Publications by authors named "Turgut Tatlisumak"

297 Publications

Declining mortality of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Sep 18. Epub 2021 Sep 18.

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: High mortality rates have been reported in patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) due to vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) after vaccination with adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether mortality of patients with CVST-VITT has decreased over time.

Methods: We used the EudraVigilance database of the European Medicines Agency to identify cases of CVST with concomitant thrombocytopenia occurring within 28 days of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. Vaccines were grouped based on vaccine type (adenoviral or mRNA). Cases with CVST onset until 28 March were compared to cases after 28 March 2021, which was the day when the first scientific paper on VITT was published.

Results: We identified 270 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia, of which 266 (99%) occurred after adenoviral vector SARS-CoV-2 vaccination (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 n=243, Ad26.COV2.S n=23). Reported mortality among adenoviral cases with onset up to 28 March 2021 was 47/99 (47%, 95%CI 37-58%) compared to 36/167 (22%, 95%CI 16-29%) in cases with onset after 28 March (p=<0.001). None of the 4 cases of CVST with thrombocytopenia occurring after mRNA vaccination died.

Conclusion: Reported mortality of CVST with thrombocytopenia after vaccination with adenoviral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines has significantly decreased over time, which may indicate a beneficial effect of earlier recognition and/or improved treatment on outcome after VITT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15113DOI Listing
September 2021

Genome-wide association study identifies first locus associated with susceptibility to cerebral venous thrombosis.

Ann Neurol 2021 Aug 30. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Department of Molecular and Translational Medicine, Division of Biology and Genetics, University of Brescia, Italy.

Objective: Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is an uncommon form of stroke affecting mostly young individuals. Although genetic factors are thought to play a role in this cerebrovascular condition, its genetic etiology is not well understood.

Methods: Genome-wide association study performed to identify genetic variants influencing susceptibility to CVT. A two-stage genome-wide study was undertaken in 882 Europeans diagnosed with CVT and 1205 ethnicity-matched control subjects divided into discovery and independent replication datasets.

Results: In the overall case-control cohort, we identified highly significant associations with 37 SNPs within 9q34.2 region. The strongest association was with rs8176645 (combined P = 9.15 × 10 ; OR = 2.01, 95%CI: 1.76-2.31). The discovery set findings were validated across an independent European cohort. Genetic risk score for this 9q34.2 region increases CVT risk by a pooled estimate OR = 2.65 (95%CI: 2.21-3.20, P = 2.00 × 10 ). SNPs within this region were in strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) with coding regions of the ABO gene. ABO blood group was determined using allele combination of SNPs rs8176746 and rs8176645. Blood groups A, B or AB, were at 2.85 times (95%CI: 2.32-3.52, P = 2.00 × 10 ) increased risk of CVT compared with individuals with blood group-O.

Interpretation: We present the first chromosomal region to robustly associate with a genetic susceptibility to CVT. This region more than doubles the likelihood of CVT, a risk greater than any previously identified thrombophilia genetic risk marker. That the identified variant is in strong LD with the coding region of the ABO gene with differences in blood group prevalence provides important new insights into the pathophysiology of CVT. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.26205DOI Listing
August 2021

Cerebral small-vessel disease is associated with the severity of diabetic retinopathy in type 1 diabetes.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Aug;9(1)

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: Cerebral small-vessel disease is common in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes. The retinal vasculature is thought to mirror the brain's vasculature, but data on this association are limited in type 1 diabetes. Our aim was to study associations between diabetic retinopathy severity and cerebral small-vessel disease in type 1 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 189 participants with type 1 diabetes (median age 40 (33-45) years; 53% female; diabetes duration 21.6 (18.2-30.7) years) and 29 healthy age-matched and sex-matched controls as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study. Participants underwent a clinical investigation, brain MRI, and fundus imaging. Signs of cerebral small-vessel disease in brain MRIs were analyzed in relation to diabetic retinopathy severity (Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) score).

Results: In type 1 diabetes, participants with cerebral small-vessel disease had higher ETDRS scores (35 (20-61) vs 20 (20-35), p=0.022) and a higher prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy than those without cerebral small-vessel disease (25% vs 9%, p=0.002). In adjusted analysis, proliferative diabetic retinopathy was associated with cerebral small-vessel disease (OR 2.57 (95% CI 1.04 to 6.35)). Median ETDRS score (35 (20-65) vs 20 (20-35), p=0.024) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy prevalence were higher (29% vs 13%, p=0.002) in participants with versus without cerebral microbleeds. ETDRS scores increased by number of cerebral microbleeds (p=0.001), both ETDRS score (OR 1.05 (95% CI 1.02 to 1.09)) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (8.52 (95% CI 1.91 to 37.94)) were associated with >2 cerebral microbleeds in separate multivariable analysis. We observed no association with white matter hyperintensities or lacunar infarcts.

Conclusions: Presence of cerebral small-vessel disease on brain MRI, particularly cerebral microbleeds, is associated with the severity of diabetic retinopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386215PMC
August 2021

Does prior administration of rtPA influence acute ischemic stroke clot composition? Findings from the analysis of clots retrieved with mechanical thrombectomy from the RESTORE registry.

J Neurol 2021 Aug 20. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Physiology and Galway Neuroscience Centre, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland.

Background And Purpose: There is still much debate whether bridging-therapy [intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) prior to mechanical thrombectomy (MT)] might be beneficial compared to MT alone. We investigated the effect of IVT on size and histological composition of the clots retrieved from patients undergoing bridging-therapy or MT alone.

Methods: We collected mechanically extracted thrombi from 1000 acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients included in RESTORE registry. Patients were grouped according to the administration (or not) of IVT before thrombectomy. Gross photos of each clot were taken and Extracted Clot Area (ECA) was measured using ImageJ software. Martius Scarlett Blue stain was used to characterize the main histological clot components [red blood cells (RBCs), fibrin (FIB), platelets/other (PTL)] and Orbit Image Analysis was used for quantification. Additionally, we calculated the area of each main component by multiplying the component percent by ECA. Chi-squared and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for statistical analysis.

Results: 451 patients (45%) were treated with bridging-therapy while 549 (55%) underwent MT alone. When considering only percent histological composition, we did not find any difference in RBC% (P = 0.895), FIB% (P = 0.458) and PTL% (P = 0.905). However, bridging-therapy clots were significantly smaller than MT-alone clots [32.7 (14.8-64.9) versus 36.8 (20.1-79.8) mm, N = 1000, H1 = 7.679, P = 0.006*]. A further analysis expressing components per clot area showed that clots retrieved from bridging-therapy cases contained less RBCs [13.25 (4.29-32.06) versus 14.97 (4.93-39.80) mm, H1 = 3.637, P = 0.056] and significantly less fibrin [9.10 (4.62-17.98) versus 10.54 (5.57-22.48) mm, H1 = 7.920, P = 0.005*] and platelets/other [5.04 (2.26-11.32) versus 6.54 (2.94-13.79) mm, H1 = 9.380, P = 0.002*] than MT-alone clots.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that previous IVT administration significantly reduces thrombus size, proportionally releasing all the main histological components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10758-5DOI Listing
August 2021

Ultra-Early Differential Diagnosis of Acute Cerebral Ischemia and Hemorrhagic Stroke by Measuring the Prehospital Release Rate of GFAP.

Clin Chem 2021 Aug 11. Epub 2021 Aug 11.

Neurology and Clinical Neurosciences, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: Plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and tau are promising markers for differentiating acute cerebral ischemia (ACI) and hemorrhagic stroke (HS), but their prehospital dynamics and usefulness are unknown.

Methods: We performed ultra-sensitivite single-molecule array (Simoa®) measurements of plasma GFAP and total tau in a stroke code patient cohort with cardinal stroke symptoms [National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) ≥3]. Sequential sampling included 2 ultra-early samples, and a follow-up sample on the next morning.

Results: We included 272 cases (203 ACI, 60 HS, and 9 stroke mimics). Median (IQR) last-known-well to sampling time was 53 (35-90) minutes for initial prehospital samples, 90 (67-130) minutes for secondary acute samples, and 21 (16-24) hours for next morning samples. Plasma GFAP was significantly higher in patients with HS than ACI (P < 0.001 for <1 hour and <3 hour prehospital samples, and <3 hour secondary samples), while total tau showed no intergroup difference. The prehospital GFAP release rate (pg/mL/minute) occurring between the 2 very early samples was significantly higher in patients with HS than ACI [2.4 (0.6-14.1)] versus 0.3 (-0.3-0.9) pg/mL/minute, P < 0.001. For cases with <3 hour prehospital sampling (ACI n = 178, HS n = 59), a combined rule (prehospital GFAP >410 pg/mL, or prehospital GFAP 90-410 pg/mL together with GFAP release >0.6 pg/mL/minute) enabled ruling out HS with high certainty (NPV 98.4%) in 68% of patients with ACI (sensitivity for HS 96.6%, specificity 68%, PPV 50%).

Conclusions: In comparison to single-point measurement, monitoring the prehospital GFAP release rate improves ultra-early differentiation of stroke subtypes. With serial measurement GFAP has potential to improve future prehospital stroke diagnostics .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/clinchem/hvab128DOI Listing
August 2021

EndoVAscular treatment and ThRombolysis for Ischemic Stroke Patients (EVA-TRISP) registry: basis and methodology of a pan-European prospective ischaemic stroke revascularisation treatment registry.

BMJ Open 2021 08 9;11(8):e042211. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Neurology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Purpose: The Thrombolysis in Ischemic Stroke Patients (TRISP) collaboration was a concerted effort initiated in 2010 with the purpose to address relevant research questions about the effectiveness and safety of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT). The collaboration also aims to prospectively collect data on patients undergoing endovascular treatment (EVT) and hence the name of the collaboration was changed from TRISP to EVA-TRISP. The methodology of the former TRISP registry for patients treated with IVT has already been published. This paper focuses on describing the EVT part of the registry.

Participants: All centres committed to collecting predefined variables on consecutive patients prospectively. We aim for accuracy and completeness of the data and to adapt local databases to investigate novel research questions. Herein, we introduce the methodology of a recently constructed academic investigator-initiated open collaboration EVT registry built as an extension of an existing IVT registry in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS).

Findings To Date: Currently, the EVA-TRISP network includes 20 stroke centres with considerable expertise in EVT and maintenance of high-quality hospital-based registries. Following several successful randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many important clinical questions remain unanswered in the (EVT) field and some of them will unlikely be investigated in future RCTs. Prospective registries with high-quality data on EVT-treated patients may help answering some of these unanswered issues, especially on safety and efficacy of EVT in specific patient subgroups.

Future Plans: This collaborative effort aims at addressing clinically important questions on safety and efficacy of EVT in conditions not covered by RCTs. The TRISP registry generated substantial novel data supporting stroke physicians in their daily decision making considering IVT candidate patients. While providing observational data on EVT in daily clinical practice, our future findings may likewise be hypothesis generating for future research as well as for quality improvement (on EVT). The collaboration welcomes participation of further centres willing to fulfill the commitment and the outlined requirements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-042211DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354282PMC
August 2021

MRI Radiomic Signature of White Matter Hyperintensities Is Associated With Clinical Phenotypes.

Front Neurosci 2021 12;15:691244. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine and Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Objective: Neuroimaging measurements of brain structural integrity are thought to be surrogates for brain health, but precise assessments require dedicated advanced image acquisitions. By means of quantitatively describing conventional images, radiomic analyses hold potential for evaluating brain health. We sought to: (1) evaluate radiomics to assess brain structural integrity by predicting white matter hyperintensities burdens (WMH) and (2) uncover associations between predictive radiomic features and clinical phenotypes.

Methods: We analyzed a multi-site cohort of 4,163 acute ischemic strokes (AIS) patients with T2-FLAIR MR images with total brain and WMH segmentations. Radiomic features were extracted from normal-appearing brain tissue (brain mask-WMH mask). Radiomics-based prediction of personalized WMH burden was done using ElasticNet linear regression. We built a radiomic signature of WMH with stable selected features predictive of WMH burden and then related this signature to clinical variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA).

Results: Radiomic features were predictive of WMH burden ( = 0.855 ± 0.011). Seven pairs of canonical variates (CV) significantly correlated the radiomics signature of WMH and clinical traits with respective canonical correlations of 0.81, 0.65, 0.42, 0.24, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.15 (FDR-corrected -values < 0.001, -value = 0.012). The clinical CV1 was mainly influenced by age, CV2 by sex, CV3 by history of smoking and diabetes, CV4 by hypertension, CV5 by atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes, CV6 by coronary artery disease (CAD), and CV7 by CAD and diabetes.

Conclusion: Radiomics extracted from T2-FLAIR images of AIS patients capture microstructural damage of the cerebral parenchyma and correlate with clinical phenotypes, suggesting different radiographical textural abnormalities per cardiovascular risk profile. Further research could evaluate radiomics to predict the progression of WMH and for the follow-up of stroke patients' brain health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2021.691244DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8312571PMC
July 2021

Genetic Variation Is Associated with Post-Reperfusion Therapy Parenchymal Hematoma. A GWAS Meta-Analysis.

J Clin Med 2021 Jul 16;10(14). Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, 08025 Barcelona, Spain.

Stroke is one of the most common causes of death and disability. Reperfusion therapies are the only treatment available during the acute phase of stroke. Due to recent clinical trials, these therapies may increase their frequency of use by extending the time-window administration, which may lead to an increase in complications such as hemorrhagic transformation, with parenchymal hematoma (PH) being the more severe subtype, associated with higher mortality and disability rates. Our aim was to find genetic risk factors associated with PH, as that could provide molecular targets/pathways for their prevention/treatment and study its genetic correlations to find traits sharing genetic background. We performed a GWAS and meta-analysis, following standard quality controls and association analysis (fastGWAS), adjusting age, NIHSS, and principal components. FUMA was used to annotate, prioritize, visualize, and interpret the meta-analysis results. The total number of patients in the meta-analysis was 2034 (216 cases and 1818 controls). We found rs79770152 having a genome-wide significant association (beta 0.09, -value 3.90 × 10) located in the gene and a suggestive variant (rs13297983: beta 0.07, -value 6.10 × 10) located in associated with PH occurrence. The genetic correlation showed a shared genetic background of PH with Alzheimer's disease and white matter hyperintensities. In addition, genes containing the ten most significant associations have been related to aggregated amyloid-β, tau protein, white matter microstructure, inflammation, and matrix metalloproteinases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10143137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8305811PMC
July 2021

Post-SARS-CoV-2-vaccination cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: an analysis of cases notified to the European Medicines Agency.

Eur J Neurol 2021 Jul 22. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health, Neurology Service, Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, Portugal.

Background And Purpose: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) has been described after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. The clinical characteristics of 213 post-vaccination CVST cases notified to the European Medicines Agency are reported.

Methods: Data on adverse drug reactions after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination notified until 8 April 2021 under the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Term 'Central nervous system vascular disorders' were obtained from the EudraVigilance database. Post-vaccination CVST was compared with 100 European patients with CVST from before the COVID-19 pandemic derived from the International CVST Consortium.

Results: In all, 213 CVST cases were identified: 187 after AstraZeneca/Oxford (ChAdOx1 nCov-19) vaccination and 26 after a messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination (25 with Pfizer/BioNTech, BNT162b2, and one with Moderna, mRNA-1273). Thrombocytopenia was reported in 107/187 CVST cases (57%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 50%-64%) in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, in none in the mRNA vaccine group (0%, 95% CI 0%-13%) and in 7/100 (7%, 95% CI 3%-14%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. In the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 39 (21%) reported COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction tests were performed within 30 days of CVST symptom onset, and all were negative. Of the 117 patients with a reported outcome in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group, 44 (38%, 95% CI 29%-47%) had died, compared to 2/10 (20%, 95% CI 6%-51%) in the mRNA vaccine group and 3/100 (3%, 95% CI 1%-8%) in the pre-COVID-19 group. Mortality amongst patients with thrombocytopenia in the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 group was 49% (95% CI 39%-60%).

Conclusions: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis occurring after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination has a clinical profile distinct from CVST unrelated to vaccination. Only CVST after ChAdOx1 nCov-19 vaccination was associated with thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ene.15029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8444640PMC
July 2021

Endothelial Dysfunction is Associated With Early-Onset Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke in Men and With Increasing Age.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 6;10(14):e020838. Epub 2021 Jul 6.

Department of Neurology Helsinki University Hospital and Clinical NeurosciencesUniversity of Helsinki Finland.

Background The aim of this study was to assess the association between endothelial function and early-onset cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS), with subgroup analyses stratified by sex and age groups. Methods and Results We prospectively enrolled 136 consecutive patients aged 18 to 49 years (median age, 41 years; 44% women) with a recent CIS and 136 age- and sex-matched (±5 years) stroke-free controls. Endothelial function was measured with an EndoPAT 2000 device and analyzed as tertiles of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index with lower values reflecting dysfunction. We used conditional logistic regression adjusting for age, education, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, current smoking, heavy drinking, obesity, and diet score to assess the independent association between endothelial function and CIS. Patients in the lowest tertile of natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index were more often men and they more frequently had a history of dyslipidemia; they were also more often obese, had a lower diet score, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. In the entire cohort, we found no association in patients with endothelial function and CIS compared with stroke-free controls. In sex- and age-specific analyses, endothelial dysfunction was associated with CIS in men (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 3.50 for lowest versus highest natural logarithm of reactive hyperemia index tertile; 95% CI, 1.22-10.07) and in patients ≥41 years (OR, 5.78; 95% CI, 1.52-21.95). These associations remained significant when dyslipidemia was replaced with the ratio of total to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions Endothelial dysfunction appears to be an independent player in early-onset CIS in men and patients approaching middle age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020838DOI Listing
July 2021

Non-invasive electrical brain stimulation for vision restoration after stroke: An exploratory randomized trial (REVIS).

Restor Neurol Neurosci 2021 ;39(3):221-235

Institute of Medical Psychology, Otto-v.-Guericke University of Magdeburg Medical Faculty, Magdeburg, Germany.

Background: Occipital strokes often cause permanent homonymous hemianopia leading to significant disability. In previous studies, non-invasive electrical brain stimulation (NIBS) has improved vision after optic nerve damage and in combination with training after stroke.

Objective: We explored different NIBS modalities for rehabilitation of hemianopia after chronic stroke.

Methods: In a randomized, double-blinded, sham-controlled, three-armed trial, altogether 56 patients with homonymous hemianopia were recruited. The three experiments were: i) repetitive transorbital alternating current stimulation (rtACS, n = 8) vs. rtACS with prior cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the intact visual cortex (tDCS/rtACS, n = 8) vs. sham (n = 8); ii) rtACS (n = 9) vs. sham (n = 9); and iii) tDCS of the visual cortex (n = 7) vs. sham (n = 7). Visual functions were evaluated before and after the intervention, and after eight weeks follow-up. The primary outcome was change in visual field assessed by high-resolution and standard perimetries. The individual modalities were compared within each experimental arm.

Results: Primary outcomes in Experiments 1 and 2 were negative. Only significant between-group change was observed in Experiment 3, where tDCS increased visual field of the contralesional eye compared to sham. tDCS/rtACS improved dynamic vision, reading, and visual field of the contralesional eye, but was not superior to other groups. rtACS alone increased foveal sensitivity, but was otherwise ineffective. All trial-related procedures were tolerated well.

Conclusions: This exploratory trial showed safety but no main effect of NIBS on vision restoration after stroke. However, tDCS and combined tDCS/rtACS induced improvements in visually guided performance that need to be confirmed in larger-sample trials.NCT01418820 (clinicaltrials.gov).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/RNN-211198DOI Listing
January 2021

Frequency of Thrombocytopenia and Platelet Factor 4/Heparin Antibodies in Patients With Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Prior to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

JAMA 2021 07;326(4):332-338

Department of Neurology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Importance: Cases of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis in combination with thrombocytopenia have recently been reported within 4 to 28 days of vaccination with the ChAdOx1 nCov-19 (AstraZeneca/Oxford) and Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccines. An immune-mediated response associated with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies has been proposed as the underlying pathomechanism.

Objective: To determine the frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, and presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies in patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a descriptive analysis of a retrospective sample of consecutive patients diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis between January 1987 and March 2018 from 7 hospitals participating in the International Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis Consortium from Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Sweden, Mexico, Iran, and Costa Rica. Of 952 patients, 865 with available baseline platelet count were included. In a subset of 93 patients, frozen plasma samples collected during a previous study between September 2009 and February 2016 were analyzed for the presence of platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies.

Exposures: Diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Frequencies of admission thrombocytopenia (platelet count <150 ×103/μL), heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (as diagnosed by the treating physician), and platelet factor 4/heparin IgG antibodies (optical density >0.4, in a subset of patients with previously collected plasma samples).

Results: Of 865 patients (median age, 40 years [interquartile range, 29-53 years], 70% women), 73 (8.4%; 95% CI, 6.8%-10.5%) had thrombocytopenia, which was mild (100-149 ×103/μL) in 52 (6.0%), moderate (50-99 ×103/μL) in 17 (2.0%), and severe (<50 ×103/μL) in 4 (0.5%). Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies was diagnosed in a single patient (0.1%; 95% CI, <0.1%-0.7%). Of the convenience sample of 93 patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis included in the laboratory analysis, 8 (9%) had thrombocytopenia, and none (95% CI, 0%-4%) had platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies.

Conclusions And Relevance: In patients with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, baseline thrombocytopenia was uncommon, and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies were rare. These findings may inform investigations of the possible association between the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and Ad26.COV2.S COVID-19 vaccines and cerebral venous sinus thrombosis with thrombocytopenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2021.9889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8317004PMC
July 2021

Neurofilament Light Chain (NfL) in Blood-A Biomarker Predicting Unfavourable Outcome in the Acute Phase and Improvement in the Late Phase after Stroke.

Cells 2021 Jun 18;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Melbourne 3010, Australia.

Increased sensitivity of methods assessing the levels of neurofilament light chain (NfL), a neuron-specific intermediate filament protein, in human plasma or serum, has in recent years led to a number of studies addressing the utility of monitoring NfL in the blood of stroke patients. In this review, we discuss that elevated blood NfL levels after stroke may reflect several different neurobiological processes. In the acute and post-acute phase after stroke, high blood levels of NfL are associated with poor clinical outcome, and later on, the blood levels of NfL positively correlate with secondary neurodegeneration as assessed by MRI. Interestingly, increased blood levels of NfL in individuals who survived stroke for more than 10 months were shown to predict functional improvement in the late phase after stroke. Whereas in the acute phase after stroke the injured axons are assumed to be the main source of blood NfL, synaptic turnover and secondary neurodegeneration could be major contributors to blood NfL levels in the late phase after stroke. Elevated blood NfL levels after stroke should therefore be interpreted with caution. More studies addressing the clinical utility of blood NfL assessment in stroke patients are needed before the inclusion of NfL in the clinical workout as a useful biomarker in both the acute and the chronic phase after stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10061537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235722PMC
June 2021

Initiation of antidepressants in young adults after ischemic stroke: a registry-based follow-up study.

J Neurol 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Department of Neurology, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Haartmaninkatu 4, 00029, Helsinki, Finland.

Objective: Data on post-stroke use of antidepressants in young individuals are scarce. We examined pattern and factors associated with initiating post-stroke antidepressants (PSAD) after ischemic stroke (IS) in young adults.

Methods: Helsinki Young Stroke Registry includes patients aged 15-49 years with first-ever IS, 1994-2007. Data on prescriptions, hospitalizations and death came from nationwide registers. We defined time of initiating PSAD as time of the first filled prescription for antidepressants within 1 year from IS. We assessed factors associated with initiating PSAD with multivariable Cox regression models, allowing for time-varying effects when appropriate.

Results: We followed 888 patients, of which 206 (23.2%) initiated PSAD. Higher hazard of starting PSAD within the first 100 days appeared among patients with mild versus no limb paresis 2.53 (95% confidence interval 1.48-4.31) and during later follow-up among those with silent infarcts (2.04; 1.27-3.28), prior use of antidepressants (2.09; 1.26-3.46) and moderate versus mild stroke (2.06; 1.18-3.58). The relative difference in the hazard rate for moderate-severe limb paresis persisted both within the first 100 days (3.84, 2.12-6.97) and during later follow-up (4.54; 2.51-8.23). The hazard rate was higher throughout the follow-up among smokers (1.48; 1.11-1.97) as well as lower (1.78; 1.25-2.54) and upper white-collar workers (2.00; 1.24-3.23) compared to blue-collar workers.

Conclusion: One-fourth of young adults started PSADs within 1 year from IS. We identified several specific clinical characteristics associated with PSAD initiation, highlighting their utility in assessing the risk of post-stroke depression during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-021-10678-4DOI Listing
June 2021

Cervical Artery Dissection and Sports.

Front Neurol 2021 31;12:663830. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Neurology and Stroke Center, University Hospital Basel and University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Cervical artery dissection (CeAD) occurring in the context of sports is a matter of concern for CeAD patients. They seek advice on the role of sports in CeAD and on the safety of resuming sports after CeAD. The scarcity of studies and guidelines addressing these issues poses a challenge. We aimed at summarizing the current knowledge about CeAD and sports in order to provide an informed, comprehensive opinion for counseling CeAD patients. We took into account pathophysiological considerations, observations of cases reports, series, and registries, and conclusions by analogy from aortic dissection or inherited connective tissue syndromes. In summary, practicing active sports as the cause of CeAD seems uncommon. It seems recommendable to refrain from any kind of sports activities for at least 1 month, which can be extended in case of an unfavorable clinical or neurovascular course. We recommend starting with sport activities at low intensity-preferably with types of endurance sports-and to gradually increase the pace in an individually tailored manner, taking into circumstances of the occurrences of the CeAD in the individual patient (particularly in relation to sports), the meaning of sports activities for the individual well-being, the presence or absence of comorbidities and of neurological sequela, neurovascular findings, and whether there are signs of an underlying connective tissue alteration. Major limitations and several forms of bias are acknowledged. Still, in the absence of any better data, the summarized observations and considerations might help clinicians in advising and counseling patients with CeAD in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.663830DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200565PMC
May 2021

Outcome after acute ischemic stroke is linked to sex-specific lesion patterns.

Nat Commun 2021 06 2;12(1):3289. Epub 2021 Jun 2.

Department of Neurology, Washington University School of Medicine & Barnes-Jewish Hospital, St Louis, MO, USA.

Acute ischemic stroke affects men and women differently. In particular, women are often reported to experience higher acute stroke severity than men. We derived a low-dimensional representation of anatomical stroke lesions and designed a Bayesian hierarchical modeling framework tailored to estimate possible sex differences in lesion patterns linked to acute stroke severity (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale). This framework was developed in 555 patients (38% female). Findings were validated in an independent cohort (n = 503, 41% female). Here, we show brain lesions in regions subserving motor and language functions help explain stroke severity in both men and women, however more widespread lesion patterns are relevant in female patients. Higher stroke severity in women, but not men, is associated with left hemisphere lesions in the vicinity of the posterior circulation. Our results suggest there are sex-specific functional cerebral asymmetries that may be important for future investigations of sex-stratified approaches to management of acute ischemic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23492-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8172535PMC
June 2021

Carotid intima-media thickness and arterial stiffness in relation to cerebral small vessel disease in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes.

Acta Diabetol 2021 Jul 20;58(7):929-937. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Folkhälsan Institute of Genetics, Folkhälsan Research Center, Helsinki, Finland.

Aims: To determine if arterial functional and structural changes are associated with underlying cerebral small vessel disease in neurologically asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes.

Methods: We enrolled 186 individuals (47.8% men; median age 40.0, IQR 33.0-45.0 years) with type 1 diabetes (median diabetes duration of 21.6, IQR 18.2-30.3 years), and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, as part of the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy (FinnDiane) Study. All individuals underwent a biochemical work-up, brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound of the common carotid arteries and arterial tonometry. Arterial structural and functional parameters were assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), pulse wave velocity and augmentation index.

Results: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) were present in 23.7% and white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) in 16.7% of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Those with type 1 diabetes and CMBs had higher median (IQR) CIMT 583 (525 - 663) μm than those without 556 (502 - 607) μm, p = 0.016). Higher CIMT was associated with the presence of CMBs (p = 0.046) independent of age, eGFR, ApoB, systolic blood pressure, albuminuria, history of retinal photocoagulation and HbA. Arterial stiffness and CIMT were increased in individuals with type 1 diabetes and WMHs compared to those without; however, these results were not independent of cardiovascular risk factors.

Conclusions: Structural, but not functional, arterial changes are associated with underlying CMBs in asymptomatic individuals with type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00592-021-01678-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8187193PMC
July 2021

Single nucleotide variations in ZBTB46 are associated with post-thrombolytic parenchymal haematoma.

Brain 2021 Sep;144(8):2416-2426

Department of Neurology, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, IIB-Sant Pau, Barcelona 08025, Spain.

Haemorrhagic transformation is a complication of recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator treatment. The most severe form, parenchymal haematoma, can result in neurological deterioration, disability, and death. Our objective was to identify single nucleotide variations associated with a risk of parenchymal haematoma following thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. A fixed-effect genome-wide meta-analysis was performed combining two-stage genome-wide association studies (n = 1904). The discovery stage (three cohorts) comprised 1324 ischaemic stroke individuals, 5.4% of whom had a parenchymal haematoma. Genetic variants yielding a P-value < 0.05 1 × 10-5 were analysed in the validation stage (six cohorts), formed by 580 ischaemic stroke patients with 12.1% haemorrhagic events. All participants received recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator; cases were parenchymal haematoma type 1 or 2 as defined by the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) criteria. Genome-wide significant findings (P < 5 × 10-8) were characterized by in silico functional annotation, gene expression, and DNA regulatory elements. We analysed 7 989 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms and identified a genome-wide association locus on chromosome 20 in the discovery cohort; functional annotation indicated that the ZBTB46 gene was driving the association for chromosome 20. The top single nucleotide polymorphism was rs76484331 in the ZBTB46 gene [P = 2.49 × 10-8; odds ratio (OR): 11.21; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.82-26.55]. In the replication cohort (n = 580), the rs76484331 polymorphism was associated with parenchymal haematoma (P = 0.01), and the overall association after meta-analysis increased (P = 1.61 × 10-8; OR: 5.84; 95% CI: 3.16-10.76). ZBTB46 codes the zinc finger and BTB domain-containing protein 46 that acts as a transcription factor. In silico studies indicated that ZBTB46 is expressed in brain tissue by neurons and endothelial cells. Moreover, rs76484331 interacts with the promoter sites located at 20q13. In conclusion, we identified single nucleotide variants in the ZBTB46 gene associated with a higher risk of parenchymal haematoma following recombinant tissue-plasminogen activator treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8418348PMC
September 2021

Timing of initiation of oral anticoagulants in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation comparing posterior and anterior circulation strokes.

Eur Stroke J 2020 Dec 22;5(4):374-383. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Internal Medicine, San Giuseppe Hospital, Empoli, Italy.

Introduction: The aim of this study in patients with acute posterior ischaemic stroke (PS) and atrial fibrillation (AF) was to evaluate (1) the risks of recurrent ischaemic event and severe bleeding and (2) these risks in relation with oral anticoagulant therapy (OAT) and its timing.

Materials And Methods: Patients with PS were prospectively included; the outcome events of these patients were compared with those of patients with anterior stroke (AS) which were taken from previous registries. The primary outcome was the composite of stroke recurrence, transient ischaemic attack, symptomatic systemic embolism, symptomatic cerebral bleeding and major extracranial bleeding occurring within 90 days from acute stroke.

Results: A total of 2470 patients were available for the analysis: 473 (19.1%) with PS and 1997 (80.9%) with AS. Over 90 days, 213 (8.6%) primary outcome events were recorded: 175 (8.7%) in patients with AS and 38 (8.0%) in those with PS. In patients who initiated OAT within 2 days, the primary outcome occurred in 5 out of 95 patients (5.3%) with PS compared to 21 out of 373 patients (4.3%) with AS (OR 1.07; 95% CI 0.39-2.94). In patients who initiated OAT between days 3 and 7, the primary outcome occurred in 3 out of 103 patients (2.9%) with PS compared to 26 out of 490 patients (5.3%) with AS (OR 0.54; 95% CI 0.16-1.80).

Discussion: our findings suggest that, when deciding the time to initiate oral anticoagulation, the location of stroke, either anterior or posterior, does not predict the risk of outcome events.

Conclusions: Patients with PS or AS and AF appear to have similar risks of ischaemic or haemorrhagic events at 90 days with no difference concerning the timing of initiation of OAT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2396987320937116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856592PMC
December 2020

Early Neurological Change After Ischemic Stroke Is Associated With 90-Day Outcome.

Stroke 2021 01 15;52(1):132-141. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Neurology, Son Espases University Hospital, IdISBa, Palma de Mallorca, Spain (C.V.-B., R.D.-N., S.T., C.J.).

Background And Purpose: Large-scale observational studies of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) promise to reveal mechanisms underlying cerebral ischemia. However, meaningful quantitative phenotypes attainable in large patient populations are needed. We characterize a dynamic metric of AIS instability, defined by change in National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (NIHSS) from baseline to 24 hours baseline to 24 hours (NIHSS - NIHSS = ΔNIHSS), to examine its relevance to AIS mechanisms and long-term outcomes.

Methods: Patients with NIHSS prospectively recorded within 6 hours after onset and then 24 hours later were enrolled in the GENISIS study (Genetics of Early Neurological Instability After Ischemic Stroke). Stepwise linear regression determined variables that independently influenced ΔNIHSS. In a subcohort of tPA (alteplase)-treated patients with large vessel occlusion, the influence of early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation on ΔNIHSS was examined. Finally, the association of ΔNIHSS with 90-day favorable outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) was assessed. Independent analysis was performed using data from the 2 NINDS-tPA stroke trials (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke rt-PA).

Results: For 2555 patients with AIS, median baseline NIHSS was 9 (interquartile range, 4-16), and median ΔNIHSS was 2 (interquartile range, 0-5). In a multivariable model, baseline NIHSS, tPA-treatment, age, glucose, site, and systolic blood pressure independently predicted ΔNIHSS (R=0.15). In the large vessel occlusion subcohort, early sustained recanalization and hemorrhagic transformation increased the explained variance (R=0.27), but much of the variance remained unexplained. ΔNIHSS had a significant and independent association with 90-day favorable outcome. For the subjects in the 2 NINDS-tPA trials, ΔNIHSS was similarly associated with 90-day outcomes.

Conclusions: The dynamic phenotype, ΔNIHSS, captures both explained and unexplained mechanisms involved in AIS and is significantly and independently associated with long-term outcomes. Thus, ΔNIHSS promises to be an easily obtainable and meaningful quantitative phenotype for large-scale genomic studies of AIS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/STROKEAHA.119.028687DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7769959PMC
January 2021

Per-pass analysis of acute ischemic stroke clots: impact of stroke etiology on extracted clot area and histological composition.

J Neurointerv Surg 2020 Dec 9. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

Background: Initial studies investigating correlations between stroke etiology and clot composition are conflicting and do not account for clot size as determined by area. Radiological studies have shown that cardioembolic strokes are associated with shorter clot lengths and lower clot burden than non-cardioembolic clots.

Objective: To report the relationship between stroke etiology, extracted clot area, and histological composition at each procedural pass.

Methods: As part of the multi-institutional RESTORE Registry, the Martius Scarlett Blue stained histological composition and extracted clot area of 612 per-pass clots retrieved from 441 patients during mechanical thrombectomy procedures were quantified. Correlations with clinical and procedural details were investigated.

Results: Clot composition varied significantly with procedural passes; clots retrieved in earlier passes had higher red blood cell content (H4=11.644, p=0.020) and larger extracted clot area (H4=10.730, p=0.030). Later passes were associated with significantly higher fibrin (H4=12.935, p=0.012) and platelets/other (H4=15.977, p=0.003) content and smaller extracted clot area. Large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) clots were significantly larger in the extracted clot area and more red blood cell-rich than other etiologies in passes 1-3. Cardioembolic and cryptogenic clots had similar histological composition and extracted clot area across all procedural passes.

Conclusion: LAA clots are larger and associated with a large red blood cell-rich extracted clot area, suggesting soft thrombus material. Cardioembolic clots are smaller in the extracted clot area, consistent in composition and area across passes, and have higher fibrin and platelets/other content than LAA clots, making them stiffer clots. The per-pass histological composition and extracted clot area of cryptogenic clots are similar to those of cardioembolic clots, suggesting similar formation mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/neurintsurg-2020-016966DOI Listing
December 2020

Large Artery Atherosclerotic Clots are Larger than Clots of other Stroke Etiologies and have Poorer Recanalization rates.

J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis 2021 Jan 24;30(1):105463. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Sweden.

Objectives: There is a paucity of knowledge in the literature relating to the extent of clot burden and stroke etiology. In this study, we measured the Extracted Clot Area (ECA) retrieved during endovascular treatment (EVT) and investigated relationships with suspected etiology, administration of intravenous thrombolysis and recanalization.

Materials And Methods: As part of the multi-institutional RESTORE registry, the ECA retrieved during mechanical thrombectomy was quantified using ImageJ. The effect of stroke etiology (Large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA), Cardioembolism, Cryptogenic and other) and recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) on ECA and recanalization outcome (mTICI) was assessed. Successful recanalization was described as mTICI 2c-3.

Results: A total of 550 patients who underwent EVT with any clot retrieved were included in the study. The ECA was significantly larger in the LAA group compared to all other etiologies. The average ECA size of each etiology was; LAA=109 mm, Cardioembolic=52 mm, Cryptogenic=47 mm and Other=52 mm (p=0.014*). LAA patients also had a significantly poorer rate of successful recanalization (mTICI 2c-3) compared to all other etiologies (p=0.003*). The administration of tPA was associated with a smaller ECA in both LAA (p=0.007*) and cardioembolic (p=0.035*) groups.

Conclusion: The ECA of LAA clots was double the size of all other etiologies and this is associated with a lower rate of successful recanalization in LAA stroke subtype. rtPA administration prior to thrombectomy was associated with reduced ECA in LAA and CE clots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jstrokecerebrovasdis.2020.105463DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755299PMC
January 2021

Genome-wide association study of intracranial aneurysms identifies 17 risk loci and genetic overlap with clinical risk factors.

Nat Genet 2020 12 16;52(12):1303-1313. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Research, Innovation and Education, Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Rupture of an intracranial aneurysm leads to subarachnoid hemorrhage, a severe type of stroke. To discover new risk loci and the genetic architecture of intracranial aneurysms, we performed a cross-ancestry, genome-wide association study in 10,754 cases and 306,882 controls of European and East Asian ancestry. We discovered 17 risk loci, 11 of which are new. We reveal a polygenic architecture and explain over half of the disease heritability. We show a high genetic correlation between ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms. We also find a suggestive role for endothelial cells by using gene mapping and heritability enrichment. Drug-target enrichment shows pleiotropy between intracranial aneurysms and antiepileptic and sex hormone drugs, providing insights into intracranial aneurysm pathophysiology. Finally, genetic risks for smoking and high blood pressure, the two main clinical risk factors, play important roles in intracranial aneurysm risk, and drive most of the genetic correlation between intracranial aneurysms and other cerebrovascular traits.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-020-00725-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7116530PMC
December 2020

MRI Characterization of Non-traumatic Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Young Adults.

Front Neurol 2020 29;11:558680. Epub 2020 Oct 29.

Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Center, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.

Non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in younger population is a relatively rare event but is associated with considerable mortality and poor functional outcome. Imaging plays a crucial role in determining the underlying cause and guide treatment of ICH. In up to 41% of patients in prior studies, the underlying cause remained elusive. However, the usage of MRI as part of diagnostic work-up was scanty. We aimed to analyze MRI findings of ICH in younger patients and assess specificity and sensitivity of MRI in detecting structural or local underlying causes of ICH. We included patients aged 15-49 years with first-ever ICH identified from a prospective hospital discharge registry, 2000-2010. All study patients underwent MRI within 3 months of ICH. Imaging data was analyzed by a senior neuroradiologist blinded to final clinical diagnosis. We calculated the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in detecting structural/local underlying causes. Of our 116 patients (median age, 39; 67% males), structural/local causes were the leading causes of ICH (50.0%), and of these, bleeding cavernomas (23.3%) were the most frequent followed by arteriovenous malformations (12.9%), cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) (7.8%), brain tumors (5.2%), and moyamoya disease (0.9%). Lobar location of ICH was more prevalent in younger patients. MRI was highly sensitive (90.0%; 95% confidence interval, 79.5-96.2%) for detection of structural/local causes compared with angiographic imaging (55.6%; 95% CI, 40.0-70.4%), while MRI was less specific (87.3%; 95% CI, 75.5-94.7%) for structural/local causes, compared with angiographic imaging (97.4%; 95% CI, 86.5-99.9%). MRI was highly sensitive for the detection of structural and local causes underlying ICH in young adults. Thus, MRI should be considered in the diagnostic work-up of all young ICH patients to enable targeted secondary prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2020.558680DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7658320PMC
October 2020

Multi-ancestry genetic study in 5,876 patients identifies an association between excitotoxic genes and early outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.

medRxiv 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

During the first hours after stroke onset neurological deficits can be highly unstable: some patients rapidly improve, while others deteriorate. This early neurological instability has a major impact on long-term outcome. Here, we aimed to determine the genetic architecture of early neurological instability measured by the difference between NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) within six hours of stroke onset and NIHSS at 24h (ΔNIHSS). A total of 5,876 individuals from seven countries (Spain, Finland, Poland, United States, Costa Rica, Mexico and Korea) were studied using a multi-ancestry meta-analyses. We found that 8.7% of ΔNIHSS variance was explained by common genetic variations, and also that early neurological instability has a different genetic architecture than that of stroke risk. Seven loci (2p25.1, 2q31.2, 2q33.3, 4q34.3, 5q33.2, 6q26 and 7p21.1) were genome-wide significant and explained 2.1% of the variability suggesting that additional variants influence early change in neurological deficits. We used functional genomics and bioinformatic annotation to identify the genes driving the association from each loci. eQTL mapping and SMR indicate that (log Bayes Factor (LBF)=6.34) was driving the association for 2q33.3. Gene based analyses suggested that (LBF=5.26), which is predominantly expressed in brain, is the gene driving the association for the 5q33.2 locus. These analyses also nominated (LBF=5.30) and (LBF=5.70) for the 6q26 and 7p21.1 loci. Human brain single nuclei RNA-seq indicates that the gene expression of and is enriched in neurons. , a pre-synaptic protein, and , a protein subunit of the AMPA receptor, are part of a synaptic protein complex that modulates neuronal excitability. These data provides the first evidence in humans that excitotoxicity may contribute to early neurological instability after acute ischemic stroke.

Research Into Context: No previous genome-wide association studies have investigated the genetic architecture of early outcomes after ischemic stroke. This is the first study that investigated genetic influences on early outcomes after ischemic stroke using a genome-wide approach, revealing seven genome-wide significant loci. A unique aspect of this genetic study is the inclusion of all of the major ethnicities by recruiting from participants throughout the world. Most genetic studies to date have been limited to populations of European ancestry. The findings provide the first evidence that genes implicating excitotoxicity contribute to human acute ischemic stroke, and demonstrates proof of principle that GWAS of acute ischemic stroke patients can reveal mechanisms involved in ischemic brain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.10.29.20222257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7654887PMC
November 2020

The administration of rtPA before mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke patients is associated with a significant reduction of the retrieved clot area but it does not influence revascularization outcome.

J Thromb Thrombolysis 2021 Feb 16;51(2):545-551. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Physiology and Galway Neuroscience Centre, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway, University Road, Galway, Ireland.

Both intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and mechanical thrombectomy (MT) are evidence-based treatments for acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in selected cases. Recanalization may occur following IVT without the necessity of further interventions or requiring a subsequent MT procedure. IVT prior to MT (bridging-therapy) may be associated with benefits or hazards. We studied the retrieved clot area and degree of recanalization in patients undergoing MT or bridging-therapy for whom it was possible to collect thrombus material. We collected mechanically extracted thrombi from 550 AIS patients from four International stroke centers. Patients were grouped according to the administration (or not) of IVT before thrombectomy and the mechanical thrombectomy approach used. We assessed the number of passes for clot removal and the mTICI (modified Treatment In Cerebral Ischemia) score to define revascularization outcome. Gross photos of each clot were taken and the clot area was measured with ImageJ software. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. 255 patients (46.4%) were treated with bridging-therapy while 295 (53.6%) underwent MT alone. By analysing retrieved clot area, we found that clots from patients treated with bridging-therapy were significantly smaller compared to those from patients that underwent MT alone (H = 10.155 p = 0.001*). There was no difference between bridging-therapy and MT alone in terms of number of passes or final mTICI score. Bridging-therapy was associated with significantly smaller retrieved clot area compared to MT alone but it did not influence revascularization outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11239-020-02279-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7886731PMC
February 2021

Late seizures in cerebral venous thrombosis.

Neurology 2020 09 5;95(12):e1716-e1723. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

From the Department of Neurology (M.S.v.K., S.M.S., S.M.Z., J.M.C.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Clinical Neuroscience (E.L., J.Z., P.R., T.T., K.J.), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Department of Neurology (E.L., J.Z., P.R., T.T., K.J.), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Neurology (S.H., T.T., J.P.), Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neurology (M.R.H., M.A.), Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland; National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez (F.S., A.A.), Mexico City, Mexico; Sina Hospital (M.M., M.G.), Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology) (D.A.d.S., P.C., J.M.F.), Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN; University of Lisbon (D.A.d.S., P.C., J.M.F.), Portugal; Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences (S.A.-A., M.N.M.P.), Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (E.E., N.Y.), Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey; Neurosciences Department (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. R.A. Calderón Guardia, CCSS, San José, Costa Rica; and Department of Biomedicine, Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics (V.A., P.A.), University of Palermo, Italy.

Objective: To examine the incidence, characteristics, treatment, and predictors of late seizures (LS) after cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), we described these features in a registry of 1,127 patients with CVT.

Methods: We included consecutive adult patients from an international consortium of 12 hospital-based CVT registries. We excluded patients with a history of epilepsy or with <8 days of follow-up. We defined LS as seizures occurring >7 days after diagnosis of CVT. We used multivariable Cox regression to identify predictors of LS.

Results: We included 1,127 patients with CVT. During a median follow-up of 2.0 years (interquartile range [IQR] 1.0-6.3), 123 patients (11%) experienced ≥1 LS (incidence rate for first LS 30 per 1,000 person-years, 95% confidence interval [CI] 25-35). Median time to first LS was 5 months (IQR 1-16 months). Baseline predictors of LS included status epilepticus in the acute phase (hazard ratio [HR] 7.0, 95% CI 3.9-12.6), decompressive hemicraniectomy (HR 4.2, 95% CI 2.4-7.3), acute seizure(s) without status epilepticus (HR 4.1, 95% CI 2.5-6.5), subdural hematoma (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.1-4.9), and intracerebral hemorrhage (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1-3.1). Eighty-five patients (70% of patients with LS) experienced a recurrent seizure during follow-up, despite the fact that 94% received antiepileptic drug treatment after the first LS.

Conclusion: During a median follow-up of 2 years, ≈1 in 10 patients with CVT had LS. Patients with baseline intracranial bleeding, patients with acute symptomatic seizures, and those who underwent decompressive hemicraniectomy were at increased risk of developing LS. The high recurrence risk of LS justifies epilepsy diagnosis after a first LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000010576DOI Listing
September 2020

Acute symptomatic seizures in cerebral venous thrombosis.

Neurology 2020 09 5;95(12):e1706-e1715. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

From the Department of Clinical Neuroscience (E.L., J.Z., P.R., A. Ahmed, T.T., K.J.), Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg; Department of Neurology (E.L., J.Z., P.R., A. Ahmed, T.T., K.J.), Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Neurology (S.M.S., S.M.Z., M.S.v.K., J.M.C.), Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (S.H., T.T., J.P.), Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Finland; Department of Neurology (M.R.H., M.A.), Inselspital, Bern University Hospital and University of Bern, Switzerland; National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery Manuel Velasco Suarez (F.S., A. Arauz), Mexico City, Mexico; Department of Neurology (M.d.S., T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospitals and Department of Medicine, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia; Sina Hospital (M.M., M.G.), Hamadan University of Medical Science, Iran; Department of Neurosciences and Mental Health (Neurology) (D.A.d.S., J.M.F.), Hospital de Santa Maria/CHULN; University of Lisbon (D.A.d.S., J.M.F.); Faculdade de Medicina (S.P.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Manchester Centre for Clinical Neurosciences (S.A.-A., M.N.M.P.), Salford Royal NHS Foundation Trust, UK; Department of Neurology (E.E., N.Y.), Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey; Neurosciences Department (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. R.A. Calderón Guardia, CCSS, San José, Costa Rica; and Department of Biomedicine (V.A., P.A.), Neuroscience and Advanced Diagnostics, University of Palermo, Italy.

Objective: To identify characteristics, predictors, and outcomes of acute symptomatic seizures (ASS) in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), we investigated 1,281 consecutive adult patients with CVT included from 12 hospitals within the International CVT Consortium.

Methods: We defined ASS as any seizure between symptom onset and 7 days after diagnosis of CVT. We stratified ASS into prediagnosis and solely postdiagnosis ASS. Status epilepticus (SE) was also analyzed separately. We analyzed predictors for ASS and the association between ASS and clinical outcome (modified Rankin Scale) with multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Of 1,281 eligible patients, 441 (34%) had ASS. Baseline predictors for ASS were intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.1, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0-5.5), cerebral edema/infarction without ICH (aOR 2.8, 95% CI 2.0-4.0), cortical vein thrombosis (aOR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5-2.9), superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.6), focal neurologic deficit (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.4-2.6), sulcal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.5), and female-specific risk factors (aOR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1). Ninety-three (7%) patients had solely postdiagnosis ASS, best predicted by cortical vein thrombosis (positive/negative predictive value 22%/92%). Eighty (6%) patients had SE, independently predicted by ICH, focal neurologic deficits, and cerebral edema/infarction. Neither ASS nor SE was independently associated with outcome.

Conclusion: ASS occurred in one-third of patients with CVT and was associated with brain parenchymal lesions and thrombosis of the superficial system. In the absence of prediagnosis ASS, no subgroup was identified with sufficient risk of postdiagnosis ASS to justify prophylactic antiepileptic drug treatment. We found no association between ASS and outcome.
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September 2020

A basic MRI anatomy of the rat brain in coronal sections for practical guidance to neuroscientists.

Brain Res 2020 11 2;1747:147021. Epub 2020 Aug 2.

Department of Neuroanatomy, Institute of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. Electronic address:

Identification of the brain structures in the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the rat is very important for the experimental work of many neuroscientists. Our intention was to recognize most of the structures without overlapping the MRI sections with the histological templates. Three live rats were used for this study who were examined in a micro-MRI apparatus by performing T2-weighted sequences in serial brain sections. Most of the white matter structures were easily identified, e.g. the anterior commissure, corpus callosum with forceps minor and major, cingulum, external and internal capsules, fornix, stria medullaris and terminalis, cranial nerves, mammillothalamic tract, fasciculus retroflexus, medial and lateral lemniscus, posterior commissure, commissures of the superior and inferior colliculi, medial longitudinal fasciculus, and the cerebral peduncle. Large and small gray matter structures were recognized as well, for example, the anterior olfactory structures, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, claustrum, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, pituitary gland, globus pallidus, amygdala, some midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei, certain hypothalamic nuclei, hippocampal formation, pineal body, periaqueductal gray matter, lateral and medial geniculate bodies, superior and inferior colliculi, and cranial nerves nuclei. All in all, of the total 160 recognized brain structures, 77 were identified without using the corresponding histological atlases. We believe that our labeled MRI pictures could be an important way for quick orientation for evaluating the effects of the experimental work regarding the rat brain.
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November 2020
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