Publications by authors named "Ty A Ridenour"

52 Publications

Adolescent and Young Women's Daily Reports of Emotional Context and Episodes of Dating Violence.

J Fam Violence 2021 Apr 19;36(3):271-279. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Boston Medical Center, 850 Harrison Ave, Boston, MA 02118 USA.

Purpose: To investigate same day, previous day, and next day associations between trust, closeness, commitment, jealousy and provision of instrumental support with dating violence victimization and perpetration.

Method: A convenience sample of young women, 16-19 years, in a heterosexual dating relationship with at least one act (past month) of physical or psychological victimization or perpetration, were recruited from urban public locations. Participants answered questions daily via text continuously for four months on dating violence and partner-specific emotions. Daily surveys asked about trust, closeness, commitment for their partner, jealousy, perceptions of partner's jealousy and provision of instrumental support to and from partner, and dating violence victimization and perpetration. Multilevel modeling examined within-relationship associations over time.

Results: Mean (sd) age for the full sample was 18.1 (1.1) years. Same-day emotional context (trust, closeness, commitment, jealousy and provision of instrumental support) was more strongly associated with victimization and perpetration compared to previous day emotions. Strongest same-day positive associations were with partner's perpetration, both partner's jealousy, and females' instrumental support. Partner's jealousy and increased trust were best predictors of next day victimization. Closeness, commitment and trust went down on the day of violence. Perpetration was positively associated with next day commitment. Victimization was positively associated with next day trust.

Conclusions: This event-level analysis demonstrates the role and timing that emotional aspects of adolescent relationships - including positive feelings - have surrounding episodes of dating violence. This granular understanding of the emotional context of dating violence has the potential to facilitate development of effective, developmentally appropriate interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10896-020-00151-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8210854PMC
April 2021

Personal preferences for Personalised Trials among patients with chronic diseases: an empirical Bayesian analysis of a conjoint survey.

BMJ Open 2020 06 7;10(6):e036056. Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Center Behavioral Cardiovascular Health, Columbia University Irving Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Objective: To describe individual patient preferences for Personalised Trials and to identify factors and conditions associated with patient preferences.

Design: Each participant was presented with 18 conjoint questions via an online survey. Each question provided two choices of Personalised Trials that were defined by up to eight attributes, including treatment types, clinician involvement, study logistics and trial burden on a patient.

Setting: Online survey of adults with at least two common chronic conditions in the USA.

Participants: A nationally representative sample of 501 individuals were recruited from the Chronic Illness Panel by Harris Poll Online. Participants were recruited from several sources, including emails, social media and telephone recruitment of the target population.

Main Outcome Measures: The choice of Personalised Trial design that the participant preferred with each conjoint question.

Results: There was large variability in participants' preferences for the design of Personalised Trials. On average, they preferred certain attributes, such as a short time commitment and no cost. Notably, a population-level analysis correctly predicted 62% of the conjoint responses. An empirical Bayesian analysis of the conjoint data, which supported the estimation of individual-level preferences, improved the accuracy to 86%. Based on estimates of individual-level preferences, patients with chronic pain preferred a long study duration (p≤0.001). Asthma patients were less averse to participation burden in terms of data-collection frequency than patients with other conditions (p=0.002). Patients with hypertension were more cost-sensitive (p<0.001).

Conclusion: These analyses provide a framework for elucidating individual-level preferences when implementing novel patient-centred interventions. The data showed that patient preference in Personalised Trials is highly variable, suggesting that individual differences must be accounted for when marketing Personalised Trials. These results have implications for advancing precise interventions in Personalised Trials by indicating when rigorous scientific principles, such as frequent monitoring, is feasible in a substantial subset of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2019-036056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282396PMC
June 2020

Characterizing psychiatric symptoms and neurocognitive functioning among substance-naïve early adolescents: Associations with sleep problems.

Early Interv Psychiatry 2020 08 29;14(4):439-449. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania.

Aim: Evidence consistently links psychiatric symptoms, reduced neurocognitive functioning (NCF) and sleep problems to the initiation of a wide range of risk behaviours. Less is known, however, about the associations between sleep problems with psychiatric symptoms and NCF among early adolescents yet to engage in substance use.

Methods: The present study examined baseline data from an ongoing prospective study of 529 youth aged 10-12 years who completed a battery of instruments measuring symptom counts for four psychiatric disorders, performance on six tests of NCF and five types of sleep behaviour on week days. We used latent class analysis to classify the 473 substance-naïve youth into subtypes characterized by probabilistic patterns of psychiatric symptoms and poorer NCF.

Results: Four subtypes emerged: normative (24% of the sample); nonspecific mental health symptoms (27%); lower neurocognitive function (24%) and comorbid psychiatric symptoms and lower neurocognitive function (25%). In a multivariable latent regression model, three or more sleep arousals per night, sleep phase of two or more hours and sleep latency of 20 minutes or more were significantly associated with the two classes having higher symptom counts. Lack of family support was significantly associated with the two classes having lower neurocognitive function and comorbid psychiatric symptoms.

Conclusions: The youth subtypes in this study provide an important baseline characterization to subsequently understand how these neuropsychiatric relationships may change when substance use and other risk behaviours develop during adolescence. Implications for preventing and treating sleep problems associated with psychiatric comorbidity and neurocognitive dysfunctions are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eip.12869DOI Listing
August 2020

Associations between Child Maltreatment, Harsh Parenting, and Sleep with Adolescent Mental Health.

J Child Fam Stud 2019 Jan 28;28(1):116-130. Epub 2018 Sep 28.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA,

Youth who suffer from psychiatric disorders are at high risk for negative outcomes, including aggression and substance abuse. Although many youth with psychiatric disorders have endured harsh parenting and/or child maltreatment (CM), differential associations between these experiential factors have yet to be fully explored. Sleep problems have also been implicated in psychiatric disorders and are consistently associated with CM. The overlap and unique contributions of CM and sleep problems to the mental health of youth remains unclear; longitudinal studies from late childhood into adolescence, when psychiatric illnesses frequently onset, are rare. The current longitudinal study examined associations of CM, harsh parenting, and sleep problems with symptoms of four psychiatric disorders: Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Anxiety, and Depression. Early adolescent youth with no history of substance use ( = 529) were sampled from a working class, medium-sized city in northern Kentucky, and an extensive battery of tests were administered to youth and a parent. CM was more strongly and consistently related to psychiatric disorder symptoms at baseline than was harsh parenting. Reports of harsh parenting were more strongly associated with externalizing symptoms than internalizing symptoms. Sleep problems were also positively associated with psychiatric disorder symptoms at baseline, but did not exacerbate the effects of CM or harsh parenting on symptom counts. Longitudinally, harsh parenting was more predictive of change in psychiatric symptoms two to three years later than was CM. The potential significance of childhood adversity and sleep problems for prevention of later mental health problems are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-018-1261-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660198PMC
January 2019

Residential Transience Among Adults: Prevalence, Characteristics, and Association with Mental Illness and Mental Health Service Use.

Community Ment Health J 2019 07 11;55(5):784-797. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Division for Statistical & Data Sciences, RTI International, 3040 E. Cornwallis Rd., Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709, USA.

This study examined the association between frequent residential mobility (i.e., residential transience) and mental illness, mental health service use, and unmet need for services. Data are from the 2010 to 2014 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (n = ~ 229,600). Logistic regression models examined the relationship between proximal (past year) and distal (past 2-5 years) residential transience and past year any mental illness (AMI), serious mental illness (SMI), mental health service use among adults with mental illness, and unmet need for services. Adults with transience had greater odds of AMI and SMI than those without transience. Proximal and distal transience were unrelated to past year mental health service use among adults with mental illness, but the odds of unmet need for services were greater among adults with transience compared with those without, suggesting a level of unmet service need among those with transience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10597-019-00385-wDOI Listing
July 2019

Precision Strategies as a Timely and Unifying Framework for Ongoing Prevention Science Advances.

Authors:
Ty A Ridenour

Prev Sci 2019 01;20(1):110-114

RTI International, 4030 E. Cornwallis Rd., 326 Cox Bldg., PO Box 12194, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27709-2194, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-019-0988-8DOI Listing
January 2019

Randomized controlled trial of emotionally focused couple therapy compared to treatment as usual for depression: Outcomes and mechanisms of change.

J Marital Fam Ther 2019 Jul 13;45(3):395-409. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

Utah State University.

This randomized controlled trial examined the effectiveness of Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) for depression and relationship satisfaction versus usual care (i.e., couple therapy other than EFT), and explored mechanisms of change. Mixed model trajectory analyses of 16 couples indicated EFT was associated with greater improvement in relationship satisfaction among men and women. Men receiving EFT reported greater improvements in depressive symptoms compared to usual care. Unified structural equation modeling revealed changes in relationship satisfaction preceded changes in depressive symptoms in one cluster of partners, while changes in depression preceded changes in relationship satisfaction in a second cluster. Two other clusters reported simultaneous changes in satisfaction and depression. This study provides encouraging results on the effectiveness of EFT for depression, and insight into mechanisms of change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jmft.12350DOI Listing
July 2019

Association With Deviant Peers Across Adolescence: Subtypes, Developmental Patterns, and Long-Term Outcomes.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2019 Mar-Apr;48(2):238-249. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

c Division of Behavioral Health and Criminal Justice Research , Research Triangle Institute International.

Indices of deviant peer group involvement are inconsistent and confound type, frequency, and severity of deviant peer behaviors. These measurement approaches thus obfuscate potential meaningful differences in deviant peer involvement in terms of subtypes, developmental patterns, and long-term outcomes. The current study employed latent class analysis to derive subtypes of deviant peer involvement and examined relations to substance use disorder in adulthood, a common outcome of deviant peer involvement. Youth (76% Caucasian) completed assessments across four time points: ages 10-12 years (Time 1; N = 775, 71% male), 12-14 years (Time 2; n = 649, 72% male), 16 years (Time 3; n = 613, 73% male), and 22 years (Time 4; n = 425, 71% male). At Times 1 to 3, participants completed an interview assessing deviant peer involvement. At Time 4, participants completed a structured interview assessing substance use disorder. Classes of youth with different profiles of deviant peer associations were derived at Times 1, 2, and 3. Classes varied by type (conduct problems vs. substance use) and severity of deviant peer behavior. Youth reported higher levels of involvement with deviant peers across adolescence, suggesting that some of these deviant peer behaviors may be normative. Earlier involvement with deviant peers and involvement with groups defined by severe conduct problems and substance use were related to the greatest risk for substance use disorder at Time 4. Type and severity of peer deviant behavior differentially relate to long-term risk for substance use disorder and should be included in screening and assessment for risk across adolescence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2017.1405351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6258354PMC
April 2020

Clinically differentiating life-course-persistent and adolescence-limited conduct problems: Is age-of-onset really enough?

J Appl Dev Psychol 2017 09 26;52:34-45. Epub 2017 Jun 26.

Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA, USA.

One important subtyping of behavior problems is Moffitt's (1993) "life-course-persistent" (LCP) and "adolescent limited" (AL) categories of antisocial behavior, which she differentiated in terms of high impulsivity, poor academic performance, and aggression. These problems may be exacerbated by the cumulative effects of chronic stress. Copious evidence has documented validity and developmental differences between these subtypes, whereas far fewer data exist regarding their clinical utility, in spite of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual's nomenclature including corresponding subtypes based on age-of-onset of behavioral symptoms. The present study evaluated how well age-of-onset based subtyping identifies distinct developmental patterns of antisocial behavior corresponding to Moffitt's subtypes in terms of risk factors and gender between LCP and AL in a prospective sample of chronically stressed youth. A computerized assessment tool (ALEXSA) was used to obtain data from 1,147 youth aged 8-16. Implications for clinical assessment and intervention strategy, particularly with stressed youth, are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appdev.2017.06.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5699469PMC
September 2017

The Clinical Trials Mosaic: Toward a Range of Clinical Trials Designs to Optimize Evidence-Based Treatment.

J Pers Oriented Res 2017 1;3(1):28-48. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology, University of Pittsburgh.

Objective: Dichotomizing clinical trials designs into nomothetic (e.g., randomized clinical trials or RCTs) versus idiographic (e.g., N-of-1 or case studies) precludes use of an array of hybrid designs and potential research questions between these extremes. This paper describes unique clinical evidence that can be garnered using idiographic clinical trials (ICTs) to complement RCT data. Proposed and illustrated herein is that innovative combinations of design features from RCTs and ICTs could provide clinicians with far more comprehensive information for testing treatments, conducting pragmatic trials, and making evidence-based clinical decisions.

Method: Mixed model trajectory analysis and unified structural equations modeling were coupled with multiple baseline designs in (a) a true N-of-1 pilot study to improve severe autism-related communication deficits and (b) a small sample preliminary study of two complimentary interventions to relieve wheelchair discomfort.

Results: Evidence supported certain mechanisms of treatment outcomes and ruled out others. Effect sizes included mean phase differences (i.e., effectiveness), trajectory slopes, and differences in path coefficients between study phases.

Conclusions: ICTs can be analyzed with equivalent rigor as, and generate effect sizes comparable to, RCTs for the purpose of developing hybrid designs to augment RCTs for pilot testing innovative treatment, efficacy research on rare diseases or other small populations, quantifying within-person processes, and conducting clinical trials in many situations when RCTs are not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17505/jpor.2017.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842613PMC
November 2017

The Clinical Trials Mosaic: Toward a Range of Clinical Trials Designs to Optimize Evidence-Based Treatment.

J Pers Oriented Res 2017 1;3(1):28-48. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Rehabilitation Science and Technology, University of Pittsburgh.

Objective: Dichotomizing clinical trials designs into nomothetic (e.g., randomized clinical trials or RCTs) versus idiographic (e.g., N-of-1 or case studies) precludes use of an array of hybrid designs and potential research questions between these extremes. This paper describes unique clinical evidence that can be garnered using idiographic clinical trials (ICTs) to complement RCT data. Proposed and illustrated herein is that innovative combinations of design features from RCTs and ICTs could provide clinicians with far more comprehensive information for testing treatments, conducting pragmatic trials, and making evidence-based clinical decisions.

Method: Mixed model trajectory analysis and unified structural equations modeling were coupled with multiple baseline designs in (a) a true N-of-1 pilot study to improve severe autism-related communication deficits and (b) a small sample preliminary study of two complimentary interventions to relieve wheelchair discomfort.

Results: Evidence supported certain mechanisms of treatment outcomes and ruled out others. Effect sizes included mean phase differences (i.e., effectiveness), trajectory slopes, and differences in path coefficients between study phases.

Conclusions: ICTs can be analyzed with equivalent rigor as, and generate effect sizes comparable to, RCTs for the purpose of developing hybrid designs to augment RCTs for pilot testing innovative treatment, efficacy research on rare diseases or other small populations, quantifying within-person processes, and conducting clinical trials in many situations when RCTs are not feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17505/jpor.2017.03DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842613PMC
November 2017

Biometrics and Policing: A Protocol for Multichannel Sensor Data Collection and Exploratory Analysis of Contextualized Psychophysiological Response During Law Enforcement Operations.

JMIR Res Protoc 2017 Mar 17;6(3):e44. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Behavioral & Urban Health Program, RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States.

Background: Stress experienced by law enforcement officers is often extreme and is in many ways unique among professions. Although past research on officer stress is informative, it is limited, and most studies measure stress using self-report questionnaires or observational studies that have limited generalizability. We know of no research studies that have attempted to track direct physiological stress responses in high fidelity, especially within an operational police setting. The outcome of this project will have an impact on both practitioners and policing researchers. To do so, we will establish a capacity to obtain complex, multisensor data; process complex datasets; and establish the methods needed to conduct idiopathic clinical trials on behavioral interventions in similar contexts.

Objective: The objective of this pilot study is to demonstrate the practicality and utility of wrist-worn biometric sensor-based research in a law enforcement agency.

Methods: We will use nonprobability convenience-based sampling to recruit 2-3 participants from the police department in Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Results: Data collection was conducted in 2016. We will analyze data in early 2017 and disseminate our results via peer reviewed publications in late 2017.

Conclusions: We developed the Biometrics & Policing Demonstration project to provide a proof of concept on collecting biometric data in a law enforcement setting. This effort will enable us to (1) address the regulatory approvals needed to collect data, including human participant considerations, (2) demonstrate the ability to use biometric tracking technology in a policing setting, (3) link biometric data to law enforcement data, and (4) explore project results for law enforcement policy and training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2196/resprot.7499DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5375974PMC
March 2017

Overview on Prevalence and Recent Trends in Adolescent Substance Use and Abuse.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 2016 Jul 16;25(3):349-65. Epub 2016 Apr 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of General Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, University of North Carolina, CB # 7225, 231 MacNider, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA. Electronic address:

Substance use and consequent disorders have burdened US health care, criminal justice, and society at large for centuries. Pathological substance use almost invariably begins before 25 years of age, demonstrating how critical adolescence is within the etiology, prevention, and treatment of substance use disorder. This article provides a high-level overview of the prevalence of substance use disorders to provide a context within which the remaining issue provides in-depth descriptions of the evidence on specific topics. Described herein are trends in substance use, substance use disorder, and demographic comparisons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chc.2016.03.005DOI Listing
July 2016

Internet-based incentives increase blood glucose testing with a non-adherent, diverse sample of teens with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled Trial.

Transl Behav Med 2016 06;6(2):179-88

Institute for Biobehavioral Health Research, National Development and Research Institutes, Inc., Leawood, KS, 66224, USA.

Non-adherence with self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) among teenagers with type 1 diabetes can be a problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of using Internet-based incentives to improve adherence with SMBG in non-adherent teenagers. Participants were randomly assigned to contingent (CS; N = 23), where they had to meet web camera-verified SMBG goals to earn incentives, or non-contingent (NS) groups (N = 18), where they earned incentives independent of adherence. Brief motivational interviewing (MI) was given prior to the intervention. Attrition was 15 % in the CS group. Participants and parents endorsed the intervention on all intervention dimensions. Daily SMBG increased after one MI session, and further increased when incentives were added, but significantly more for so for older participants. SMBG declined slowly over time, but only returned to baseline levels for younger NS participants. Internet-based incentive interventions are feasible, acceptable, and show promise for improving adherence with SMBG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-016-0397-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4927454PMC
June 2016

Neurocognitive Characteristics of Early Marijuana Use Initiation in Adolescents: A Signature Mapping Analysis.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2016 05;77(3):431-40

RTI International, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Objective: Prior studies of the association between neurocognitive functions and marijuana use among adolescents are mostly cross-sectional and conducted in adolescents who have already initiated marijuana use. The current study used a longitudinal design on a preadolescent, substance-naive sample. We sought to identify demographic factors associated with neurocognitive functions and the complement of neurocognitive function characteristics that predict marijuana initiation in adolescents.

Method: Substance-naive adolescents (n = 465) ages 10-12 years (51% male) were recruited from a community with high levels of adolescent marijuana use and prospectively followed to ages 12-15. Tasks measuring neurocognitive functions were administered and audio-assisted interviews were conducted. Two types of models were estimated for each outcome: forced-entry models and another using stepwise selection via bidirectional elimination with varying tolerance levels to account for selection misspecification.

Results: About 10% (n = 49) initiated marijuana use over the study period. Child's age, academic achievement, and parental education were associated with baseline neurocognitive functions; namely, positive emotion attributions and lower impulsivity. Facial recognition-particularly misattribution of sad faces-was the strongest predictor of marijuana initiation, including in the stepwise model (partial OR = 1.3, 95% CI [1.03, 1.63], p < .05) that resulted in the best-fitting model.

Conclusions: Prediction of marijuana initiation was improved in stepwise models compared with forced-entry models. Emotion perception appears to be an early developmental risk factor that is prospectively associated with marijuana initiation; as expected, other neurocognitive functions did not play an interactive role. Future studies of the interrelationships between emotion perception and the myriad other factors implicated in marijuana initiation, including neurocognitive functions not measured here, will provide a more comprehensive understanding of risk for marijuana initiation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4869899PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2016.77.431DOI Listing
May 2016

Illustrating idiographic methods for translation research: moderation effects, natural clinical experiments, and complex treatment-by-subgroup interactions.

Transl Behav Med 2016 Mar;6(1):125-34

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.

A critical juncture in translation research involves the preliminary studies of intervention tools, provider training programs, policies, and other mechanisms used to leverage knowledge garnered at one translation stage into another stage. Potentially useful for such studies are rigorous techniques for conducting within-subject clinical trials, which have advanced incrementally over the last decade. However, these methods have largely not been utilized within prevention or translation contexts. The purpose of this manuscript is to demonstrate the flexibility, wide applicability, and rigor of idiographic clinical trials for preliminary testing of intervention mechanisms. Specifically demonstrated are novel uses of state-space modeling for testing intervention mechanisms of short-term outcomes, identifying heterogeneity in and moderation of within-person treatment mechanisms, a horizontal line plot to refine sampling design during the course of a clinic-based experimental study, and the need to test a treatment's efficacy as treatment is administered along with (e.g., traditional 12-month outcomes).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-015-0357-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807195PMC
March 2016

The full translational spectrum of prevention science: facilitating the transfer of knowledge to practices and policies that prevent behavioral health problems.

Transl Behav Med 2016 Mar;6(1):5-16

University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

A broad-span, six-stage translational prevention model is presented, extending from the basic sciences-taking a multi-level systems approach, including the neurobiological sciences-through to globalization. The application of a very wide perspective of translation research from basic scientific discovery to international policy change promises to elicit sustainable, population-level reductions in behavioral health disorders. To illustrate the conceptualization and actualization of a program of translational prevention research, we walk through each stage of research to practice and policy using an exemplar, callous-unemotional (CU) traits. Basic science has identified neurobiological, psychophysiological, behavioral, contextual, and experiential differences in this subgroup, and yet, these findings have not been applied to the development of more targeted intervention. As a result, there are currently no programs considered especially effective for CU traits, likely because they do not specifically target underlying mechanisms. To prevent/reduce the prevalence of conduct disorder, it is critical that we transfer existing knowledge to subsequent translational stages, including intervention development, implementation, and scaling. And eventually, once resulting programs have been rigorously evaluated, replicated, and adapted across cultural, ethnic, and gender groups, there is potential to institutionalize them as well as call attention to the special needs of this population. In this paper, we begin to consider what resources and changes in research perspectives are needed to move along this translational spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13142-015-0376-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4807200PMC
March 2016

Reward-Modulated Response Inhibition, Cognitive Shifting, and the Orbital Frontal Cortex in Early Adolescence.

J Res Adolesc 2015 Dec 13;25(4):753-764. Epub 2014 Sep 13.

University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic, 3811 O'Hara Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15213.

Immaturities in cognitive shifting are associated with adolescent risk behaviors. The orbital frontal cortex (OFC) regulates reward processing and response inhibition. This study tested the relationship between cognitive shifting, OFC activity, and reward-modulated response inhibition in young adolescents. An fMRI antisaccade (AS) paradigm examined the effects of reward conditions on inhibitory response and OFC processing. A validated self-report inventory assessed cognitive shifting. Compared to neutral, reward trials showed better AS performance and increased OFC activation. Cognitive shifting positively associated with AS performance in reward and neutral trials. Poorer cognitive shifting predicted greater OFC activation. Results indicate lower OFC efficiency, as greater activation to achieve correct performance, underlies cognitive shifting problems. These neurocognitive impairments are relevant for understanding adolescent risk behaviors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12168DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705559PMC
December 2015

Detecting initiation or risk for initiation of substance use before high school during pediatric well-child check-ups.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2015 May 2;150:54-62. Epub 2015 Mar 2.

University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Background: Youth substance use (SU) is prevalent and costly, affecting mental and physical health. American Academy of Pediatrics and Affordable Care Act call for SU screening and prevention. The Youth Risk Index(©) (YRI) was tested as a screening tool for having initiated and propensity to initiate SU before high school (which forecasts SU disorder). YRI was hypothesized to have good to excellent psychometrics, feasibility and stakeholder acceptability for use during well-child check-ups.

Design: A high-risk longitudinal design with two cross-sectional replication samples, ages 9-13 was used. Analyses included receiver operating characteristics and regression analyses.

Participants: A one-year longitudinal sample (N=640) was used for YRI derivation. Replication samples were a cross-sectional sample (N=345) and well-child check-up patients (N=105) for testing feasibility, validity and acceptability as a screening tool.

Results: YRI has excellent test-retest reliability and good sensitivity and specificity for concurrent and one-year-later SU (odds ratios=7.44, CI=4.3-13.0) and conduct problems (odds ratios=7.33, CI=3.9-13.7). Results were replicated in both cross-sectional samples. Well-child patients, parents and pediatric staff rated YRI screening as important, acceptable, and a needed service.

Conclusions: Identifying at-risk youth prior to age 13 could reap years of opportunity to intervene before onset of SU disorder. Most results pertained to YRI's association with concurrent or recent past risky behaviors; further replication ought to specify its predictive validity, especially adolescent-onset risky behaviors. YRI well identifies youth at risk for SU and conduct problems prior to high school, is feasible and valid for screening during well-child check-ups, and is acceptable to stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.02.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4405881PMC
May 2015

Does DSM-5 nomenclature for inhalant use disorder improve upon DSM-IV?

Psychol Addict Behav 2015 Mar 18;29(1):211-7. Epub 2014 Aug 18.

Methodology Center, Pennsylvania State University.

Among drug classes, substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to using inhalants (SUD-I) has perhaps the smallest evidence base. This study compared DSM-IV versus DSM-5 nomenclatures, testing whether 4 traditional categories of inhalants (aerosols, gases, nitrites, solvents) are manifestations of a single pathology, obtaining item parameters of SUD-I criteria, and presenting evidence that SUD can result from using nitrites. An urban, Midwestern, community sample of 162 inhalant users was recruited. Participants were 2/3 male, nearly 85% White, and had a mean age of 20.3 years (SD = 2.4 years), spanning the ages of greatest incidence of SUD and slightly older than the primary ages of inhalants use initiation. Analyses consisted of bivariate associations, principle components analysis, and item response theory analysis. Validity was demonstrated for SUD-I consequent to each inhalant type as well as for aggregating all inhalant types into a single drug class. Results supported DSM-5 nomenclature over DSM-IV in multiple ways except that occurrence of diagnostic orphans was not statistically smaller using DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/adb0000007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4333138PMC
March 2015

Psychological dysregulation during adolescence mediates the association of parent-child attachment in childhood and substance use disorder in adulthood.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2014 Jan;40(1):67-74

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research, University of Pittsburgh School of Pharmacy , Pittsburgh, PA , USA.

Objective: This prospective study tested the hypothesis that psychological dysregulation in mid-adolescence (age 16) mediates the association between parent-child attachment in late childhood (age 10-12) and development of substance use disorder (SUD) in adulthood (age 22).

Method: The Youth Attachment to Parents Scale (YAPS) was developed in 10-12-year-old boys and girls (N = 694) at baseline residing in western Pennsylvania. Psychological dysregulation was measured by the neurobehavior disinhibition trait. Substance use was assessed at ages 10-12, 12-14, 16 and 19. SUD was diagnosed at age 22 using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders. The mediation of parent-child attachment and SUD by neurobehavior disinhibition was tested separately for mothers and fathers while controlling for baseline substance use.

Results: Psychological dysregulation mediates the association between attachment to mothers and SUD, and partially mediates the association between attachment to fathers and SUD. Significant mediation effects remains after controlling for baseline substance use.

Conclusion: Optimal prevention of SUD should include ameliorating both psychological dysregulation predisposing to SUD and quality of the parent-child relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2013.848876DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4321796PMC
January 2014

Towards a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use disorders.

Addiction 2014 Feb 21;109(2):284-94. Epub 2013 Nov 21.

Department of Psychiatry, Columbia University, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA.

Aims: To develop a comprehensive risk-factor model of cannabis use disorders (CUD) based on Kendler's development model for major depression.

Design: Risk factors were divided into five developmental tiers based on Kendler's model of depression (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, past year). Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to examine the independent contribution of each risk factor. Separate models were built to predict the lifetime risk of cannabis use and the risk of CUD among those with a history of lifetime risk of cannabis use.

Setting: Data were drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) in the United States.

Participants: Participants consisted of wave 2 of the NESARC (n = 34 653).

Measurements: Odds ratios (OR), Adjusted OR (AOR) and confidence intervals (95% CI) were used to determine the risk factors in each tier and with multiple models.

Findings: After mutually adjusting for the effect of other risk factors, lifetime history of drug use disorder (AOR = 4.78, 95% CI = 1.53-14.91), past year alcohol use disorders (AOR = 6.55, 95% CI = 2.54-16.89) and independent (AOR = 1.57, 95% CI = 1.15-2.14) and dependent (AOR = 1.25, 95% CI = 1.01-1.55) stressful life events predicted lifetime cannabis use. Impulsivity (AOR = 2.18, 95% CI = 1.34-3.53), past year alcohol use disorders (AOR = 4.09, 95% CI = 2.29-7.31), greater number of Axis I disorders (AOR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.01-2.40) and social deviance (AOR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.08-1.32) independently increased the risk of the development of CUD, whereas religious service attendance (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.30-0.85) decreased this risk. In both models, the effect of earlier development tiers was mediated by more proximal ones. There were few gender differences in both models.

Conclusions: A modification of Kendler's risk factor model for major depression which stratifies risk factors into five groups (childhood, early adolescence, late adolescence, adulthood, past year) provides a useful foundation for a comprehensive developmental model of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/add.12382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3956073PMC
February 2014

Longitudinal associations from neurobehavioral disinhibition to adolescent risky sexual behavior in boys: direct and mediated effects through moderate alcohol consumption.

J Adolesc Health 2013 Oct 20;53(4):465-70. Epub 2013 Jul 20.

Department of Human Development and Family Studies, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado. Electronic address:

Purpose: This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis that neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND) in childhood, mediated by alcohol use, portends risky sexual behavior (number of sexual partners) in midadolescence.

Methods: Participants were 410 adolescent boys. Neurobehavioral disinhibition was assessed at 11.3 years of age. Frequency and quantity of alcohol use on a typical drinking occasion were assessed at 13.4 years of age at first follow-up, and sexual behavior at 16.0 years at second follow-up.

Results: Quantity of alcohol consumed on a typical drinking occasion, but not frequency of alcohol use, mediated the relation between ND and number of sexual partners.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that number of sexual partners in midadolescence is predicted by individual differences in boys' psychological self-regulation during childhood and moderate alcohol consumption in early adolescence, and that ND may be a potential target for multi-outcome public health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.05.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3783650PMC
October 2013

High and low neurobehavior disinhibition clusters within locales: implications for community efforts to prevent substance use disorder.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2013 May;39(3):194-203

School of Pharmacy, Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Background: Knowledge of where substance use and other such behavioral problems frequently occur has aided policing, public health, and urban planning strategies to reduce such behaviors. Identifying locales characterized by high childhood neurobehavioral disinhibition (ND), a strong predictor of substance use and consequent disorder (SUD), may likewise improve prevention efforts.

Objectives: The distribution of ND in 10-12-year olds was mapped to metropolitan Pittsburgh, PA, and tested for clustering within locales.

Methods: The 738 participating families represented the population in terms of economic status, race, and population distribution. ND was measured using indicators of executive cognitive function, emotion regulation, and behavior control. Innovative geospatial analyzes statistically tested clustering of ND within locales while accounting for geographic barriers (large rivers, major highways), parental SUD severity, and neighborhood quality.

Results: Clustering of youth with high and low ND occurred in specific locales. Accounting for geographic barriers better delineated where high ND is concentrated, areas which also tended to be characterized by greater parental SUD severity and poorer neighborhood quality.

Conclusions And Significance: Offering programs that have been demonstrated to improve inhibitory control in locales where youth have high ND on average may reduce youth risk for SUD and other problem behaviors. As demonstrated by the present results, geospatial analysis of youth risk factors, frequently used in community coalition strategies, may be improved with greater statistical and measurement rigor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2013.764884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3912733PMC
May 2013

Transitioning from DSM-IV abuse to dependence: the essence of harmful compulsive substance use is ontogenetic and dynamic.

Authors:
Ty A Ridenour

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2013 May;39(3):139-41

Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00952990.2013.797988DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4136746PMC
May 2013

Toward rigorous idiographic research in prevention science: comparison between three analytic strategies for testing preventive intervention in very small samples.

Prev Sci 2013 Jun;14(3):267-78

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research, University of Pittsburgh, 3520 Forbes Avenue, 2nd Floor, Room 226, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA.

Psychosocial prevention research lacks evidence from intensive within-person lines of research to understand idiographic processes related to development and response to intervention. Such data could be used to fill gaps in the literature and expand the study design options for prevention researchers, including lower-cost yet rigorous studies (e.g., for program evaluations), pilot studies, designs to test programs for low prevalence outcomes, selective/indicated/adaptive intervention research, and understanding of differential response to programs. This study compared three competing analytic strategies designed for this type of research: autoregressive moving average, mixed model trajectory analysis, and P-technique. Illustrative time series data were from a pilot study of an intervention for nursing home residents with diabetes (N = 4) designed to improve control of blood glucose. A within-person, intermittent baseline design was used. Intervention effects were detected using each strategy for the aggregated sample and for individual patients. The P-technique model most closely replicated observed glucose levels. ARIMA and P-technique models were most similar in terms of estimated intervention effects and modeled glucose levels. However, ARIMA and P-technique also were more sensitive to missing data, outliers and number of observations. Statistical testing suggested that results generalize both to other persons as well as to idiographic, longitudinal processes. This study demonstrated the potential contributions of idiographic research in prevention science as well as the need for simulation studies to delineate the research circumstances when each analytic approach is optimal for deriving the correct parameter estimates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0311-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3782303PMC
June 2013

Mentoring early-career preventionists: current views from mentors and protégés.

Prev Sci 2012 Oct;13(5):493-503

Child and Family Center, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR, USA.

In prevention science, much of the training occurs outside of a formal graduate program and mentorship is invaluable to early-career individuals. A sample of the Society for Prevention Research (SPR) membership (N = 97) from a wide range of career levels completed an online questionnaire in spring 2010. Almost 20% identified as mentors, 32% as protégés, and 49% as both a mentor and a protégé. Most mentoring relationships were established in graduate school, but professional organizations such as SPR facilitated nearly one in five mentoring relationships. Qualitative results suggested that participants value their professional organization's support of mentoring and would support initiatives to increase mentoring relationships specifically among SPR members. Although all mentor functions and protégé responsibilities were rated as important, professional support was the highest ranked mentor function and taking initiative the highest ranked protégé responsibility. Additionally, the qualitative results revealed that interpersonal skills and commitment to the mentoring process were seen as key to positive mentoring relationships. We also found that formal documentation of mentoring agreements was rare and a slight preference for a match on gender or ethnicity was observed for protégés from nondominant groups. The discussion includes implications for individuals and implications for promoting high-quality mentoring within professional organizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-012-0276-3DOI Listing
October 2012
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