Publications by authors named "Ulrike Damm"

18 Publications

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Corrigendum: Bien S, Damm U (2020) gen. et sp. nov. and novelties in , and from wood in Germany. MycoKeys 63: 163-172. https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.63.46836.

MycoKeys 2020 14;69:111-112. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz Germany.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3897/mycokeys.63.46836.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.69.55264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416071PMC
July 2020

Anthracnose Disease of Carpetgrass () Caused by sp. nov.

Plant Dis 2020 Jun 14;104(6):1744-1750. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

School of Life Science and Technology, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048, China.

Carpetgrass () is a creeping, stoloniferous, perennial warm-season grass that is adapted to humid tropical and subtropical climates. Recently, outbreaks of anthracnose disease of caused by an unidentified sp. were observed in the Hainan and Guangdong provinces in southern China. In late winter and early spring, the disease incidence reached 100% in some badly infected lawns. Under high-moisture conditions, the crowns and oldest leaf sheaths of the majority of the plants became necrotic, which led to whole lawns turning reddish brown. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculating uninfected plants with a conidial suspension of the sp. isolated from diseased plants. Phylogenetic analyses of the combined internal transcribed spacer, , , and sequences revealed the pathogen to be a novel species of the species complex. Microscopic examination showed that the species was also morphologically distinct from related species. As a result of the phylogenetic, morphological, and pathogenicity analyses, we propose the name for this pathogen of in southern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-10-19-2183-REDOI Listing
June 2020

Standardized, comprehensive, hospital-based circuit training in people with multiple sclerosis: results on feasibility, adherence and satisfaction of the training intervention.

Eur J Phys Rehabil Med 2020 Jun 30;56(3):279-285. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Neurology and Neurorehabilitation Center, Luzerner Kantonsspital, Lucerne, Switzerland -

Background: We developed a standardized, comprehensive, ambulatory, hospital-based neurorehabilitation program ("MS-Fit") to improve disability, activities of daily living and quality of life in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS).

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess feasibility, adherence and satisfaction of the training intervention.

Design: Prospective multicenter cohort study analysis.

Setting: Ambulatory, hospital-based study.

Population: PwMS, aged 18 to 75 years, complaining about multiple sclerosis-related disability affecting activities of daily living and/or quality of life.

Methods: A standardized, ambulatory, hospital-based circuit training consisting of six workstations (aerobic exercise training, strength upper limbs, balance, manual dexterity, reactivity, strength and flexibility lower limbs) was performed two hours, twice weekly, for two months in groups of two to six participants supervised by experienced physiotherapists. Physiotherapists adapted the type and intensity of training according to the participants' individual performance using a training booklet. Program satisfaction and adherence were evaluated using a questionnaire and the attendance rate (clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02440516).

Results: Fifty-five participants started (mean age 52.82 years±10.68 standard deviation, range 29-74; 69% female; median Expanded Disability Status Scale 3.5, range 1.0-7.0) and 49 (89%) finished the training program. Main reasons to drop out during the training were lack of time, travel problems, social issues or Uthoff's phenomenon during the summer. All participants finalizing the training achieved >80% (mean 92.26%, ±7.59) attendance rate and sent back the questionnaire. Overall participant's satisfaction was high with a median of 9 points (range 4-10) on a Likert Scale from 0-10. Program quality was rated "good" with an overall median score of 39/50 points (range 26-50) and 95% of the participants would recommend the program to others.

Conclusions: MS-Fit is a feasible training program with high patient satisfaction and adherence. It enables high intensity ambulatory training and can be easily reproduced due to its standardized nature.

Clinical Rehabilitation Impact: MS-FIT enables a standardized ambulatory high intensity training that is easily reproducible. Participants benefit from group training and from individual adaption of the training through professional supervision.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S1973-9087.20.06191-2DOI Listing
June 2020

gen. et sp. nov. and novelties in , and from wood in Germany.

MycoKeys 2020 2;63:119-161. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz Görlitz Germany.

During a survey on fungi associated with wood necroses of trees in Germany, strains belonging to the Leotiomycetes and Eurotiomycetes were detected by preliminary analyses of ITS sequences. Multi-locus phylogenetic analyses (LSU, ITS, , , depending on genus) of 31 of the 45 strains from and reference strains revealed several new taxa, including , a new genus in the Helotiales (Leotiomycetes) with a collophorina-like asexual morph. Seven species (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) were treated. The 29 strains from belonged to five species, of which and were dominating; , and were revealed as new species. The genus was reported from for the first time. was combined in and differentiated from , which was resurrected. Asexual morphs of two species (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes) were described, including one new species, . Two species (Phaeomoniellales, Eurotiomycetes) were detected, including the new species . and are reported as host plants of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.63.46836DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062850PMC
March 2020

Eutypa, Eutypella, and Cryptovalsa Species (Diatrypaceae) Associated with Prunus Species in South Africa.

Plant Dis 2018 Jul 23;102(7):1402-1409. Epub 2018 May 23.

Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbij, Private Bag X5026, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa.

Stone fruit trees (Prunus spp.) are economically important fruit trees cultivated in South Africa. These trees are often grown in close proximity to vineyards and are to a large extent affected by the same trunk disease pathogens as grapevines. The aim of the present study was to determine whether stone fruit trees are inhabited by Diatrypaceae species known from grapevines and whether these trees could act as alternative hosts for these fungal species. Isolations were carried out from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (almond, apricot, cherry, nectarine, peach, and plum) in stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Identification of isolates was based on phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region and β-tubulin gene. Forty-six Diatrypaceae isolates were obtained from a total of 380 wood samples, from which five species were identified. All five species have also been associated with dieback of grapevine. The highest number of isolates was found on apricot followed by plum. No Diatrypaceae species were isolated from peach and nectarine. Eutypa lata was the dominant species isolated (26 isolates), followed by Cryptovalsa ampelina (7), Eutypa cremea (5), Eutypella citricola (5), and Eutypella microtheca (3). First reports from Prunus spp. are E. cremea, E. citricola, and E. microtheca. Pathogenicity tests conducted on apricot and plum revealed that all these species are pathogenic to these hosts, causing red-brown necrotic lesions like those typical of Eutypa dieback on apricot.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-11-17-1696-REDOI Listing
July 2018

Diversity of Diatrypaceae Species Associated with Dieback of Grapevines in South Africa, with the Description of Eutypa cremea sp. nov.

Plant Dis 2018 Jan 13;102(1):220-230. Epub 2017 Nov 13.

Plant Protection Division, ARC Infruitec-Nietvoorbji, Stellenbosch, 7599, South Africa.

Recent studies in grape-growing areas including Australia, California, and Spain have revealed an extensive diversity of Diatrypaceae species on grapevines showing dieback symptoms and cankers. However, in South Africa, little is known regarding the diversity of these species in vineyards. The aim of this study was, therefore, to identify and characterize Diatrypaceae species associated with dieback symptoms of grapevine in South Africa. Isolates were collected from dying spurs of grapevines aged 4 to 8 years old, grapevine wood showing wedge-shaped necrosis when cut in cross section as well as from perithecia on dead grapevine wood. The collected isolates were identified based on morphological characters and phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and β-tubulin gene. Seven Diatrypaceae species were identified on grapevine, namely Cryptovalsa ampelina, C. rabenhorstii, Eutypa consobrina, E. lata, E. cremea sp. nov., Eutypella citricola, and E. microtheca. The dying spurs yielded the highest diversity of species when compared with the wedge-shaped necrosis and/or perithecia. C. ampelina was the dominant species in the dying spurs, followed by E. citricola, whereas E. lata was the dominant species isolated from the wedge-shaped necroses and perithecia. These results confirm E. lata as an important grapevine canker pathogen in South Africa, but the frequent association of C. ampelina with spur dieback suggests that this pathogen plays a more prominent role in dieback than previously assumed. In some cases, more than one species were isolated from a single symptom, which suggests that interactions may be occurring leading to decline of grapevines. C. rabenhorstii, E. consobrina, E. citricola, E. microtheca, and E. cremea are reported for the first time on grapevine in South Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-05-17-0738-REDOI Listing
January 2018

Survival trade-offs in plant roots during colonization by closely related beneficial and pathogenic fungi.

Nat Commun 2016 05 6;7:11362. Epub 2016 May 6.

Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, 50829 Cologne, Germany.

The sessile nature of plants forced them to evolve mechanisms to prioritize their responses to simultaneous stresses, including colonization by microbes or nutrient starvation. Here, we compare the genomes of a beneficial root endophyte, Colletotrichum tofieldiae and its pathogenic relative C. incanum, and examine the transcriptomes of both fungi and their plant host Arabidopsis during phosphate starvation. Although the two species diverged only 8.8 million years ago and have similar gene arsenals, we identify genomic signatures indicative of an evolutionary transition from pathogenic to beneficial lifestyles, including a narrowed repertoire of secreted effector proteins, expanded families of chitin-binding and secondary metabolism-related proteins, and limited activation of pathogenicity-related genes in planta. We show that beneficial responses are prioritized in C. tofieldiae-colonized roots under phosphate-deficient conditions, whereas defense responses are activated under phosphate-sufficient conditions. These immune responses are retained in phosphate-starved roots colonized by pathogenic C. incanum, illustrating the ability of plants to maximize survival in response to conflicting stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms11362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859067PMC
May 2016

Species boundaries in plant pathogenic fungi: a Colletotrichum case study.

BMC Evol Biol 2016 Apr 14;16:81. Epub 2016 Apr 14.

State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100101, China.

Background: Accurate delimitation of plant pathogenic fungi is critical for the establishment of quarantine regulations, screening for genetic resistance to plant pathogens, and the study of ecosystem function. Concatenation analysis of multi-locus DNA sequence data represents a powerful and commonly used approach to recognizing evolutionary independent lineages in fungi. It is however possible to mask the discordance between individual gene trees, thus the speciation events might be erroneously estimated if one simply recognizes well supported clades as distinct species without implementing a careful examination of species boundary. To investigate this phenomenon, we studied Colletotrichum siamense s. lat., which is a cosmopolitan pathogen causing serious diseases on many economically important plant hosts. Presently there are significant disagreements among mycologists as to what constitutes a species in C. siamense s. lat., with the number of accepted species ranging from one to seven.

Results: In this study, multiple approaches were used to test the null hypothesis "C. siamense is a species complex", using a global strain collection. Results of molecular analyses based on the Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition (GCPSR) and coalescent methods (e.g. Generalized Mixed Yule-coalescent and Poisson Tree Processes) do not support the recognition of any independent evolutionary lineages within C. siamense s. lat. as distinct species, thus rejecting the null hypothesis. This conclusion is reinforced by the recognition of genetic recombination, cross fertility, and the comparison of ecological and morphological characters. Our results indicate that reproductive isolation, geographic and host plant barriers to gene flow are absent in C. siamense s. lat.

Conclusions: This discovery emphasized the importance of a polyphasic approach when describing novel species in morphologically conserved genera of plant pathogenic fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12862-016-0649-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4832473PMC
April 2016

Species of the Colletotrichum acutatum complex associated with anthracnose diseases of fruit in Brazil.

Fungal Biol 2016 Apr 2;120(4):547-561. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands; Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry and Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa; Microbiology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Although Colletotrichum acutatum was recently investigated and shown to be a species complex comprising about 30 species, the name is still used in its broad sense for anthracnose pathogens of fruits in Brazil. In this study, a multilocus molecular analysis was carried out based on a dataset of ITS, HIS3, GAPDH, CHS-1, TUB2 and ACT sequences of Colletotrichum strains belonging to the C. acutatum species complex from fruits collected in different regions in Brazil combined with sequences of ex-type and other reference strains of species belonging to this complex. The strains were revealed to belong to Colletotrichum nymphaeae, Colletotrichum melonis, Colletotrichum abscissum and one new species, namely Colletotrichum paranaense, from apple and peach. Morphological descriptions of the new species and a strain closely related to but diverging from C. melonis are provided. From the data presently available, the most common species on apple fruits in Brazil is C. nymphaeae. In a pathogenicity test, strains of all four species caused lesions on detached apple, peach and guava fruits, except for strain CBS 134730 that did not infect guava fruits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2016.01.011DOI Listing
April 2016

The Genera of Fungi: fixing the application of type species of generic names.

IMA Fungus 2014 Jun 19;5(1):141-60. Epub 2014 Jun 19.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands;

To ensure a stable platform for fungal taxonomy, it is of paramount importance that the genetic application of generic names be based on their DNA sequence data, and wherever possible, not morphology or ecology alone. To facilitate this process, a new database, accessible at www.GeneraofFungi.org (GoF) was established, which will allow deposition of metadata linked to holo-, lecto-, neo- or epitype specimens, cultures and DNA sequence data of the type species of genera. Although there are presently more than 18 000 fungal genera described, we aim to initially focus on the subset of names that have been placed on the "Without-prejudice List of Protected Generic Names of Fungi" (see IMA Fungus 4(2): 381-443, 2013). To enable the global mycological community to keep track of typification events and avoid duplication, special MycoBank Typification identfiers (MBT) will be issued upon deposit of metadata in MycoBank. MycoBank is linked to GoF, thus deposited metadata of generic type species will be displayed in GoF (and vice versa), but will also be linked to Index Fungorum (IF) and the curated RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database in GenBank at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). This initial paper focuses on eight genera of appendaged coelomycetes, the type species of which are neo- or epitypified here: Bartalinia (Bartalinia robillardoides; Amphisphaeriaceae, Xylariales), Chaetospermum (Chaetospermum chaetosporum, incertae sedis, Sebacinales), Coniella (Coniella fragariae, Schizoparmaceae, Diaporthales), Crinitospora (Crinitospora pulchra, Melanconidaceae, Diaporthales), Eleutheromyces (Eleutheromyces subulatus, Helotiales), Kellermania (Kellermania yuccigena, Planistromataceae, Botryosphaeriales), Mastigosporium (Mastigosporium album, Helotiales), and Mycotribulus (Mycotribulus mirabilis, Agaricales). Authors interested in contributing accounts of individual genera to larger multi-authored papers to be published in IMA Fungus, should contact the associate editors listed below for the major groups of fungi on the List of Protected Generic Names for Fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2014.05.01.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4107892PMC
June 2014

Finding needles in haystacks: linking scientific names, reference specimens and molecular data for Fungi.

Database (Oxford) 2014 30;2014. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA, CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, P.O. Box 85167, 3508 AD Utrecht, The Netherlands, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences - Microbiology, Università degli Studi di Perugia, Perugia, Italy, Molecular Mycology Research Laboratory, Centre for Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Sydney Medical School-Westmead Hospital, The University of Sydney, Westmead Millennium Institute, Westmead, Australia, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Box 461, 405 30 Göteborg, Sweden, Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37920, USA, Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, 1816 South Oak Street, Champaign, IL 61820, USA, Mycology Section, Jodrell Laboratory, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3DS, UK, Natural History Museum, University of Tartu, 46 Vanemuise, 51014 Tartu, Estonia, Purdue University, Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 915 W. State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA, Institute of Excellence in Fungal Research, and School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand, Imperial College London, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew TW9 3DS, England, UK, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Dépt. Systématique et Evolution CP39, UMR7205, 12 Rue Buffon, F-75005 Paris, France, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, P. R. China, Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040, Spain, Senckenberg Museum of Natural History Görlitz, PF 300 154, 02806 Görlitz, Germany, Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Forestry Agricultural Biotechnology Institute (FABI), University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0001, South Africa, Real Jardín Botánico, RJB-CSIC,

DNA phylogenetic comparisons have shown that morphology-based species recognition often underestimates fungal diversity. Therefore, the need for accurate DNA sequence data, tied to both correct taxonomic names and clearly annotated specimen data, has never been greater. Furthermore, the growing number of molecular ecology and microbiome projects using high-throughput sequencing require fast and effective methods for en masse species assignments. In this article, we focus on selecting and re-annotating a set of marker reference sequences that represent each currently accepted order of Fungi. The particular focus is on sequences from the internal transcribed spacer region in the nuclear ribosomal cistron, derived from type specimens and/or ex-type cultures. Re-annotated and verified sequences were deposited in a curated public database at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), namely the RefSeq Targeted Loci (RTL) database, and will be visible during routine sequence similarity searches with NR_prefixed accession numbers. A set of standards and protocols is proposed to improve the data quality of new sequences, and we suggest how type and other reference sequences can be used to improve identification of Fungi. Database URL: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/PRJNA177353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/database/bau061DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4075928PMC
February 2015

Circumscription of the anthracnose pathogens Colletotrichum lindemuthianum and C. nigrum.

Mycologia 2013 Jul-Aug;105(4):844-60. Epub 2013 Feb 28.

Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.

The anthracnose pathogen of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) is usually identified as Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, while anthracnose of potato (Solanum tuberosum), peppers (Capsicum annuum), tomato (S. lycopersicum) and several other crop plants is often attributed to C. coccodes. In order to study the phylogenetic relationships of these important pathogens, we conducted a multigene analysis (ITS, ACT, TUB2, CHS-1, GAPDH) of strains previously identified as C. lindemuthianum, C. coccodes and other related species, as well as representative species of the major Colletotrichum species complexes. Strains of C. lindemuthianum belonged to a single clade; we selected an authentic specimen as lectotype, and an appropriate specimen and culture from the CBS collection to serve as epitype. Two clades were resolved within C. coccodes s. lat. One clade included the ex-neotype strain of C. coccodes on Solanum, while an epitype was selected for C. nigrum, which represents the oldest name of the second clade, which occurs on Capsicum, Solanum, as well as several other host plants. Furthermore, we recognized C. lycopersici as a synonym of C. nigrum, and C. biologicum as a synonym of C. coccodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/12-315DOI Listing
September 2013

Lifestyle transitions in plant pathogenic Colletotrichum fungi deciphered by genome and transcriptome analyses.

Nat Genet 2012 Sep 12;44(9):1060-5. Epub 2012 Aug 12.

Department of Plant Microbe Interactions, Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research, Cologne, Germany.

Colletotrichum species are fungal pathogens that devastate crop plants worldwide. Host infection involves the differentiation of specialized cell types that are associated with penetration, growth inside living host cells (biotrophy) and tissue destruction (necrotrophy). We report here genome and transcriptome analyses of Colletotrichum higginsianum infecting Arabidopsis thaliana and Colletotrichum graminicola infecting maize. Comparative genomics showed that both fungi have large sets of pathogenicity-related genes, but families of genes encoding secreted effectors, pectin-degrading enzymes, secondary metabolism enzymes, transporters and peptidases are expanded in C. higginsianum. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that these genes are transcribed in successive waves that are linked to pathogenic transitions: effectors and secondary metabolism enzymes are induced before penetration and during biotrophy, whereas most hydrolases and transporters are upregulated later, at the switch to necrotrophy. Our findings show that preinvasion perception of plant-derived signals substantially reprograms fungal gene expression and indicate previously unknown functions for particular fungal cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.2372DOI Listing
September 2012

The amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature.

IMA Fungus 2011 Jun 7;2(1):105-12. Epub 2011 Jun 7.

Departamento de Biología Vegetal II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza Ramón y Cajal, E-28040 Madrid, Spain; and Department of Botany, Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK;

The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was agreed at an international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the current system of naming pleomorphic fungi should be maintained or changed now that molecular data are routinely available. The issue is urgent as mycologists currently follow different practices, and no consensus was achieved by a Special Committee appointed in 2005 by the International Botanical Congress to advise on the problem. The Declaration recognizes the need for an orderly transitition to a single-name nomenclatural system for all fungi, and to provide mechanisms to protect names that otherwise then become endangered. That is, meaning that priority should be given to the first described name, except where that is a younger name in general use when the first author to select a name of a pleomorphic monophyletic genus is to be followed, and suggests controversial cases are referred to a body, such as the ICTF, which will report to the Committee for Fungi. If appropriate, the ICTF could be mandated to promote the implementation of the Declaration. In addition, but not forming part of the Declaration, are reports of discussions held during the symposium on the governance of the nomenclature of fungi, and the naming of fungi known only from an environmental nucleic acid sequence in particular. Possible amendments to the Draft BioCode (2011) to allow for the needs of mycologists are suggested for further consideration, and a possible example of how a fungus only known from the environment might be described is presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2011.02.01.14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3317370PMC
June 2011

Colletotrichum: species, ecology and interactions.

IMA Fungus 2010 Dec 23;1(2):161-5. Epub 2010 Nov 23.

CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands;

The presentations of the Special Interest Group meeting Colletotrichum: species, ecology and interactions, held on 1 August 2010 during IMC9 in Edinburgh, UK, are outlined. Seven research projects, ranged from systematics and population genetics to host-pathogen interactions and genome projects were presented. The meeting revealed that currently major species complexes in the genus Colletotrichum are being revised and the identities of many pathogens clarified on the basis of molecular phylogenies, and that the genomes of four species are sequenced and decoded providing an enormous amount of data that are used to increase our understanding of the biology of Colletotrichum species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5598/imafungus.2010.01.02.08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3348780PMC
December 2010

Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

Mycologia 2007 Sep-Oct;99(5):664-80

Department of Plant Pathology, University of Stellenbosch, Private Bag X1, Stellenbosch 7602, South Africa.

Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3852/mycologia.99.5.664DOI Listing
April 2008

In vivo observation of conidial germination at the oxic-anoxic interface and infection of submerged reed roots by Microdochium bolleyi.

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2003 Aug;45(3):293-9

Phytopathologie, Fachbereich Biologie, Universität Konstanz, 78457 Konstanz, Germany.

The underground plant parts of reed (Phragmites australis) growing in anoxic soil of the littoral zone of lakes are provided with oxygen via an aerenchyma. Some of this oxygen is released into the rhizosphere, which creates a potential microhabitat for aerobic fungi. Although fungal endophytes of reed have been shown to occur also in roots of flooded habitats, it is not known whether or how fungi can infect roots growing in anoxic or hypoxic soil. To study fungal infection of reed roots in the laboratory, we developed an incubation chamber to expose reed roots to conidia of Microdochium bolleyi in an anoxic agar medium and to observe fungal infection in vivo. Germination rates of conidia were high close to living roots, but decreased to zero in anoxic areas of the chamber. Conidial germ tubes located up to 200 microm from the roots grew preferentially towards the living roots. Conidia also germinated close to air-filled Teflon tubes and exhibited germ-tube tropism, but not as distinctly as on living reed roots. Conidia did not germinate in the neighbourhood of dead roots in anoxic agar. However, in the aerated margin of the incubation chamber most conidia germinated and exhibited tropic growth towards dead roots. Penetration of M. bolleyi through several cell layers of living roots was observed in cryo-microtome sections. Penetration was significantly deeper with illuminated plants than with plants kept in the dark; in some cases even the stele was reached. This is the first observation of oxygen released from roots to support growth of an aerobic fungus and of fungal penetration into root tissue in an anoxic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0168-6496(03)00161-2DOI Listing
August 2003
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