Publications by authors named "Udeme Ekpenyong Ekrikpo"

7 Publications

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Testicular Volume in Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia in Uyo, a South-South Nigerian City.

J Trop Pediatr 2021 08;67(4)

Department of Paediatrics, University of Calabar/University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar 540271, Nigeria.

Introduction: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) often presents in early childhood with repeated vaso-occlusive crisis that leads to ischaemia, infarction and fibrosis which may result in a reduction in expected testicular volume (TV) at puberty.

Method: This was a cross-sectional study of 95 children with SCA aged 1-18 years compared with 95 age-matched controls. Participants responded to an interviewer-administered questionnaire, with their anthropometric measurements taken, pubertal maturity assessed by Tanner staging and testicular ultrasonography done. Changes in TV across the ages were compared graphically and regression analyses were used to determine the factors independently associated with TV. A p-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In the prepubertal period, the haemoglobin SS (HbSS) participants had larger median ultrasound TV (MUSTV) compared to the haemoglobin AA (HbAA) controls (p = 0.001). This trend reversed in the pubertal period. On regression analysis, the frequency of testicular pain (p = 0.04), weight (p = 0.02) and pubic hair rating (p = 0.03) of the HbSS participants were significant predictors of increased TVs in the HbSS participants, irrespective of pubertal status.

Conclusion: The prepubertal MUSTV of the HbSS participants were higher than those of the HbAA controls, while the HbAA controls had higher MUSTV at puberty and beyond. The frequency of testicular pain episodes, pubic hair rating and weight were independent predictors of TV changes in the HbSS participants. Prevention of repeated vaso-occlusive crisis in the prepubertal period may help prevent the reduction in TV and possible hypogonadism. Lay summarySickle cell anaemia (SCA) causes repeated episodes of painful crisis and in boys, these may affect the way their testes grow. The study set out to document testicular sizes on a one-time basis in boys aged 1-18 years with SCA compared with controls of similar ages. The participants responded to structured questions assisted by the researchers and their body measurements were appropriately taken. Their level of sexual maturation was assessed according to the method by Tanner and the sizes of their testes were measured using an ultrasound machine. The research information was analysed and a statistical value less than 0.05 was taken to mean that there was a difference between the measured variables. The mid-testicular sizes of the SCA participants were noted to be higher than that of their controls during the prepubertal period while the non-SCA boys had higher sizes from puberty onwards. The frequency of testicular pain, weight and pubic hair stage of the SCA boys were important contributors to their increased testes sizes, irrespective of pubertal status. Efforts aimed at preventing painful crisis should start during early childhood to forestall future sexual challenges in adulthood.
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August 2021

Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients in Uyo, Nigeria: Are the Demographics Changing?

Niger Med J 2020 Nov-Dec;61(6):345-350. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection poses a great health and economic burden, especially in developing nations where a high burden of disease has been described. A previous study in Uyo shows that some characteristics associated with a higher prevalence of HIV infection include female gender, exposure to tertiary level of education, and late disease presentation. This study aimed at determining the sociodemographic and the clinical characteristics of highly active antiretroviral treatment-naïve (HAART-naïve) HIV-seropositive patients at Uyo, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative study of 210 respondents, composed of 105 HAART-naïve HIV-seropositive patients (subjects) and an equal number of sex- and age-matched HIV-negative individuals (controls). Data were collected using pretested interviewer-administered questionnaires and hospital records. Anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were measured for all the respondents, while clinical and immunologic staging were done for subjects. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS v 20. ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34.5 ± 9.2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.3, with no difference between the subjects and controls ( = 0.880 for age and = 0.943 for gender). Mean body mass index and mean diastolic BP were significantly lower in the subjects ( < 0.001 and 0.037, respectively). Female gender, secondary level of educational attainment, and unskilled employment were significantly associated with HIV infection. Majority of the respondents presented in clinical Stage 1 or 2 disease, with CD4 count >350 cells/ml.

Conclusion: The burden of HIV infection is higher in females and in those with sociodemographic characteristics suggestive of lower socioeconomic status, however, majority of these appeared to present in early disease.
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December 2020

Comparative tetanus antibody response of Nigerian children to diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus and pentavalent vaccines.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2018 Jul-Sep;25(3):137-142

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria.

Background: In Nigeria and many parts of the world, the pentavalent vaccine is replacing the diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus (DPT) vaccine in tetanus prevention.

Aims And Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the anti-tetanus immunoglobulin G (IgG) response of children who received DPT with those who received the pentavalent vaccine.

Subjects And Methods: A cross-sectional survey of anti-tetanus IgG levels in children aged 6 months to 5 years who received DPT and in children who received the pentavalent vaccine. IgG antibody levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The protective level was set at ≥0.1 IU/ml.

Results: One hundred and twenty-two out of 130 children (93.9%) who had received DPT had protective levels of anti-tetanus IgG compared to 278 out of 288 children (96.5%) who had received the pentavalent vaccine. The difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.21). The median IgG antibody level in those who received DPT was 1.1 IU/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 0.4-1.8) compared with 0.6 IU/ml (IQR 0.4-1.4) in those who received pentavalent vaccine (P = 0.006), with age being the only predictor of variability in the multivariate analysis.

Conclusion/recommendation: DPT and pentavalent vaccines are equally effective in inducing protective levels of anti-tetanus IgG in children. Vaccination with the pentavalent vaccine, which is the current policy in Nigeria and many other parts of the world, should continue.
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May 2019

Risk factors for chronic kidney disease in Urban Uyo, South-South, Nigeria.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2016 Sep-Oct;27(5):1011-1017

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.

The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing the world over, and it is now regarded as a public health problem. The prevalence of CKD in Nigeria remained largely unknown with hospital-based data of 2-8%. However, emerging community studies show a prevalence of 10-26.8%. This study was conducted during the 2013 world kidney day activities in Uyo, Akwa Ibom, State of Nigeria, with an estimated population of 554,906 people. Sensitizations of members of the public were ensured through the media. Trained nurses of the dialysis unit were recruited for the exercise. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect demographic data and medical history. Subjects also had measurements of their blood pressure, random blood sugar, urinalysis, serum creatinine, and anthropometric data. Five hundred and two adults (70.6% females and 29.4% males) aged 18-78 years participated in the study. A family history of CKD was found in 4.3% of the study participants. The risk factors for CKD investigated in this population included hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, proteinuria, and hematuria. The prevalence of hypertension in this sample was 30.16% [95% confidence interval (CI) 26.14-34.18%]. Only 12.58% (95% CI 9.54-15.61%) were aware of their hypertension status. There was an increasing trend in the proportion of individuals with hypertension in each higher 10 years age group (P = 0.03). The independent predictors of hypertension in this cohort were age and body mass index. The proportion of those with diabetes mellitus in the study population was 5.8% (95% CI 3.7-7.8%). Obesity was found in 31.8% individuals' proteinuria in 23.5% and hematuria in 3.0%. There is a high prevalence of risk factors for CKD in our population. Therefore, screening for early detection should be encouraged.
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August 2017

Assessment of dyslipidemia in pre-dialysis patients in south-west Nigeria.

Niger Med J 2014 May;55(3):214-9

Department of Internal Medicine, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Majority of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients are more likely to die of cardiovascular complications before reaching end stage renal disease. The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI) recommends that all CKD patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia and for treatment to reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.

Patients And Methods: A cross-sectional case control study to determine the frequency of occurrence of lipid abnormalities in patients with CKD and compare these abnormalities with that of normal controls. A total of 100 patients and 100 controls were recruited for the study. Demographic and clinical data were obtained using structured questionnaire. Weight, height and waist circumference, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure were also obtained. Subjects had their fasting lipid profile and fasting plasma glucose assayed after overnight fast of 8-14 hours. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was obtained using Friedwald formula.

Result: The study revealed that total cholesterol (TC) was elevated above normal levels in 44% of cases compared with 6% in controls (P < 0.001), with the mean (SD) value of 5.82 ± 3.28 mmol/l for cases compared with 3.9 ± 1.0 mmol/l (P < 0.001) in controls. Low density lipoprotein was elevated in 48% of cases compared with 14% in controls (P < 0.001), with the mean (SD) values of 4.15 ± 2.74 mmol/l and 2.57 ± 0.95 mmol/l for cases and controls, respectively, (P < 0.001). Triglyceride (TG) was elevated above normal level in 26% of cases compared with none in the controls (P < 0.001), with the mean (SD) values of 1.41 ± 1.10 mmol/l and 0.64 ± 0.24 mmol/l for cases and controls, respectively (P < 0.001). All Lipid fractions except HDL also correlated significantly with levels of proteinuria TC (r = 0.345, P = 0.001), TG (r = 0.268, P = 0.011) LDL (r = 0.366, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is common among patients with CKD. Regular evaluation of all CKD patients for dyslipidemia and treatment need be instituted.
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May 2014

Association between Urinary N-Acetyl-Beta-D-Glucosaminidase and Microalbuminuria in Diabetic Black Africans.

Int J Nephrol 2012 26;2012:235234. Epub 2012 Aug 26.

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria.

Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of ESRD worldwide and third most common cause in Nigeria. Recent reports from Nigeria indicate the prevalence of diabetic nephropathy as an aetiology of ESRD is increasing necessitating early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy. We measured the urinary excretion of N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), NAG/creatinine ratio, urinary protein-creatinine ratio and calculated eGFR in 30 recently diagnosed nonhypertensive diabetics and 67 controls. The age and sex distribution, systolic blood pressure, serum and urinary creatinine were similar for both groups. There was higher urinary excretion of NAG (304 versus 184 μmol/h/L, P < 0.001) and NAG/creatinine ratio (21.2 versus 15.7 μmol/h/L/mmolCr, P < 0.001) in the diabetics than controls. There was a strong correlation between NAG/creatinine ratio and albumin/creatinine ratio (r = 0.74, P < 0.001). A multivariate linear regression model showed a significant linear relationship between NAG/creatinine ratio and albumin/creatinine ratio after adjusting for the effect of blood pressure, age, sex, and serum creatinine. The strong association found between albumin/creatinine ratio and NAG/creatinine ratio perhaps indicates the need for further investigation of the clinical utility of NAG/creatinine ratio as a screening tool for early nephropathy in African diabetics.
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September 2012

Determining the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) using proteinuria and ultrasound findings in a Nigerian paediatric HIV population.

Pan Afr Med J 2012 22;11:13. Epub 2012 Jan 22.

Department of Paediatric Nephrology, University Of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria.

Background: HIV associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is the most common form of chronic kidney disease resulting directly from HIV infection. The true prevalence of HIVAN in the paediatric population of West Africa is unknown, largely due to lack of surveillance and reporting of kidney disease in HIV positive patients.

Methods: This was a prospective study over a six month period( July to December 2008) conducted in the Infectious Disease Unit of the Department of Paediatrics, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, Uyo, Nigeria involving all confirmed cases of paediatric HIV infection. Urine microalbuminuria using calculated urine albumin - creatinine ratio was determined and repeated in 4 weeks interval. CD4 count and renal ultrasonography was done for all the patients. The correlation of urine albumin - creatinine ratio with CD4 count, duration of treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and association with clinical staging of the disease was also examined.

Results: Fifty - nine (60.2%) were males, thirty - nine (39.8%) were females with male to female ratio of 1.5:1. The prevalence rate of 31.6% HIVAN was found, out of which 3.1% had abnormal ultrasound findings. There was a significant correlation between CD4 count and urine albumin - creatinine ratio (r=-0.22, p=0.03). There was no correlation between urine albumin - creatinine ratio and duration on HAART (r=-0.10, p=0.31).

Conclusion: Screening for microalbuminuria is essential for the early diagnosis and treatment of HIVAN in this age group.
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June 2012