J Affect Disord 2017 11 22;222:126-132. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
Department of Psychiatry, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21201-1549, United States; Rocky Mountain MIRECC, Denver, CO 80220, United States; VISN 5 MIRECC, Baltimore, MD 21201 United States. Electronic address:
Intermittent stimulation of striatal dopaminergic receptors seems to contribute to motor dysfunction in advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). With severe dopaminergic denervation, exogenous levodopa is largely decarboxylated to dopamine in serotonergic terminals. If 5-HT1A autoreceptors regulate dopamine as well as serotonin release, in parkinsonian patients inhibition of striatal serotonergic neuron firing might help maintain more physiological intrasynaptic dopamine concentrations and thus ameliorate motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. To evaluate this hypothesis, effects of a selective 5-HT1A agonist, sarizotan, given orally at 2 and 5 mg twice daily to 18 relatively advanced parkinsonian patients, were compared with baseline placebo function during a 3-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept study. Sarizotan alone or with intravenous levodopa had no effect on parkinsonian severity. But at safe and tolerable doses, sarizotan coadministration reduced levodopa-induced dyskinesias and prolonged its antiparkinsonian response (P < or = 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, our findings suggest that 5-HT1A receptor stimulation in levodopa-treated parkinsonian patients can modulate striatal dopaminergic function and that 5-HT1A agonists may be useful as levodopa adjuvants in the treatment of PD.
Copyright 2005 Movement Disorder Society
PMID: 15791634 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Observations in animal models suggest that A(2A) antagonists confer benefit by modulating dopaminergic effects on the striatal dysfunction associated with motor disability. This double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study evaluated the pathogenic contribution and therapeutic potential of adenosine A(2A) receptor-mediated mechanisms in Parkinson disease (PD) and levodopa-induced motor complications.
Fifteen patients with moderate to advanced PD consented to participate. All were randomized to either the selective A(2A) antagonist KW-6002 or matching placebo capsules in a 6-week dose-rising design (40 and 80 mg/day). Motor function was rated on the Unified PD Rating Scale.
KW-6002 alone or in combination with a steady-state IV infusion of each patient's optimal levodopa dose had no effect on parkinsonian severity. At a low dose of levodopa, however, KW-6002 (80 mg) potentiated the antiparkinsonian response by 36% (p < 0.02), but with 45% less dyskinesia compared with that induced by optimal dose levodopa alone (p < 0.05). All cardinal parkinsonian signs improved, especially resting tremor. In addition, KW-6002 prolonged the efficacy half-time of levodopa by an average of 47 minutes (76%; p < 0.05). No medically important drug toxicity occurred.
The results support the hypothesis that A(2A) receptor mechanisms contribute to symptom production in PD and that drugs able to selectively block these receptors may help palliate symptoms in levodopa-treated patients with this disorder.
Nondopaminergic symptomatic therapies for Parkinson's disease: turn on or turn off? [Neurology. 2003]
PMID: 12913186 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]