed to CsA and CBD. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be one explanation for the cytotoxicity of CBD and CsA also in other in immune cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2016.12.006DOI Listing
February 2017

Differential effects of Helenalin, an anti-inflammatory sesquiterpene lactone, on the proteome, metabolome and the oxidative stress response in several immune cell types.

Toxicol In Vitro 2017 Apr 18;40:45-54. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

Extracts of Arnica spp. are traditionally used due to their anti-inflammatory effects for the topical treatment of e.g. haematoma or muscle distortions. One of the main active compounds is Helenalin, a sesquiterpene lactone that can be found in various Asteraceae. However, immunotoxic effects of the compound are only poorly analysed. In this study, a 2D gel electrophoresis based proteomic approach together with a membrane based proteomic assay, metabolomics and the detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (iROS) were used to investigate potential immunotoxic properties of Helenalin on the human immune cell lines Jurkat and THP-1 and on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The study revealed a dose-dependent cytotoxicity towards both tested cell lines and the PBMC. However, the cell lines were less sensitive to the Helenalin treatment than the PBMC. The proteomic assays showed strong effects on the carbohydrate metabolism and the protein folding in THP-1 cells but only weak impact on Jurkat cells. Metabolomic studies as well as iROS detection in THP-1 cells verified the results of the proteomic analysis. In summary, the approaches used in this study were able to identify target pathways of Helenalin especially in THP-1 monocytes and thus enable a risk assessment of the substance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2016.12.010DOI Listing
April 2017

Marine-Derived Pharmaceuticals - Challenges and Opportunities.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2016 Nov;24(6):561-571

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Greifswald D17489, Germany.

Marine biosphere is the largest one of the earth and harbors an enormous number of different organisms. Living conditions differ fundamentally from those in terrestrial environment. The production of specific secondary metabolites is an important adaption mechanism of marine organisms to survive in the sea. These metabolites possess biological activities which make them interesting as possible drugs for human. The review presents sources, chemistry, production and pharmacology of FDA approved marine derived pharmaceuticals arranged according to their therapeutic indication. Four of the presently seven approved drugs are used for the treatment of cancer. Each another one is applicated for treatment of viral diseases, chronic pain and to lower triglyceride level in blood. Some other products are of interest in diagnostic and as experimental tools. Besides, this article describes challenges in drug development from marine sources, especially the supply problem.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2016.181DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5098534PMC
November 2016

A proteomic approach for the identification of immunotoxic properties of Tulipalin A.

Proteomics 2016 12 15;16(23):2997-3008. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany.

The immune system is permanently exposed to several environmental influences that can have adverse effects on immune cells or organs leading to immunosuppression or inappropriate immunostimulation, called direct immunotoxicity. The natural compound Tulipalin A (TUPA), a lactone with α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone moiety, can influence the immune system and lead to allergic contact dermatitis. This in vitro study focused on effects of TUPA using two immune cell lines (Jurkat T cells and THP-1 monocytes). To evaluate the immunotoxic potential of the compound, a proteomic approach applying 2D gel electrophoresis and MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS in combination with metabolomic analysis was used after exposure of the cells to IC of TUPA. THP-1 cells showed a strong robustness to TUPA treatment since only five proteins were altered. In contrast, in Jurkat T cells an increase in the abundance of 66 proteins and a decrease of six proteins was determined. These intracellular proteins were mapped to biological processes. Especially an accumulation of chaperones and an influence on the purine synthesis were observed. The changes in purine synthesis were confirmed by metabolomic analysis. In conclusion, the data indicate possible target processes of low doses of TUPA in Jurkat T cells and provides knowledge of how TUPA affects the functionality of immune cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pmic.201600130DOI Listing
December 2016

Effects of Inonotus hispidus Extracts and Compounds on Human Immunocompetent Cells.

Planta Med 2016 Oct 18;82(15):1359-1367. Epub 2016 Jul 18.

Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

is used as a traditional medicine in China. Previous investigations revealed promising immunomodulatory activity of fruit body extracts of . Bioactivity-guided fractionation showed that hispolon and hispidin were active substances.In this study, we analysed the effects of extract and selected constituents on different types of human immune cells and investigated the potential of extract as a medicinal mushroom. The influence of extract on activity and maturation of human T cells, purified natural killer cells, and dendritic cells was analysed using cytometric-based surface marker expression. The cell division characteristics of the activated T cells were assessed by membrane permeable dye, and the function of natural killer cells was investigated by a degranulation CD107a assay. Apoptosis induction was assessed by surface staining of phosphatidylserine, and camptothecin and cyclosporine A were used individually as controls. Phytochemical analysis, using TLC chromatograms and HPLC analysis, was conducted to characterise the extract. extract increased the activation and diminished the proliferation of activated human T cells in the presence of apoptosis. Natural killer cell activity and function were dose-dependently increased. Surface marker expression of dendritic cells demonstrated that extract has the potential to induce maturation. TLC and HPLC analyses showed that the extract contained hispidin and hispolon. Investigations using hispidin and hispolon demonstrated similar, albeit noncongruent, results with extracts on measured parameters.The results indicate that extracts from and their constituents, hispidin and hispolon, interfere with the function of multiple immune cells, thus providing a rationale for their potential as a medicinal mushroom.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-111693DOI Listing
October 2016

Development and Validation of an LC-MS/MS Method for the Quantification of Agaritine in Mushrooms.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2016 ;18(1):13-21

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universitat, Greifswald, Germany.

Agaritine, an aromatic hydrazine, is found as a secondary metabolite in mushroom species. It is among others suspected to exhibit genotoxic activity. This publication describes the validation of a method for the quantification of agaritine in mushrooms (i.e., extraction and purification by solid phase extraction) and measurement by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection in positive ionization mode. The results show this method to be selective, accurate, and precise. This method could be used for the quality control of pharmaceutical preparations containing mushrooms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.v18.i1.30DOI Listing
March 2017

Chemical Composition, Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities of the Volatile Oil of Ganoderma pfeifferi Bres.

Medicines (Basel) 2016 Apr 28;3(2). Epub 2016 Apr 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.

In a first study of the volatile oil of the mushroom basidiomycete Bres., the chemical composition and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the oil were investigated. The volatile oil was obtained from the fresh fruiting bodies of Bres. By hydrodistillation extraction and analyzed by GC-MS. The antimicrobial activity of the oil was evaluated against five bacteria strains and two types of fungi strains, using disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. In addition, the antioxidant activity of the oil was determined using DPPH assay. Four volatile compounds representing 90.5% of the total oil were identified. The majority of the essential oil was dominated by 1-octen-3-ol (amyl vinyl carbinol) 1 (73.6%) followed by 1-octen-3-ol acetate 2 (12.4%), phenylacetaldehyde 3 (3.0%) and 6-camphenol 4 (1.5%). The results showed that the Gram-positive bacteria species are more sensitive to the essential oil than Gram-negative bacteria. The oil showed strong antimicrobial activity against as well as . Moreover, the oil exhibited strong radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. This first report on the chemical composition and biological properties of volatile oil makes its pharmaceutical uses rational and provides a basis in the biological and phytochemical investigations of the volatile oils of Ganodermataceae species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicines3020010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5456227PMC
April 2016

Inhibition of DNA-Topoisomerase I by Acylated Triterpene Saponins from Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd.

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2016 Apr 23;6(2):141-7. Epub 2016 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Straße 17, 17489, Greifswald, Germany.

Previous phytochemical investigation of the leaves and seeds of Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd. led to the isolation and structural elucidation of polyphenols and triterpene saponins. Evaluation for cytotoxicity of isolated saponins revealed that the predominant structural feature for a cytotoxic activity are acyl substituents at the oleanane aglycon backbone. The present work reports the results of a screening of 10 selected acylated saponins for their potential to inhibit the human DNA-topoisomerase I, giving rise to IC50 values in a range of 2.8-46.5 µM. To clarify the mode of observed cytotoxic action and, moreover, to distinguish from a pure surfactant effect which is commonly accompanied with saponins, these results indicate an involvement of the topoisomerase I and its role as a possible target structure for a cytotoxic activity. In addition, computational predictions of the fitting of saponins to the topoisomerase I-DNA complex, indicate a similar binding mode to that of clinically used topoisomerase I inhibitors. Ten acylated triterpene saponins from Pittosporum angustifolium were investigated for their potential to inhibit the human DNA-topoisomerase I and computational predictions of the fitting of saponins to the topoisomerase I-DNA complex were carried out.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-016-0087-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4805651PMC
April 2016

Targeted synthesis of novel β-lactam antibiotics by laccase-catalyzed reaction of aromatic substrates selected by pre-testing for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2016 Jun 18;100(11):4885-99. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Str. 15, 17487, Greifswald, Germany.

The rapidly increasing problem of antimicrobial-drug resistance requires the development of new antimicrobial agents. The laccase-catalyzed amination of dihydroxy aromatics is a new and promising method to enlarge the range of currently available antibiotics. Thirty-eight potential 1,2- and 1,4-hydroquinoid laccase substrates were screened for their antibacterial and cytotoxic activity to select the best substrates for laccase-catalyzed coupling reaction resulting in potent antibacterial derivatives. As a result, methyl-1,4-hydroquinone and 2,3-dimethyl-1,4-hydroquinone were used as parent compounds and 14 novel cephalosporins, penicillins, and carbacephems were synthesized by amination with amino-β-lactam structures. All purified products were stable in aqueous buffer and resistant to the action of β-lactamases, and in agar diffusion and broth micro-dilution assays, they inhibited the growth of several Gram-positive bacterial strains including multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococci. Their in vivo activity and cytotoxicity in a Staphylococcus-infected, immune-suppressed mouse model are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-016-7288-zDOI Listing
June 2016

Acylated flavonol diglucosides from Ammania auriculata.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2015 ;70(1-2):39-43

Chemical investigation of the extract of the whole Ammania auriculata plant resulted in the identification of 13 polyphenols, including the hitherto unknown flavonoids, kaempferol 3-O-β-(6″-galloylglucopyranoside)-7-O-β-glucopyranoside, and its quercetin analogue. The structures of all isolates were elucidated by conventional methods, spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, and by HRESI-MS as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/znc-2014-4165DOI Listing
October 2015

Ganoderma pfeifferi--A European relative of Ganoderma lucidum.

Phytochemistry 2015 Jun 25;114:102-8. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Biometec GmbH, Walther-Rathenau-Str. 49a, D-17489 Greifswald, Germany. Electronic address:

In contrast to well-studied and broadly used Ganoderma species, such as Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma applanatum, knowledge regarding Ganoderma pfeifferi is very limited. Herein is an overview of the phytochemistry, biological activities and possible applications of this mushroom species. In addition to triterpenoids and polysaccharides, G. pfeifferi contains unique sesquiterpenoids and other small molecular weight compounds. Some of these compounds exhibit remarkable antimicrobial activities in vitro and in vivo against multi-resistant bacteria, such as MRSA. Antiviral properties, UV-protection abilities and other activities are also known. Potential issues arising from the conversion of research results into practical applications are discussed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2015.02.018DOI Listing
June 2015

Three new di-O-glycosyl-C-glucosyl flavones from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea Mart..

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2014 Sep-Oct;69(9-10):357-62

Three hitherto unknown di-O-xylosyl-C-glycosyl flavones were isolated from the leaves of Caesalpinia ferrea. The structures of all isolated compounds were elucidated by conventional methods and spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR, as well as by HRESIMS.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5560/znc.2014-0113DOI Listing
March 2015

Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma possible application in wound healing.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2014 Nov 30;22(6):477-90. Epub 2014 Nov 30.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, D17489 Greifswald, Germany.

Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma, also named cold plasma, is defined as a partly ionized gas. Therefore, it cannot be equated with plasma from blood; it is not biological in nature. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma is a new innovative approach in medicine not only for the treatment of wounds, but with a wide-range of other applications, as e.g. topical treatment of other skin diseases with microbial involvement or treatment of cancer diseases. This review emphasizes plasma effects on wound healing. Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma can support wound healing by its antiseptic effects, by stimulation of proliferation and migration of wound relating skin cells, by activation or inhibition of integrin receptors on the cell surface or by its pro-angiogenic effect. We summarize the effects of plasma on eukaryotic cells, especially on keratinocytes in terms of viability, proliferation, DNA, adhesion molecules and angiogenesis together with the role of reactive oxygen species and other components of plasma. The outcome of first clinical trials regarding wound healing is pointed out.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2014.105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4256026PMC
November 2014

Medicinal mushrooms.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2014 24;2014:806180. Epub 2014 Jun 24.

Plant Research International, Department of Bioscience, Wageningen University, 6700AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/806180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4095656PMC
August 2014

Cytotoxic saponins from the seeds of Pittosporum angustifolium.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2014 May-Jun;69(5-6):191-8

Three new acylated R1-barrigenol triterpene glycosides, 1-3, were isolated from the seeds of Pittosporum angustifolium Lodd. together with four known glycosides, 4-7, containing R1- and A1-barrigenol backbones. On the basis of spectroscopic, spectrometric, and chemical analyses the novel compounds were named pittangretosides N-P and established as 21beta-acetoxy-22alpha-angeloyloxy- (1), 21beta-acetoxy-22alpha-(2-acetoxy-2-methylbutyroyloxy)- (2), and 21beta-(2-methylbutyroyloxy)-22alpha-acetoxy-3beta-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1 --> 2)]-[alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-[alpha-L-arabinofuranosyl-(1 --> 4)]-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyloxyolean-12-ene-15alpha, 6alpha, 28-triol (3). Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxicity against three tumour cell lines and one non-tumourigenic cell line revealed antiproliferative effects with IC50 values in a range of 1.74-34.1 microM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.5560/znc.2014-0011DOI Listing
August 2014

Oxasetin from Lophiostoma sp. of the Baltic Sea: identification, in silico binding mode prediction and antibacterial evaluation against fish pathogenic bacteria.

Nat Prod Commun 2013 Sep;8(9):1223-6

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Benghazi University, P.O. Box 5341, Benghazi, Libya.

Because of the evolving resistance of microorganisms against existing antibiotics, there is an increasing need for new ones, not only in human, but also in veterinary medicine. The dichloromethane extract of a fungal strain of the genus Lophiostoma, isolated from driftwood collected from the coast of the Baltic Sea, displayed antibacterial activity against some fish pathogenic bacteria. Ergosterol epoxide (1), cerebroside C (2) and oxasetin (3) were isolated from the extract and structurally elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. Compound 3 exhibited in vitro activity against Vibrio anguillarum, Flexibacter maritimus and Pseudomonas anguilliseptica with minimal inhibitory concentrations of 12.5, 12.5 and 6.25 microg/mL, respectively. Molecular docking studies were performed to understand the interaction of compound 3 with different macromolecular targets. Analysis of in silico results, together with experimental findings, validates the antimicrobial activity associated with compound 3. These results may be exploited in lead optimization and development of potent antibacterial agents.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
September 2013

The merit of medicinal mushrooms from a pharmaceutical point of view.

Int J Med Mushrooms 2013 ;15(6):517-23

Institute of Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University of Greifswald, F.-L.-Jahn-Str. 17a, D-17487 Greifswald, Germany.

Whereas pharmaceuticals prepared by extraction of medicinal plants constitute an important part of evidence-based medicine also in the Western Hemisphere, medicinal mushrooms are mainly used as dietary supplements without declaration of a medical indication. Scientific investigations and case studies from Asian medicine show that fungi have very promising pharmacological potential. This article provides an overview of the principles of authorization and market access of herbal drugs in Europe, with special reference to Germany. The current status regarding mushrooms is reported, with an aim toward supporting the development of legalized pharmaceutical preparations of medicinal mushrooms in Europe.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/intjmedmushr.v15.i6.10DOI Listing
June 2014

Atmospheric pressure plasma jet treatment evokes transient oxidative stress in HaCaT keratinocytes and influences cell physiology.

Cell Biol Int 2014 Apr 10;38(4):412-25. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Institute of Pharmacy, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University, Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn Str. 15a, 17487, Greifswald, Germany; ZIK Plasmatis, Leibniz Institute for Plasma Sciences and Technology e.V. (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489, Greifswald, Germany.

Modern non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma sources enable controllable interaction with biological systems. Their future applications - e.g. wound management - are based on their unique mixture of reactive components sparking both stimulatory as well as inhibitory processes. To gain detailed understanding of plasma-cell interaction and with respect to risk awareness, key mechanisms need to be identified. This study focuses on the impact of an argon non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet (kINPen 09) on human HaCaT keratinocytes. With increasing duration, cell viability decreased. In accordance, cells accumulated in G2/M phase within the following 24 h. DNA single-strand breaks were detected immediately after treatment and receded in the aftermath, returning to control levels after 24 h. No directly plasma-related DNA double-strand breaks were detected over the same time. Concurrently, DNA synthesis decreased. Coincident with treatment time, an increase in intracellular 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H(2)DCFDA) conversion increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. The radical scavenging activity of culture medium crucially influenced these effects. Thus, ROS changed DNA integrity, and the effectiveness of cellular defence mechanisms characterises the interaction of non-thermal plasma and eukaryotic cells. Effects were time-dependent, indicating an active response of the eukaryotic cells. Hence, a stimulation of eukaryotic cells using short-term non-thermal plasma treatment seems possible, eg in the context of chronic wound care. Long-term plasma treatments stopped in cell proliferation and apoptosis, which might be relevant in controlling neoplastic conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10200DOI Listing
April 2014

Triterpene glycosides from the leaves of Pittosporum angustifolium.

Planta Med 2013 Oct 17;79(15):1461-9. Epub 2013 Sep 17.

Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Ernst Moritz Arndt University Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Pittosporum angustifolium resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of nine new triterpene saponins, named pittangretosides A-I (1-9), together with a known compound (10). Mainly by NMR and HRESIMS experiments, eight compounds were identified as A1-barrigenol glycosides (1-7, 10), whereas two compounds exhibited an unusual 17,22-seco-backbone of oleanolic acid (8, 9). All compounds were evaluated for their in vitro cytotoxicities against human urinary bladder carcinoma cells (5637). Only compounds with an angeloyl-residue at C-22 of the aglycone (1-4 and 10) showed antiproliferative effects with IC50 values of 4.1, 5.2, 2.1, 17.9, and 2.4 µM, respectively.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0033-1350806DOI Listing
October 2013

Differential influence of components resulting from atmospheric-pressure plasma on integrin expression of human HaCaT keratinocytes.

Biomed Res Int 2013 27;2013:761451. Epub 2013 Jun 27.

Institute of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Adequate chronic wound healing is a major problem in medicine. A new solution might be non-thermal atmospheric-pressure plasma effectively inactivating microorganisms and influencing cells in wound healing. Plasma components as, for example, radicals can affect cells differently. HaCaT keratinocytes were treated with Dielectric Barrier Discharge plasma (DBD/air, DBD/argon), ozone or hydrogen peroxide to find the components responsible for changes in integrin expression, intracellular ROS formation or apoptosis induction. Dependent on plasma treatment time reduction of recovered cells was observed with no increase of apoptotic cells, but breakdown of mitochondrial membrane potential. DBD/air plasma increased integrins and intracellular ROS. DBD/argon caused minor changes. About 100 ppm ozone did not influence integrins. Hydrogen peroxide caused similar effects compared to DBD/air plasma. In conclusion, effects depended on working gas and exposure time to plasma. Short treatment cycles did neither change integrins nor induce apoptosis or ROS. Longer treatments changed integrins as important for influencing wound healing. Plasma effects on integrins are rather attributed to induction of other ROS than to generation of ozone. Changes of integrins by plasma may provide new solutions of improving wound healing, however, conditions are needed which allow initiating the relevant influence on integrins without being cytotoxic to cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/761451DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712198PMC
March 2014

Impact of non-thermal plasma treatment on MAPK signaling pathways of human immune cell lines.

Immunobiology 2013 Oct 3;218(10):1248-55. Epub 2013 May 3.

Center for Innovation Competence, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald, Germany.

In the field of wound healing research non-thermal plasma (NTP) increasingly draws attention. Next to its intensely studied antibacterial effects, some studies already showed stimulating effects on eukaryotic cells. This promises a unique potential in healing of chronic wounds, where effective therapies are urgently needed. Immune cells do play an important part in the process of wound healing and their reaction to NTP treatment has yet been rarely examined. Here, we studied the impact of NTP treatment using the kinpen on apoptotic and proliferative cell signaling pathways of two human immune cell lines, the CD4(+)T helper cell line Jurkat and the monocyte cell line THP-1. Depending on NTP treatment time the number of apoptotic cells increased in both investigated cell types according to a caspase 3 assay. Western blot analysis pointed out that plasma treatment activated pro-apoptotic signaling proteins like p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 and 2 (JNK 1/2) in both cell types. Stronger signals were detected in Jurkat cells at comparable plasma treatment times. Intriguingly, exposure of Jurkat and THP-1 cells to plasma also activated the pro-proliferative signaling molecules extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and MAPK/ERK kinase 1 and 2 (MEK 1/2). In contrast to Jurkat cells, the anti-apoptotic heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) was activated in THP-1 cells after plasma treatment, indicating a possible mechanism how THP-1 cells may reduce programmed cell death. In conclusion, several signaling cascades were activated in the examined immune cell lines after NTP treatment and in THP-1 monocytes a possible defense mechanism against plasma impacts could be revealed. Therefore, plasma might be a treatment option for wound healing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imbio.2013.04.015DOI Listing
October 2013

Phenolic constituents from Alchemilla vulgaris L. and Alchemilla mollis (Buser) Rothm. at different dates of harvest.

Z Naturforsch C J Biosci 2013 Jan-Feb;68(1-2):529-40

WALA Heilmittel GmbH, Department of Research & Development, Dorfstrasse 1, D-73087 Bad Boll/Eckwälden, Germany.

Acetone/water extracts from the leaves, including stalks, of Alchemilla vulgaris L. and A. mollis (Buser) Rothm. were investigated for their phenolic composition by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A total of 24 and 27 compounds were detected for A. vulgaris and A. mollis, respectively. Pedunculagin and agrimoniin, as described in earlier reports for A. vulgaris, as well as other monomeric and oligomeric ellagitannins such as sanguiin H-10, castalagin/vescalagin, and galloyl-bis-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP) hexose constituted the major phenolic fraction of both plant species. Also, gallic and chlorogenic acids were found in both extracts. Interestingly, catechin and a procyanidin trimer were detected only in A. mollis. The flavonoid fraction comprised quercetin glucuronide as major compound in addition to several other quercetin glycosides. Most interestingly, a tentatively identified kaempferol glucuronide and a methylated quercetin glucuronide were exclusively found in A. mollis. Finally, the overall phenolic fingerprints of both Alchemilla species, harvested in May and August, i.e. at the beginning and the end of the flowering period, were compared. A general accumulation of phenolic constituents was observed later in the year, especially with regard to the ellagitannins.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
June 2013