Publications by authors named "Udo Jäckel"

38 Publications

Benchmarking the MinION: Evaluating long reads for microbial profiling.

Sci Rep 2020 03 20;10(1):5125. Epub 2020 Mar 20.

Department of Biotechnology and Chemistry, Mittweida University of Applied Sciences, Technikumplatz 17, 09648, Mittweida, Germany.

Nanopore based DNA-sequencing delivers long reads, thereby simplifying the decipherment of bacterial communities. Since its commercial appearance, this technology has been assigned several attributes, such as its error proneness, comparatively low cost, ease-of-use, and, most notably, aforementioned long reads. The technology as a whole is under continued development. As such, benchmarks are required to conceive, test and improve analysis protocols, including those related to the understanding of the composition of microbial communities. Here we present a dataset composed of twelve different prokaryotic species split into four samples differing by nucleic acid quantification technique to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the MinION nanopore sequencer in a blind study design. Taxonomic classification was performed by standard taxonomic sequence classification tools, namely Kraken, Kraken2 and Centrifuge directly on reads. This allowed taxonomic assignments of up to 99.27% on genus level and 92.78% on species level, enabling true-positive classification of strains down to 25,000 genomes per sample. Full genomic coverage is achieved for strains abundant as low as 250,000 genomes per sample under our experimental settings. In summary, we present an evaluation of nanopore sequence processing analysis with respect to microbial community composition. It provides an open protocol and the data may serve as basis for the development and benchmarking of future data processing pipelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-61989-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7083898PMC
March 2020

Occupational Exposure to Antibiotics in Poultry Feeding Farms.

Ann Work Expo Health 2019 08;63(7):821-827

Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Department of Bio and Environmental Analytics, Hannover, Germany.

Today, antibiotics are essential for effective treatment of infectious diseases both in human and veterinary medicine. The increasing development and distribution of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms are subject of concern. In some sectors of animal agriculture, such as poultry feeding farms, the application of antibiotics and hence occupational exposure is inevitable. In the past, numerous studies focussed on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in livestock farming, but little attention was paid to the employees. The exposure of workers to antibiotics was the focus of the study detailed in this article. Four biomonitoring campaigns monitoring systemic exposure of workers to antibiotics were run at two farms over four fattening periods. Urine samples of potentially affected employees were sampled and analysed for the antibiotics of interest by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The highest antibiotic concentrations detected in urine samples exceeded the minimum inhibitory concentration of some bacteria strains. In some cases, the amount of antibiotics excreted over a time-period of 24 h indicated the exceedance of the tolerable daily intake.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxz047DOI Listing
August 2019

Preliminary Validation of a Method Combining Cultivation and Cloning-Based Approaches to Monitor Airborne Bacteria.

Ann Work Expo Health 2017 07;61(6):748

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx060DOI Listing
July 2017

Relatedness of wildlife and livestock avian isolates of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii to lineages spread in hospitals worldwide.

Environ Microbiol 2017 10 9;19(10):4349-4364. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Zielona Góra, Prof. Z. Szafrana Street 1, 65-561 Zielona Góra, Poland.

The natural habitats and potential reservoirs of the nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are poorly defined. Here, we put forth and tested the hypothesis of avian reservoirs of A. baumannii. We screened tracheal and rectal swab samples from livestock (chicken, geese) and wild birds (white stork nestlings) and isolated A. baumannii from 3% of sampled chicken (n = 220), 8% of geese (n = 40) and 25% of white stork nestlings (n = 661). Virulence of selected avian A. baumannii isolates was comparable to that of clinical isolates in the Galleria mellonella infection model. Whole genome sequencing revealed the close relationship of an antibiotic-susceptible chicken isolate from Germany with a multidrug-resistant human clinical isolate from China and additional linkages between livestock isolates and human clinical isolates related to international clonal lineages. Moreover, we identified stork isolates related to human clinical isolates from the United States. Multilocus sequence typing disclosed further kinship between avian and human isolates. Avian isolates do not form a distinct clade within the phylogeny of A. baumannii, instead they diverge into different lineages. Further, we provide evidence that A. baumannii is constantly present in the habitats occupied by storks. Collectively, our study suggests A. baumannii could be a zoonotic organism that may disseminate into livestock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13931DOI Listing
October 2017

Development of a methodological approach for the characterization of bioaerosols in exhaust air from pig fattening farms with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 08 11;220(6):974-983. Epub 2017 May 11.

Faculty of Chemistry and Biotechnology, FH Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Jülich, Germany. Electronic address:

In this paper, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a cultivation-independent, routinely applicable approach to identify microbial fractions in bioaerosol emission samples. We developed a streamlined protocol in line with the German state-of-the-art impingement sampling guideline. Following isokinetic sampling, a fast and reliable pre-treatment methodology involving a series of cascade filtration steps was implemented, which produced fractions for spectrometric measurement devoid of interfering substances. We sampled the exhaust air from eight pig fattening farms around western Germany, which yielded two sets of samples for both method development and validation. For method development, in total 65 bacterial isolates were produced directly from the exhaust air samples, taxonomically classified by 16S rRNA-Gene sequencing, and subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis. In this way, we could assign fingerprint biomarkers to classified bacterial genera or even species to build up a preliminary reference database. For verification of the novel methodology and application of the reference database, we subjected the second set of exhaust air samples to the developed protocol. Here, 18 out of 21 bacterial species deposited in the database were successfully retrieved, including organisms classified in risk group 2, which might be used to evaluate the pathogenic potential of sampled exhaust air. Overall, this study pursues an entirely new approach to rapidly analyze airborne microbial fractions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.05.003DOI Listing
August 2017

Preliminary Validation of a Method Combining Cultivation and Cloning-Based Approaches to Monitor Airborne Bacteria.

Ann Work Expo Health 2017 Jul;61(6):633-642

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

It is already known that occupational exposure to bioaerosols or organic dust could be harmful for occupants, but mostly the correlation to occurring bacteria is missing. Especially, cultivation of bacteria from bioaerosols is important to get an insight on occurring and possibly infectious bacteria. These measures are highly time consuming and cost intensive. Therefore, to monitor bacterial diversity in bioaerosol samples and to avoid isolation procedures, an approach was applied using a combination of cultivation and cloning-based approach. Preliminary validation of the method was determined using 11 different bacterial strains. After DNA extraction and 16S rRNA gene amplification of grown colonies, subsequent cloning and sequencing was conducted. Initially, to figure out a suitable DNA extraction method, applicable for different airborne bacteria, four DNA extraction protocols were compared. Significantly, best results were determined using the FAST DNA®Spin Kit for Soil with respect to DNA quantity and quality of bacterial cultures. Cloning approach from a mixture of amplified 16S rRNA genes of 11 isolates and following sequence data analysis shows a recovery of all strains when five clones per bacterial strain were analysed. The results clearly demonstrate that a combination of cultivation-based approaches and cloning processes can simplify bioaerosol monitoring of viable and probably infectious bacteria. The implementation of the present method into practice allows a simple and preventive investigation of bioaerosols at work places.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx038DOI Listing
July 2017

Heterogeneity in Cultivation-Based Monitoring of Airborne Bacterial Biodiversity in Animal Farms.

Ann Work Expo Health 2017 Jul;61(6):643-655

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Diversity analyses of bioaerosol samples from highly loaded workplaces as found in agricultural production or waste management help to improve the knowledge of exposure levels of workers. However, different used methods resulting in the detection of different bacterial species at the same work places. The present study obviously supports the deviation of received results using cultivation and further isolation approaches. Within the present study, the bacterial community at workplaces was estimated using the powerful tool of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses after cultivation procedure. To avoid complex isolation procedures, the suitability of cultivation and subsequent cloning procedures was determined in bioaerosols from a duck hatchery. Diversity analysis of one bioaerosol sample, which was prepared independently three times in parallel, resulted in similarity values of 38.5%-57.1%. Further, similarity analysis calculated from three independent bioaerosol samplings on 1 day resulted in 31%-40% similarity. Although similar concentration between 2.22 × 106 and 4.46 × 106 CFU per m3 hatchery air were measured, in a ring-like trail, diversity analyses from six labs differ widely, resulting in 38.9%-78.6% divergence. The present method seems to be very useful for diversity analysis of bioaerosol samples, although heterogeneity in monitoring of airborne bacteria via cultivation was pointed out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annweh/wxx039DOI Listing
July 2017

Hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to airborne bacteria.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2017 04 26;220(2 Pt B):431-439. Epub 2016 Dec 26.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstraße 40/42, 10317 Berlin, Germany. Electronic address:

Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular microorganisms' potential role in pathogenesis still needs to be elucidated. Thus, detection of specific antibodies against occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. For the purpose of IgG titer determination, indirect immunofluorescence on various bacterial isolates from duck hatchery air was combined with image-based quantification of fluorescence intensity. Moreover, in addition to established assays with pure bacterial cultures, a new approach utilized complex bioaerosol samples for detection of anti-microbial antibodies in human sera by determination of percentages of antibody-bound cells in different serum dilutions. Mean titers in sera from hatchery workers and a non-exposed control group did not display significant differences for most tested isolates and application of comprehensive cluster analysis to entire titer data revealed no structure reflecting workers and controls group. Furthermore, determination of immunoreactivity to the complete microbial community in workplace air displayed similar proportions of antibody-bound cells in both groups. Although no general differences in immunoreaction patterns were observed, mean titers to a Proteus mirabilis isolate and to 3 of 4 distinct Acinetobacter baumannii isolates were higher in the group of hatchery workers than in the reference group indicating a potential applicability as exposure markers. We conclude, despite long term bioaerosol exposure, hatchery workers' IgG antibody profiles to tested antigens did not differ substantially from those of the control group. However, increased workers' titers to A. baumannii and clinical relevance of this species should lead to further investigations regarding potential involvement in pathogenesis of occupational respiratory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.12.008DOI Listing
April 2017

Eggshells as a source for occupational exposure to airborne bacteria in hatcheries.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2016 12;13(12):950-959

a Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Berlin , Germany.

Occupational exposure to high concentrations of airborne bacteria in poultry production is related to an increased risk of respiratory disorders. However, potential sources and formation of hatchery bioaerosols are rarely characterized. In this study, bacterial multiplication on fresh shell fragments from turkey hatching eggs under conditions present in a hatcher incubator was investigated. A 10-fold amplification was observed both by colony count and total cell count gaining 4 × 10 cfu/cells per gram eggshell within 30 hr of incubation. Furthermore, the bacterial community present on eggshells was analyzed by generation of 16S rRNA gene clone libraries and identification of eight isolates. RFLP analysis revealed no shift in community composition during incubation and Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus gallinarum were found as the predominant species on turkey eggshells, both have been classified as risk group 2 microorganisms (German TRBA 466). Since Enterococcus spp. were found as predominant species on turkey eggshells, contribution of this genus to bioaerosol formation was demonstrated. During different work activities with poult and eggshell handling concentrations of airborne enterococci up to 1.3 × 10 cfu m were detected. In contrast, no enterococci were identified at a day without poult or eggshell processing. In conclusion, turkey hatching eggs carry a viable specific microflora from breeder flocks to hatcheries. After hatching of turkey poults, hatcher incubators and eggshell fragments provide appropriate conditions for excessive bacterial growth. Thus, high bacterial loads on eggshell fragments are a source of potential harmful bioaersols caused by air flows, poult activity, and handling of equipment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2016.1200192DOI Listing
December 2016

Jeotgalicoccus schoeneichii sp. nov. isolated from exhaust air of a pig barn.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016 Sep 8;66(9):3503-3508. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

A Gram-staining-positive, non-motile, non-spore-forming, coccus (strain 140805-STR-02T) was isolated from exhaust air of a pig barn on Columbia Blood Agar Base (Oxoid) supplemented with 5 % defibrinated horse blood, Streptococcus selective supplement and 0.5 mg erythromycin l-1. The strains shared high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to Jeotgalicoccus pinnipedialis (98.6 %) but only a maximum of 94 % sequence similarity to all other species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus. DNA-DNA hybridisation values between strain 140805-STR-02T and J. pinnipedialis CIP 107946T were 60.3 % (reciprocal, 51.2 %). The quinone system of 140805-STR-02T contained predominantly menaquinone MK-7 and minor amounts of MK-6. The polar lipid profile of strain 140805-STR-02T contained the major compounds diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol and four unidentified lipids present in minor to moderate amounts. In the polyamine pattern spermidine and spermine were predominant. The fatty acid profile comprising iso-C15 : 0 and anteiso-C15 : 0 as major fatty acids, and was in congruence with those reported for other species of the genus Jeotgalicoccus and thus supported the affiliation of strain 140805-STR-02T to this genus. The results of physiological and biochemical tests allowed a clear phenotypic differentiation of strain 140805-STR-02T from the most closely related species. Strain 140805-STR-02T represents a novel species, for which the names Jeotgalicoccus schoeneichii sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain 140805-STR-02T (=LMG 29445T=CCM 8667T).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.001230DOI Listing
September 2016

Rothia aerolata sp. nov., isolated from exhaust air of a pig barn.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2016 Aug 17;66(8):3102-3107. Epub 2016 May 17.

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Universität Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

A Gram-stain-positive, coccoid, oxidase-negative, non-motile isolate from exhaust air of a pig barn, collected on 17 September 2014 and designated strain 140917-MRSA-09T, was subjected to a comprehensive taxonomic investigation. A comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed highest similarities to Rothia amarae, Rothia terrae and Rothia endophytica (all <97.8 %). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 58.9 mol %. The quinone system consisted of the major menaquinones MK-8 and MK-7. The polar lipid profile of strain 140917-MRSA-09T contained the major lipids diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylglycerol and moderate amounts of dimannosylglyceride and trimannosyldiacylglycerol. The polyamine pattern was composed of the major amines putrescine and spermidine. In the fatty acid profile, iso- and anteiso-branched acids predominated (anteiso-C15 : 0, anteiso-C17 : 0, iso-C16 : 0). The strain showed a chemoheterotrophic metabolism and was able to grow aerobically well on nutrient-rich media at temperatures from 15-36 °C (weak at 42 °C), pH 5.5-9.5 and NaCl concentrations ranging from 0 to 7 % (w/v). Growth under anaerobic conditions was weak. Physiological traits as well as unique traits in the quinone pattern and the fatty acid pattern distinguished strain 140917-MRSA-09T from the most closely related species. All these data showed that strain 140917-MRSA-09T is a representative of a novel species of the genus Rothia, for which we propose the name Rothia aerolata sp. nov. The type strain is 140917-MRSA-09T (=LMG 29446T=CCM 8669T).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijsem.0.001153DOI Listing
August 2016

Automated Image Analysis for Determination of Antibody Titers Against Occupational Bacterial Antigens Using Indirect Immunofluorescence.

Ann Occup Hyg 2016 Jun 28;60(5):643-8. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstraße 40/42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Employees who are exposed to high concentrations of microorganisms in bioaerosols frequently suffer from respiratory disorders. However, etiology and in particular potential roles of microorganisms in pathogenesis still need to be elucidated. Thus, determination of employees' antibody titers against specific occupational microbial antigens may lead to identification of potentially harmful species. Since indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) is easy to implement, we used this technique to analyze immunoreactions in human sera. In order to address disadvantageous inter-observer variations as well as the absence of quantifiable fluorescence data in conventional titer determination by eye, we specifically developed a software tool for automated image analysis. The 'Fluorolyzer' software is able to reliably quantify fluorescence intensities of antibody-bound bacterial cells on digital images. Subsequently, fluorescence values of single cells have been used to calculate non-discrete IgG titers. We tested this approach on multiple bacterial workplace isolates and determined titers in sera from 20 volunteers. Furthermore, we compared image-based results with the conventional manual readout and found significant correlation as well as statistically confirmed reproducibility. In conclusion, we successfully employed 'Fluorolyzer' for determination of titers against various bacterial species and demonstrated its applicability as a useful tool for reliable and efficient analysis of immune response toward occupational exposure to bioaerosols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mew014DOI Listing
June 2016

Detection of airborne bacteria in a duck production facility with two different personal air sampling devices for an exposure assessment.

J Occup Environ Hyg 2015 ;12(2):77-86

a Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health , Berlin , Germany.

Prevalent airborne microorganisms are not well characterized in industrial animal production buildings with respect to their quantity or quality. To investigate the work-related microbial exposure, personal bioaerosol sampling during the whole working day is recommended. Therefore, bioaerosol sampling in a duck hatchery and a duck house with two personal air sampling devices, a filter-based PGP and a NIOSH particle size separator, was performed. Subsequent, quantitative and qualitative analyses were carried out with" culture independent methods. Total cell concentrations (TCC) determined via fluorescence microscopy showed no difference between the two devices. In average, 8 × 10(6) cells/m(3) were determined in the air of the duck hatchery and 5 × 10(7) cells/m(3) in the air of the duck house. A Generated Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) pattern revealed deviant bacterial compositions comparing samples collected with both devices. Clone library analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis from the hatchery's air showed 65% similarity between the two sampling devices. Detailed 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses showed the occurrence of bacterial species like Acinetobacter baumannii, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia sp., and Shigella sp.; and a group of Staphylococcus delphini, S. intermedius, and S. pseudintermedius that provided the evidence of potential exposure to risk group 2 bacteria at the hatchery workplace. Size fractionated sampling with the developed by the Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the German Social Accident Insurance (IFA) device revealed that pathogenic bacteria would deposit in the inhalable, the thorax, and possibly alveolar dust fraction according to EN481. TCC analysis showed the deposition of bacterial cells in the third stage (< 1μm) at the NIOSH device which implies that bacteria can reach deep into the lungs and contaminate the alveolus after inhalation. Nevertheless, both personal sampling devices could be recommended for exposure assessment at agricultural workplaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2014.946514DOI Listing
August 2015

Concentration of bioaerosols in composting plants using different quantification methods.

Ann Occup Hyg 2014 Jul 23;58(6):693-706. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

1.Institute for Prevention and Occupational Medicine of the German Social Accident Insurance, Institute of the Ruhr-University Bochum (IPA), Buerkle-de-la-Camp-Platz 1, 44789 Bochum, Germany.

Background: Bioaerosols (organic dusts) containing viable and non-viable microorganisms and their metabolic products can lead to adverse health effects in exposed workers. Standard quantification methods of airborne microorganisms are mainly based on cultivation, which often underestimates the microbial burden. The aim of the study was to determine the microbial load in German composting plants with different, mainly cultivation-independent, methods. Second purpose was to evaluate which working areas are associated with higher or lower bioaerosol concentrations.

Methods: A total of 124 inhalable dust samples were collected at different workplaces in 31 composting plants. Besides the determination of inhalable dust, particles, and total cell numbers, antigen quantification for moulds (Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Cladosporium spp.) and mites was performed. Concentrations of β-glucans as well as endotoxin and pyrogenic activities were also measured. The number of colony forming units (cfu) was determined by cultivation of moulds and actinomycetes in 36 additional dust samples.

Results: With the exception of particle numbers, concentrations of all determined parameters showed significant correlations (P < 0.0001; r Spearman: 0.40-0.80), indicating a close association between these exposure markers. Colony numbers of mesophilic moulds and actinomycetes correlated also significantly with data of cultivation-independent methods. Exposure levels showed generally large variations. However, all parameters were measured highest in dusty working areas like next to the shredder and during processing with the exception of Cladosporium antigens that were found in the highest concentrations in the delivery area. The lowest concentrations of dust, particles, antigens, and pyrogenic activity were determined in wheel loader cabins (WLCs), which were equipped with an air filtration system.

Conclusion: It was possible to assess the microbial load of air in composting plants with different quantification methods. Since allergic and toxic reactions may be also caused by nonliving microorganisms, cultivation-independent methods may provide additional information about bioaerosol composition. In general, air filtration reduced the bioaerosol exposure shown in WLCs. Due to the fact that the mechanical processing of compost material, e.g. by shredding or sieving is associated with the generation of high bioaerosol concentrations, there is still a need of improved risk assessment and state-of-the-art protective measures in composting plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meu026DOI Listing
July 2014

Quantification of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula in composting plants: assessment of the relevance of S. rectivirgula.

Ann Occup Hyg 2013 Aug 11;57(7):875-83. Epub 2013 Apr 11.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Berlin, Germany.

Exposure to bioaerosols in composting plants can lead to negative health effects on compost workers. Health complaints vary between cough, irritation of the eyes and the skin, sinusitis, or dyspnea among others. It is fact that compost materials harbor high concentrations of microorganisms, which were aerosolized during handling compost. Within the present study, total cell numbers between 3.4 × 10(4) and 1.6 × 10(8) cell counts per m(3) air were determined after 4',6-Diamidin-2-phenylindol DAPI staining in 124 samples from German composting plants. Special attention should be paid to some specific microorganisms, which are able to cause health complaints. Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula, known to be one of the major causes of extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA, also called hypersensitivity pneumonitis, HP), was often found in environments of agricultural production, where the classical form of EAA ('farmer's lung disease') is common, but also in composting plants. In Germany, cases are known where workers had to terminate their work due to this disease. However, up to now, the relevance of S. rectivirgula at composting plants is unexplained. This study showed that high concentrations of airborne S. rectivirgula were found in composting plants similar to that found in agricultural production. Altogether, in 86.7% of the 124 analyzed samples, S. rectivirgula was detected using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Estimated concentrations ranged between 1.24 × 10(2) cell counts of S. rectivirgula per cubic meter air next to the rotted residues and 1.5 × 10(7) cell counts next to a converter. Furthermore, our methodical proceedings were verified. To analyze DNA extraction limits through the amount of cells within one sample, the DNA concentration was compared with total cell counts (TCCs). Altogether, when TCC was <1.4 × 10(5) cells per DNA extraction assay, no DNA was measurable; when TCC reached 3.5 × 10(6) cells, DNA was always detectable by fluorometric method. To overcome limitation of DNA measurement using fluorometric method, samples without measurable DNA were inserted in a PCR assay with universal primers. Results showed that a gain of 37% was possible, when samples were additionally analyzed by universal PCR. Hence, cell counts >2.0 × 10(6) cells were necessary to measure DNA concentrations in 90% of the analyzed samples, whereas cell counts <3.0 × 10(5) are sufficient to detect PCR products. Therefore, sampling of bioaerosols should be done in consideration of the expected cell count per cubic meter air. Note, to get measurable DNA using a fluorometer, >3.5 × 10(6) cells must be sampled for one DNA extraction assay. With this study, the real-time PCR approach for the detection of S. rectivirgula at workplaces in compost plants was revised, and the results revealed that this method is suitable for occupational exposure measurements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/met010DOI Listing
August 2013

Microbial exposure and respiratory dysfunction in poultry hatchery workers.

Environ Sci Process Impacts 2013 Feb 2;15(2):478-84. Epub 2013 Jan 2.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstr. 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Today's modern animal confinement with high stocking density of a single species has resulted in new workplaces that are rarely characterised in regard to microbial exposure. In this study we determine the personal microbial exposure by long term monitoring in a duck hatchery. Four hatchery workers were accompanied for four weeks and on every working day personal bioaerosol sampling and lung function tests were performed. Quantitative and qualitative molecular methods were used for analysing bioaerosol samples. Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analyses showed a unique microbial exposure on eclosion days. By 16S rRNA gene sequence cloning analysis we detected Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter and Enterococcus as predominant bacterial genera. Ducklings' down was identified as a medium for bacterial contamination. Furthermore on eclosion days the four workers showed a decline in lung function over their working shift causing an average FEV 1 decrease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2em30758hDOI Listing
February 2013

Detection of Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula by quantitative real-time PCR.

Ann Occup Hyg 2011 Jul 21;55(6):612-9. Epub 2011 Apr 21.

Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, Berlin, Germany.

The thermophilic actinomycete species Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula has been associated with the exogen allergic alveolitis (EAA). EAA is caused by the inhalation of high amounts of airborne spores that can be found for example in environments of agricultural production, compost facilities, mushroom cultivation rooms, or rooms with technical air moistening. Because of the medical relevance of S. rectivirgula, a reliable detection system is needed. Therefore, a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) primer system was designed, targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the type strain S. rectivirgula DSM 43747(T) and six other S. rectivirgula reference strains. Our investigation showed that S. rectivirgula presumably own four operons of the 16S rRNA gene, which has to be considered for estimation of cell equivalents. Furthermore, the DNA recovery efficiency from these strains was tested in combination with bioaerosol or material sample as well as the influence of non-target DNA to the recovery rate. Results showed a recovery DNA efficiency of 7-55%. The recovery rate of DNA in a mixture with non-target DNA resulted in ∼87%. In summary, a high amplification efficiency using real-time PCR was found, for which estimated concentrations revealed cell numbers of 2.7 × 10(5) cells m(-3) in bioaerosol and 2.8 × 10(6) cells g(-1) fw(-1) in material samples from a duck house. The specificity of the new developed quantification system was shown by generation of two clone libraries from bioarosol samples, from a duck house, and from a composting plant. Totally, the results clearly show the specificity and practicability of the established qPCR assay for detection of S. rectivirgula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mer018DOI Listing
July 2011

Characterization of bacterial contaminants in the air of a duck hatchery by cultivation based and molecular methods.

J Environ Monit 2011 Feb 20;13(2):464-70. Epub 2010 Dec 20.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Today's large-scale poultry production is often accompanied by high concentrations of airborne microorganisms at working places. However, the microbial communities in those bioaerosols are rarely characterised. In this study, we investigated the bacterial population in bioaerosols from a duck hatchery by both cultivation based and molecular methods and compared the results. Depending on used media, concentrations of airborne culturable bacteria varied between 6 × 10(1) and 7 × 10(6) CFU per m(3) air. The corresponding total cell count of DAPI stained cells was 2 × 10(7) cells per m(3) air. 16S rRNA gene analyses of bacterial isolates and clone libraries revealed a low species richness in hatcheries air, respectively. More than 50% of bacterial isolates were phylogenetically most closely related to bacterial species of the risk group 2 (German TRBA). The sequence composition in clone libraries supported the result of cultivation based approaches, whereby sequences assigned to Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter and Enterococcus are the most common. The high concentration of airborne bacteria which are most closely related to species of potential health risk requires further detailed investigations for these bacterial species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c0em00272kDOI Listing
February 2011

Development of a new PCR primer system for selective amplification of Actinobacteria.

FEMS Microbiol Lett 2010 Oct 14;311(2):103-12. Epub 2010 Sep 14.

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

The occurrence of Actinobacteria in water-damaged building materials as well as the clinical relevance of some Actinobacteria (e.g. Saccharopolyspora spp., Mycobacterium spp., Nocardia spp., etc.), led us to develop a detection system to examine the actinobacterial community. A new primer system, Com2xf/Ac1186r (16S rRNA gene based) specific for Actinobacteria was designed. The adequacy for the intended use of the primer system was first investigated in silico using sequences of 164 different species belonging to 75 different genera of the class Actinobacteria. To test the primer specificity in complex environmental samples, four 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were generated (plaster material, compost material, compost plant- and duck house bioaerosols). Overall, 87% of obtained sequences were assigned to actinobacterial genera. To verify the applicability of the new designed primer system in water-damaged building material, 16S rRNA gene clone libraries of 18 different water-damaged materials were screened for their affiliation to Actinobacteria. A total of 88% of all 'Actinobacteria-positive' detected plasmid inserts were affiliated correctly. Results of SSCP-fingerprinting clearly showed differences of the species detected by the Actinobacteria-specific primer system within the different samples. Overall results obtained in this study indicate the applicability of the developed primer system for its intended use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.2010.02069.xDOI Listing
October 2010

Detection of airborne bacteria in a German turkey house by cultivation-based and molecular methods.

Ann Occup Hyg 2010 Nov 18;54(8):934-43. Epub 2010 Aug 18.

Institute for Applied Microbiology, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Today's large-scale poultry production with densely stocked and enclosed production buildings is often accompanied by very high concentrations of airborne microorganisms leading to a clear health hazard for employees working in such environments. Depending on the expected exposure to microorganisms, work has to be performed under occupational safety conditions. In this study, turkey houses bioaerosols were investigated by cultivation-based and molecular methods in parallel to determine the concentrations and the composition of bacterial community. Results obtained with the molecular approach showed clearly its applicability for qualitative exposure measurements. With both, cultivation-based and molecular methods species of microorganism with a potential health risk for employees (Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aerococcus viridans, Pantoea agglomerans, and Shigella flexneri) were identified. These results underline the necessity of adequate protection measures, including the recommendation to wear breathing masks during work in poultry houses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/meq054DOI Listing
November 2010

Analysis of Actinobacteria from mould-colonized water damaged building material.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2010 Aug 26;33(5):260-8. Epub 2010 Jun 26.

Justus-Liebig Universität Giessen, Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Mould-colonized water damaged building materials are frequently co-colonized by actinomycetes. Here, we report the results of the analyses of Actinobacteria on different wall materials from water damaged buildings obtained by both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent methods. Actinobacteria were detected in all but one of the investigated materials by both methods. The detected concentrations of Actinobacteria ranged between 1.8 x 10(4) and 7.6 x 10(7) CFUg(-1) of investigated material. A total of 265 isolates from 17 materials could be assigned to 31 different genera of the class Actinobacteria on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. On the basis of the cultivation-independent approach, 16S rRNA gene inserts of 800 clones (50%) were assigned to 47 different genera. Representatives of the genera Streptomyces, Amycolatopsis, Nocardiopsis, Saccharopolyspora, Promicromonospora, and Pseudonocardia were found most frequently. The results derived from both methods indicated a high abundance and variety of Actinobacteria in water damaged buildings. Four bioaerosol samples were investigated by the cultivation-based approach in order to compare the communities of Actinobacteria in building material and associated air samples. A comparison of the detected genera of bioaerosol samples with those directly obtained from material samples resulted in a congruent finding of 9 of the overall 35 detected genera (25%), whereas four genera were only detected in bioaerosol samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2010.04.006DOI Listing
August 2010

Detection of Jeotgalicoccus spp. in poultry house air.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2010 Jun;33(4):188-92

Bundesanstalt für Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Investigations of bioaerosols collected from turkey, chicken and duck houses, as well as from a duck slaughterhouse, each in triplicate, revealed that 4-18% of 16S rRNA gene sequences in investigated 16S rRNA gene clone libraries were closely related to Jeotgalicoccus spp. J. halotolerans- and J. psychrophilus-related sequences were obtained in all investigated bioaerosol samples and formed a distinct group with sequences of both species type strains, which were collectively entitled Jeot-cluster-I. For a quantification of Jeot-cluster-I bacteria, a group specific PCR primer combination targeting the 16S rRNA genes was developed. Estimated concentrations by quantitative real-time PCR analyses revealed cell numbers between 10(4) and 10(6)Jeotgalicoccus cellsm(-3) air in turkey, duck, and chicken houses, respectively. These results indicated the remarkable proportion (1-39%) of total cell counts and the hitherto unknown wide distribution of Jeotgalicoccus spp. in the poultry rearing industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2010.03.008DOI Listing
June 2010

Quantification and identification of culturable airborne bacteria from duck houses.

Ann Occup Hyg 2010 Mar 30;54(2):217-27. Epub 2009 Dec 30.

Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Nöldnerstrasse 40-42, 10317 Berlin, Germany.

Employees at agricultural working places are often exposed to complex bioaerosols. Investigations of bioaerosols in duck houses revealed concentrations of cultivable bacteria between 0.4 and 3 x 10(5) colony forming units (CFU) m(-3) on tryptone soy agar, 0.3 and 2 x 10(5) CFU m(-3) on actinomycetes isolation agar, and 0.8 and 5 x 10(3) CFU m(-3) on Middlebrook agar, respectively, when incubated at 25 degrees C. At an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C, 0.6-3 x 10(2) CFU m(-3) were counted on MacConkey agar and 0.3-2 x 10(3) CFU m(-3) on Middlebrook agar, and the concentrations of bacteria on glycerol-arginine agar and oatmeal agar incubated at 50 degrees C varied between 0.1 and 2 x 10(3) and 1 and 7 x 10(3) CFU m(-3), respectively. In addition, high concentrations of cells were observed by fluorescence microscope quantification of cell counts after 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindol staining with 3-8 x 10(7) cells m(-3). A total of 213 colonies with different morphological appearance were selected and the isolated pure cultures were identified at the genus level using the 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses. In summary, 19 different genera of Actinobacteria, four genera of the Firmicutes, one genus of the Bacteroidetes, and five genera of the Proteobacteria were identified. Several isolates represent new phylogenetic lineages. Based on 16S rRNA gene analyses, some isolates were most closely related to Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Corynebacterium falsenii, Corynebacterium xerosis, Mycobacterium arupense, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, which have been grouped into Risk group 2 of biological agents and may cause negative pulmonary health effects. These bacterial species were present in high concentrations up to 10(4) CFU m(-3). For this reason, we recommend an adequate personal breathing protection at these working places.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mep088DOI Listing
March 2010

Paenochrobactrum gallinarii gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from air of a duck barn, and reclassification of Pseudochrobactrum glaciei as Paenochrobactrum glaciei comb. nov.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010 Jul 14;60(Pt 7):1493-1498. Epub 2009 Aug 14.

Bundeswehr Institute of Microbiology, D-80937 Munich, Germany.

A Gram-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium (Sa25(T)) was isolated from air of a duck barn. 16S rRNA gene and recA sequence analyses clearly placed the isolate in the vicinity of the Brucella-Ochrobactrum-Pseudochrobactrum group, with the closest relative being Pseudochrobactrum glaciei KMM 3858(T). This allocation was confirmed by analyses of the quinone system (ubiquinone Q-10), fatty acid data (major fatty acids C(18 : 1)omega7c and C(19 : 0) cyclo omega8c) and polar lipid profile (major components diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine and unknown aminolipid AL1; moderate amounts of three unknown polar lipids, L1-L3, an unknown aminolipid and an unknown aminophospholipid APL2). The polyamine pattern of Sa25(T) exhibited the major compound putrescine and moderate amounts of spermidine; a similar polyamine pattern with the major compound putrescine was also detected in Pseudochrobactrum glaciei KMM 3858(T). DNA-DNA hybridization of strain Sa25(T) with Pseudochrobactrum glaciei KMM 3858(T) and the type strains of the other Pseudochrobactrum species showed values ranging from 50.3 to 24.8 %, and physiological and biochemical data clearly differentiated this isolate from the described Pseudochrobactrum species. Since Sa25(T) and Pseudochrobactrum glaciei KMM 3858(T) form a distinct lineage in the 16S rRNA gene sequence-based phylogenetic tree, and this separate position is supported by unique characteristics of their polyamine patterns and polar lipid profiles, we propose the novel genus Paenochrobactrum gen. nov., with the type species Paenochrobactrum gallinarii sp. nov. (type strain Sa25(T) =CCUG 57736(T) =CCM 7656(T)) and the reclassification of Pseudochrobactrum glaciei as Paenochrobactrum glaciei comb. nov. (type strain Pi26(T) =KMM 3858(T) =NRIC 0733(T) =JCM 15115(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.015842-0DOI Listing
July 2010

Direct detection of salmonella cells in the air of livestock stables by real-time PCR.

Ann Occup Hyg 2009 Nov 12;53(8):859-68. Epub 2009 Aug 12.

Institute for Applied Microbiology, Justus-Liebig University of Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 34637 Giessen, Germany.

A SYBR Green real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay for specific detection and quantification of airborne Salmonella cells in livestock housings is presented. A set of specific primers was tested and validated for specific detection and quantification of Salmonella-specific invA genes of DNA extracted from bioaerosol samples. Application of the method to poultry house bioaerosol samples showed concentrations ranging from 2.2 x 10(1) to 3 x 10(6) Salmonella targets m(-3) of air. Salmonella were also detected by a cultivation-based approach in some samples, but concentrations were two to three magnitudes lower than the concentrations detected by molecular biological results. Specificity of results was demonstrated by cloning analyses of PCR products, which were exclusively assigned to the genus Salmonella. However, by molecular methods, microorganisms are detected independently of their viability status, leading to an overestimation of concentration. Hence, the survival rate of Salmonella cells was measured on filter surfaces during filtration samplings where 82% of the cells died within 20 min of filtration. The results clearly show the specificity and practicability of the established qPCR assay for analysis and quantification of salmonellae in bioaerosols. The results demonstrate airborne Salmonella workplace concentrations in poultry production of up to 3.3% of 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole-counted total cell numbers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/annhyg/mep060DOI Listing
November 2009

Pseudofulvimonas gallinarii gen. nov., sp. nov., a new member of the family Xanthomonadaceae.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2010 Jun 11;60(Pt 6):1427-1431. Epub 2009 Aug 11.

Institut für Bakteriologie, Mykologie und Hygiene, Veterinärmedizinische Universität, A-1210 Wien, Austria.

A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, oxidase-positive, non-spore-forming bacterium (Sa15(T)) was isolated from the air in a duck barn. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity studies, the organism was grouped into the class gammaproteobacteria in the neighbourhood of the genus Fulvimonas. The quinone system consisted exclusively of ubiquinone Q-8. The polar lipid profile was mainly composed of the major lipids diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmonomethylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine, and moderate amounts of phosphatidylglycerol and an unidentified lipid. This profile was substantially different from that of Fulvimonas soli LMG 19981(T) examined concurrently. The polyamine pattern showed the predominant amine spermidine. Major fatty acids (iso-C(15 : 0), iso-C(17 : 1)omega9c and iso-C(17 : 0)) were in agreement with its phylogenetic affiliation in the vicinity of Fulvimonas; however, differences in the polar lipid and fatty acid patterns and the polyamine profiles could be observed as well. On the basis of DNA-DNA pairing results, chemotaxonomic data and physiological and biochemical data, the strain can be clearly differentiated from Fulvimonas soli. It is evident that this organism represents a novel genus, for which the name Pseudofulvimonas gallinarii gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain Sa15(T) (=DSM 21944(T) =CCM 7599(T)).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.014548-0DOI Listing
June 2010

Transfer of Defluvibacter lusatiensis to the genus Aquamicrobium as Aquamicrobium lusatiense comb. nov. and description of Aquamicrobium aerolatum sp. nov.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2009 Oct 21;59(Pt 10):2468-70. Epub 2009 Jul 21.

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Universität Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the type strains of Aquamicrobium defluvii and Defluvibacter lusatiensis shows a similarity of 98.3 %. There is no evidence for clear phenotypic differences between these organisms that justifies assignment to different genera. Both have ubiquinone Q-10 as the dominant quinone type and very similar fatty acid profiles, with 18 : 1omega7c and 19 : 0 cyclo omega8c predominating. A proposal is made to transfer Defluvibacter lusatiensis to the genus Aquamicrobium as Aquamicrobium lusatiense comb. nov. (type strain S1(T) =CIP 106844(T) =DSM 11099(T)). Furthermore, a novel species within this genus, Aquamicrobium aerolatum sp. nov., is described, with strain Sa14(T) (=CCUG 57044(T) =DSM 21857(T)), isolated from air in a duck shed, as the type strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.008730-0DOI Listing
October 2009

Thermophilic methanogenic Archaea in compost material: occurrence, persistence and possible mechanisms for their distribution to other environments.

Syst Appl Microbiol 2007 Dec;30(8):634-43

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, D-35392 Giessen, Germany.

Since compost is widely used as soil amendment and the fact that during the processing of compost material high amounts of microorganisms are released into the air, we investigated whether compost may act as a carrier for thermophilic methanogens to temperate soils. All eight investigated compost materials showed a clear methane production potential between 0.01 and 0.98 micromol CH(4) g dw(-1)h(-1) at 50 degrees C. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) and cloning analysis indicated the presence of Methanosarcina thermophila, Methanoculleus thermophilus, and Methanobacterium formicicum. Bioaerosols collected during the turning of a compost pile showed both a highly similar SSCP profile compared to the corresponding compost material and clear methane production during anoxic incubation in selective medium at 50 degrees C. Both observations indicated a considerable release of thermophilic methanogens into the air. To analyse the persistence of compost-borne thermophilic methanogens in temperate oxic soils, we therefore studied their potential activity in compost and compost/soil mixtures, which was brought to a meadow soil, as well as in an agricultural soil fertilised with compost. After 24h anoxic incubation at 50 degrees C, all samples containing compost showed a clear methanogenic activity, even 1 year after application. In combination with the in vitro observed resilience of the compost-borne methanogens against desiccation and UV radiation we assume that compost material acts as an effective carrier for the distribution of thermophilic methanogens by fertilisation and wind.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.syapm.2007.08.001DOI Listing
December 2007

Analysis of airborne microorganisms, MVOC and odour in the surrounding of composting facilities and implications for future investigations.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2008 Mar 23;211(1-2):132-42. Epub 2007 Oct 23.

Institut für Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Juniorprofessur Umwelthygiene - Mykologie und biogene Umweltnoxen, Universitätsklinikum Aachen, Pauwelsstr. 30, 52074 Aachen, Germany.

Emission and dispersal of microorganisms and odours from composting facilities were studied in a 3-year project at nine different composting facilities in Germany. Measurements were carried out under so-called 'normal-case', i.e. typical local climate conditions and working activities within the facilities, and 'real worst-case' conditions ('drainage flow' conditions) being characterized by the translocation of cold air mostly at night, and containing large amounts of bioaerosols. Highest concentrations of microorganisms were observed during turning of compost with a maximum of 2.4x10(6)cfu m(-3) for thermophilic actinomycetes. Other groups of microorganisms were detected in concentrations of about 10(5)cfu m(-3). During shredding of fresh organic material, the concentrations of all microorganisms reached 10(4)cfu m(-3). Here, odour concentrations turned out to be highest (up to 1,367 odour units (OU)m(-3)). At facilities equipped with a biofilter (odour reduction), a decrease in OU by a factor of 10 was observed. In the surrounding of the facilities, highest concentrations ranged between 10(1)-10(3)cfu m(-3) upwind and from 10(1)-10(4)cfu m(-3) downwind. The specific local meteorological situations must be considered carefully in advance and during sampling. Especially 'drainage flow' situations can lead to high microorganism concentrations (>10(4)-10(5)cfu m(-3) of thermophilic actinomycetes and thermophilic fungi) in the surroundings of composting facilities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.05.003DOI Listing
March 2008

Recommendations for study design and sampling strategies for airborne microorganisms, MVOC and odours in the surrounding of composting facilities.

Int J Hyg Environ Health 2008 Mar 31;211(1-2):121-31. Epub 2007 Aug 31.

Institut für Angewandte Mikrobiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 26-32, 35392 Giessen, Germany.

Microorganisms and odour emissions from composting plants often lead to complaints by residents, especially by people living close to such plants. Both parameters were studied in a systematic approach under specific local meteorological conditions at nine different composting plants in Germany with emphasis on dispersal of microorganisms. Measurements were done at emission points and at sampling sites in the downwind and upwind directions of the facilities under 'normal case' (i.e. weather conditions typical for the location in combination with working activities at the plants) and 'real worst case' conditions (dispersal of bioaerosols into the surroundings expected to occur with high probability). Airborne microorganisms were sampled using filtration and impingement. Subsequent cultivation on four different culture media allowed quantification and identification of the culturable microflora. It turned out that a general assessment of emissions and dispersal of bioaerosols from composting plants is not possible because of the coherences of various factors influencing the dispersal. The site-specific meteorological situations must be considered carefully, whenever sampling locations are selected and need to be recorded in any sampling protocol. Air inversions in particular can lead to high concentrations of microorganisms (>10(4)-10(5)cfu m(-3) of thermophilic actinomycetes and thermotolerant fungi) in the surroundings of composting plants. Finally, it was shown that both thermotolerant fungi and thermophilic actinomycetes can serve as indicator organisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijheh.2007.05.004DOI Listing
March 2008