Publications by authors named "Tunde Csepany"

38 Publications

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Neuronal Surface Antibody-Mediated Autoimmune Encephalitis Patients in a National Cohort.

Front Neurol 2021 9;12:611597. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Immunology and Biotechnology, Clinical Center, University of Pécs Medical School, Pécs, Hungary.

In our previous single-center study of autoimmune encephalitis (AE) related autoantibody test results we found positivity in 60 patients out of 1,034 with suspected AE from 2012 through 2018 as part of a Hungarian nationwide program. In our current multicenter retrospective study, we analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcome of AE patients with positive neuronal cell surface autoantibody test results. A standard online questionnaire was used to collect demographic and clinical characteristics, laboratory and imaging data, therapy and prognosis of 30 definitive AE patients in four major clinical centers of the region. In our study, 19 patients were positive for anti-NMDAR (63%), 6 patients (20%) for anti-LGI1, 3 patients for anti-GABABR (10%) and 3 patients for anti-Caspr2 (10%) autoantibodies. Most common prodromal symptoms were fever or flu-like symptoms (10/30, 33%). Main clinical features included psychiatric symptoms (83%), epileptic seizures (73%) and memory loss (50%). 19 patients (63%) presented with signs of central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, which occurred more frequently in elder individuals ( = 0.024), although no significant differences were observed in sex, tumor association, time to diagnosis, prognosis and immunotherapy compared to AE patients without CNS inflammatory markers. Anti-NMDAR encephalitis patients were in more severe condition at the disease onset ( = 0.028), although no significant correlation between mRS score, age, sex and immunotherapy was found. 27% of patients ( = 8) with associated tumors had worse outcome ( = 0.045) than patients without tumor. In most cases, immunotherapy led to clinical improvement of AE patients (80%) who achieved a good outcome (mRS ≤ 2; median follow-up 33 months). Our study confirms previous publications describing characteristics of AE patients, however, differences were observed in anti-NMDAR encephalitis that showed no association with ovarian teratoma and occurred more frequently among young males. One-third of AE patients lacked signs of inflammation in both CSF and brain MRI, which emphasizes the importance of clinical symptoms and autoantibody testing in diagnostic workflow for early introduction of immunotherapy, which can lead to favorable outcome in AE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2021.611597DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985080PMC
March 2021

Determinants of therapeutic lag in multiple sclerosis.

Mult Scler 2021 Jan 11:1352458520981300. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/Melbourne MS Centre, Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Background: A delayed onset of treatment effect, termed therapeutic lag, may influence the assessment of treatment response in some patient subgroups.

Objectives: The objective of this study is to explore the associations of patient and disease characteristics with therapeutic lag on relapses and disability accumulation.

Methods: Data from MSBase, a multinational multiple sclerosis (MS) registry, and OFSEP, the French MS registry, were used. Patients diagnosed with MS, minimum 1 year of exposure to MS treatment and 3 years of pre-treatment follow-up, were included in the analysis. Studied outcomes were incidence of relapses and disability accumulation. Therapeutic lag was calculated using an objective, validated method in subgroups stratified by patient and disease characteristics. Therapeutic lag under specific circumstances was then estimated in subgroups defined by combinations of clinical and demographic determinants.

Results: High baseline disability scores, annualised relapse rate (ARR) ⩾ 1 and male sex were associated with longer therapeutic lag on disability progression in sufficiently populated groups: females with expanded disability status scale (EDSS) < 6 and ARR < 1 had mean lag of 26.6 weeks (95% CI = 18.2-34.9), males with EDSS < 6 and ARR < 1 31.0 weeks (95% CI = 25.3-36.8), females with EDSS < 6 and ARR ⩾ 1 44.8 weeks (95% CI = 24.5-65.1), and females with EDSS ⩾ 6 and ARR < 1 54.3 weeks (95% CI = 47.2-61.5).

Conclusions: Pre-treatment EDSS and ARR are the most important determinants of therapeutic lag.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458520981300DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Disease-Modifying Therapy on Disability in Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis Over 15 Years.

Neurology 2021 02 28;96(5):e783-e797. Epub 2020 Dec 28.

From CORe (T.K., I.D., S.S., C.M.), Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne; MS Centre (T.K., I.D., S.S., C.M.), Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Australia; Karolinska Institute (T.S.), Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neuroscience (T.S., V.J., A.v.d.W., O.S., H.B.), Central Clinical School, Monash University, Melbourne; Burnet Institute (T.S.), Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience (D.H., E.K.H.), General University Hospital and Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic; Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Neuroscience and Sense Organs (M. Trojano), University of Bari, Italy; Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena (G.I.), Sevilla, Spain; Department of Neuroscience, Imaging and Clinical Sciences (A.L.), University "G. d'Annunzio," Chieti; Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences (A.L.), University of Bologna, IRCCS Istituto delle Scienze Neurologiche di Bologna, Italy; Hopital Notre Dame (A.P., M.G., P.D.), Montreal; CHUM and Universite de Montreal (A.P., M.G., P.D.); CISSS Chaudière-Appalache (P.G.), Levis, Canada; Department of Neurology (V.J., A.v.d.W., O.S., H.B.), Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Neuro Rive-Sud (F. Grand'Maison), Quebec, Canada; Department of Neuroscience (P.S., D.F.), Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria, Modena, Italy; Isfahan University of Medical Sciences (V.S.), Isfahan, Iran; Amiri Hospital (R. Alroughani), Kuwait City, Kuwait; Zuyderland Ziekenhuis (R.H.), Sittard, the Netherlands; Medical Faculty (M. Terzi), 19 Mayis University, Samsun; KTU Medical Faculty Farabi Hospital (C.B.), Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon, Turkey; School of Medicine and Public Health (J.L.-S.), University Newcastle; Department of Neurology (J.L.-S.), John Hunter Hospital, Newcastle, Australia; UOC Neurologia (E.P.), Azienda Sanitaria Unica Regionale Marche-AV3, Macerata, Italy; Cliniques Universitaires Saint-Luc (V.V.P.), Brussels, Belgium; University of Parma (F. Granella); C. Mondino National Neurological Institute (R.B.), Pavia; Azienda Ospedaliera di Rilievo Nazionale San Giuseppe Moscati Avellino (D.S.), Italy; Flinders University (M. Slee), Adelaide; Westmead Hospital (S.V.), Sydney, Australia; Nemocnice Jihlava (R. Ampapa), Czech Republic; University of Queensland (P.M.), Brisbane; Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital (P.M.), Brisbane, Australia; Hospital Germans Trias i Pujol (C.R.-T.), Badalona, Spain; CSSS Saint-Jérôme (J.P.), Canada; Hospital Universitario Donostia (J.O.), Paseo de Begiristain, San Sebastián, Spain; Hospital Italiano (E.C.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Brain and Mind Centre (M.B.), University of Sydney, Australia; INEBA-Institute of Neuroscience Buenos Aires (M.L.S.), Argentina; Hospital de Galdakao-Usansolo (J.L.S.-M.), Galdakao, Spain; Liverpool Hospital (S. Hodgkinson), Sydney, Australia; Jahn Ferenc Teaching Hospital (C.R.), Budapest, Hungary; Craigavon Area Hospital (S. Hughes), UK; Jewish General Hospital (F.M.), Montreal, Canada; Deakin University (C.S.), Geelong; Monash Medical Centre (E.B.), Melbourne, Australia; South East Trust (O.G.), Belfast, UK; Perron Institute (A.K.), University of Western Australia, Nedlands; Institute of Immunology and Infectious Diseases (A.K.), Murdoch University; Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (A.K.), Perth, Australia; Department of Neurology (T.C.), Faculty of Medicine, University of Debrecen, Hungary; Bombay Hospital Institute of Medical Sciences (B.S.), Mumbai, India; St Vincents Hospital (N.S.), Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia; Veszprém Megyei Csolnoky Ferenc Kórház zrt (I.P.), Veszprem, Hungary; Royal Hobart Hospital (B.T.), Australia; Semmelweis University Budapest (M. Simo), Hungary; Central Military Emergency University Hospital (C.-A.S.), Bucharest; Titu Maiorescu University (C.-A.S.), Bucharest, Romania; BAZ County Hospital (A.S.), Miskolc, Hungary; and Box Hill Hospital (H.B.), Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that immunotherapy prevents long-term disability in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), we modeled disability outcomes in 14,717 patients.

Methods: We studied patients from MSBase followed for ≥1 year, with ≥3 visits, ≥1 visit per year, and exposed to MS therapy, and a subset of patients with ≥15-year follow-up. Marginal structural models were used to compare the cumulative hazards of 12-month confirmed increase and decrease in disability, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) step 6, and the incidence of relapses between treated and untreated periods. Marginal structural models were continuously readjusted for patient age, sex, pregnancy, date, disease course, time from first symptom, prior relapse history, disability, and MRI activity.

Results: A total of 14,717 patients were studied. During the treated periods, patients were less likely to experience relapses (hazard ratio 0.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-0.82, = 0.0016), worsening of disability (0.56, 0.38-0.82, = 0.0026), and progress to EDSS step 6 (0.33, 0.19-0.59, = 0.00019). Among 1,085 patients with ≥15-year follow-up, the treated patients were less likely to experience relapses (0.59, 0.50-0.70, = 10) and worsening of disability (0.81, 0.67-0.99, = 0.043).

Conclusion: Continued treatment with MS immunotherapies reduces disability accrual by 19%-44% (95% CI 1%-62%), the risk of need of a walking aid by 67% (95% CI 41%-81%), and the frequency of relapses by 40-41% (95% CI 18%-57%) over 15 years. This study provides evidence that disease-modifying therapies are effective in improving disability outcomes in relapsing-remitting MS over the long term.

Classification Of Evidence: This study provides Class IV evidence that, for patients with relapsing-remitting MS, long-term exposure to immunotherapy prevents neurologic disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011242DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7884998PMC
February 2021

Factors influencing daily treatment choices in multiple sclerosis: practice guidelines, biomarkers and burden of disease.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2020 7;13:1756286420975223. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

At two meetings of a Central European board of multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in 2018 and 2019 factors influencing daily treatment choices in MS, especially practice guidelines, biomarkers and burden of disease, were discussed. The heterogeneity of MS and the complexity of the available treatment options call for informed treatment choices. However, evidence from clinical trials is generally lacking, particularly regarding sequencing, switches and escalation of drugs. Also, there is a need to identify patients who require highly efficacious treatment from the onset of their disease to prevent deterioration. The recently published European Committee for the Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis/European Academy of Neurology clinical practice guidelines on pharmacological management of MS cover aspects such as treatment efficacy, response criteria, strategies to address suboptimal response and safety concerns and are based on expert consensus statements. However, the recommendations constitute an excellent framework that should be adapted to local regulations, MS center capacities and infrastructure. Further, available and emerging biomarkers for treatment guidance were discussed. Magnetic resonance imaging parameters are deemed most reliable at present, even though complex assessment including clinical evaluation and laboratory parameters besides imaging is necessary in clinical routine. Neurofilament-light chain levels appear to represent the current most promising non-imaging biomarker. Other immunological data, including issues of immunosenescence, will play an increasingly important role for future treatment algorithms. Cognitive impairment has been recognized as a major contribution to MS disease burden. Regular evaluation of cognitive function is recommended in MS patients, although no specific disease-modifying treatment has been defined to date. Finally, systematic documentation of real-life data is recognized as a great opportunity to tackle unresolved daily routine challenges, such as use of sequential therapies, but requires joint efforts across clinics, governments and pharmaceutical companies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286420975223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7724259PMC
December 2020

Delay from treatment start to full effect of immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis.

Brain 2020 09;143(9):2742-2756

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, 3050, Australia.

In multiple sclerosis, treatment start or switch is prompted by evidence of disease activity. Whilst immunomodulatory therapies reduce disease activity, the time required to attain maximal effect is unclear. In this study we aimed to develop a method that allows identification of the time to manifest fully and clinically the effect of multiple sclerosis treatments ('therapeutic lag') on clinical disease activity represented by relapses and progression-of-disability events. Data from two multiple sclerosis registries, MSBase (multinational) and OFSEP (French), were used. Patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, minimum 1-year exposure to treatment, minimum 3-year pretreatment follow-up and yearly review were included in the analysis. For analysis of disability progression, all events in the subsequent 5-year period were included. Density curves, representing incidence of relapses and 6-month confirmed progression events, were separately constructed for each sufficiently represented therapy. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to identify the first local minimum of the first derivative after treatment start; this point represented the point of stabilization of treatment effect, after the maximum treatment effect was observed. The method was developed in a discovery cohort (MSBase), and externally validated in a separate, non-overlapping cohort (OFSEP). A merged MSBase-OFSEP cohort was used for all subsequent analyses. Annualized relapse rates were compared in the time before treatment start and after the stabilization of treatment effect following commencement of each therapy. We identified 11 180 eligible treatment epochs for analysis of relapses and 4088 treatment epochs for disability progression. External validation was performed in four therapies, with no significant difference in the bootstrapped mean differences in therapeutic lag duration between registries. The duration of therapeutic lag for relapses was calculated for 10 therapies and ranged between 12 and 30 weeks. The duration of therapeutic lag for disability progression was calculated for seven therapies and ranged between 30 and 70 weeks. Significant differences in the pre- versus post-treatment annualized relapse rate were present for all therapies apart from intramuscular interferon beta-1a. In conclusion we have developed, and externally validated, a method to objectively quantify the duration of therapeutic lag on relapses and disability progression in different therapies in patients more than 3 years from multiple sclerosis onset. Objectively defined periods of expected therapeutic lag allows insights into the evaluation of treatment response in randomized clinical trials and may guide clinical decision-making in patients who experience early on-treatment disease activity. This method will subsequently be applied in studies that evaluate the effect of patient and disease characteristics on therapeutic lag.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awaa231DOI Listing
September 2020

Clinical and therapeutic predictors of disease outcomes in AQP4-IgG+ neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2020 Feb 25;38:101868. Epub 2019 Nov 25.

CORe, Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia. Electronic address:

Background: Aquaporin-4-IgG positive (AQP4-IgG+) Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD) is an uncommon central nervous system autoimmune disorder. Disease outcomes in AQP4-IgG+NMOSD are typically measured by relapse rate and disability. Using the MSBase, a multi-centre international registry, we aimed to examine the impact immunosuppressive therapies and patient characteristics as predictors of disease outcome measures in AQP4-IgG+NMOSD.

Method: This MSBase cohort study of AQP4-IgG+NMOSD patients examined modifiers of relapse in a multivariable proportional hazards model and expanded disability status score (EDSS) using a mixed effects model.

Results: 206 AQP4-IgG+ patients were included (median follow-up 3.7 years). Age (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.82 per decade, p = 0.001), brainstem onset (HR = 0.45, p = 0.009), azathioprine (HR = 0.46, p<0.001) and mycophenolate mofetil (HR = 0.09, p = 0.012) were associated with a reduced risk of relapse. A greater EDSS was associated with age (β = 0.45 (per decade), p<0.001) and disease duration (β = 0.07 per year, p<0.001). A slower increase in EDSS was associated with azathioprine (β = -0.48, p<0.001), mycophenolate mofetil (β = -0.69, p = 0.04) and rituximab (β = -0.35, p = 0.024).

Interpretation: This study has demonstrated that azathioprine and mycophenolate mofetil reduce the risk of relapses and disability progression is modified by azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil and rituximab. Age and disease duration were the only patient characteristics that modified the risk of relapse and disability in our cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2019.101868DOI Listing
February 2020

Redefining the Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS): The effect of sex and onset phenotype.

Mult Scler 2020 11 31;26(13):1765-1774. Epub 2019 Oct 31.

Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS, Australia.

Background: The Multiple Sclerosis Severity Score (MSSS) is a widely used measure of the disability progression rate. However, the global MSSS may not be the best basis for comparison between all patient groups.

Objective: We evaluated sex-specific and onset phenotype-specific MSSS matrices to determine if they were more effective than the global MSSS as a basis for comparison within these subsets.

Methods: Using a large international dataset of multiple sclerosis (MS) patient records and the original MSSS algorithm, we constructed global, sex-specific and onset phenotype-specific MSSS matrices. We compared matrices using permutation analysis.

Results: Our final dataset included 30,203 MS cases, with 28.9% males and 6.5% progressive-onset cases. Our global MSSS matrix did not differ from previously published data ( > 0.05). The progressive-onset-specific matrix differed significantly from the relapsing-onset-specific matrix ( < 0.001), with lower MSSS attributed to cases with the same Expanded Disability Status Score (EDSS) and disease duration. When evaluated with a simulation, using an onset-specific MSSS improved statistical power in mixed cohorts. There were no significant differences by sex.

Conclusion: The differences in the disability accrual rate between progressive- and relapsing-onset MS have a significant effect on MSSS. An onset-specific MSSS should be used when comparing the rate of disability progression among progressive-onset cases and for mixed cohorts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519881994DOI Listing
November 2020

Risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis: A longitudinal study.

Mult Scler 2020 01 9;26(1):79-90. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

CORe, Department of Medicine, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia/L4 Centre, Melbourne Brain Centre at Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC, Australia.

Background: The risk factors for conversion from relapsing-remitting to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis remain highly contested.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the demographic, clinical and paraclinical features that influence the risk of conversion to secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Methods: Patients with adult-onset relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and at least four recorded disability scores were selected from MSBase, a global observational cohort. The risk of conversion to objectively defined secondary progressive multiple sclerosis was evaluated at multiple time points per patient using multivariable marginal Cox regression models. Sensitivity analyses were performed.

Results: A total of 15,717 patients were included in the primary analysis. Older age (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.02,  < 0.001), longer disease duration (HR = 1.01,  = 0.038), a higher Expanded Disability Status Scale score (HR = 1.30,  < 0.001), more rapid disability trajectory (HR = 2.82,  < 0.001) and greater number of relapses in the previous year (HR = 1.07,  = 0.010) were independently associated with an increased risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis. Improving disability (HR = 0.62,  = 0.039) and disease-modifying therapy exposure (HR = 0.71,  = 0.007) were associated with a lower risk. Recent cerebral magnetic resonance imaging activity, evidence of spinal cord lesions and oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid were not associated with the risk of conversion.

Conclusion: Risk of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis increases with age, duration of illness and worsening disability and decreases with improving disability. Therapy may delay the onset of secondary progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458519868990DOI Listing
January 2020

[Diagnosis of multiple sclerosis: A review of the 2017 revisions of the McDonald criteria].

Authors:
Tünde Csépány

Ideggyogy Sz 2018 Sep;71(9-10):321-329

Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Neurológiai Tanszék, Debrecen.

The revolutionary progress of research in neuroimmu-nology has led to the introduction of disease modifying therapies in multiple sclerosis at the end of the last century. The International Panel on Diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis originally proposed the 2001 McDonald criteria to facilitate the diagnosis of MS in patients with the first objective neurological symptom(s) suggesting demyelinating event, when magnetic resonance imaging is integrated with clinical and other paraclinical diagnostic methods. New terms have been introduced to substitute clinical information by MRI: dissemination in space - indicating a multifocal central demyelinating process and dissemination in time - indicating the development of new CNS lesions over time. The criteria for diagnosis of Multiple Sclerosis have continuously evolved, they were modified in 2005 and 2010 allowing for an earlier and more accurate diagnosis of MS over time, and they provided the most up-to-date guidance for clinicians and researchers. The last recommended revisions relied entirely on available evidence, and not on expert opinion thereby reducing the risk of the misdiagnosis. The 2017 McDonald criteria continue to apply primarily to patients experiencing a typical, clinically isolated syndrome. In this review, we provide an overview of the recent 2017 revisions to the criteria of dissemination in space and time with the importance of the presence of CSF-specific oligoclonal bands; keeping fully in mind that there is no better explanation for symptoms than diagnosis of MS. In the future, validation of the 2017 McDonald criteria will be needed in diverse populations. Further investigations are required on the value of new MRI approaches, on optic nerve involvement, on evoked potential and optical coherence tomography, in order to assess their possible contribution to diagnostic criteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.71.0321DOI Listing
September 2018

[Is second-line immunomodulatory treatment effective in multiple sclerosis?]

Ideggyogy Sz 2017 Jul;70(7-8):275-283

Debreceni Egyetem, Általános Orvostudományi Kar, Neurológiai Tanszék, Debrecen.

Background And Purpose: Natalizumab is the first evidence based monoclonal antibody, which was launched for treatment in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in Hungary in 2010. Standardized follow-up is required to use it.

Methods: Our aim was to evaluate the efficacy and to monitor the safety of natalizumab treatment by using an electronic database established for MS registry. Clinical activity was measured by annual relapse rates, functional status of patients measured by EDSS and MFSC. Radiological activity was evaluated by standard MRI protocol. Data, results of MS patients and side effects of natalizumab treatment were recorded in iMed software.

Results: 31 patients started the natalizumab treatment after 6.5±5.8 years from the onset of MS. The efficacy of treatment was evaluated after a mean of 67 (min: 14 max: 128) infusions in December 2016. The drop-out rate was low, due to the presence of neutralising antibodies in one case, pregnancy in two cases and development of malignant disease in one case which was not related to the natalizumab treatment. The treatment was well tolerated with excellent compliance without serious side effects. The annual relapse rate reduced from a mean of 1.7 to 0.03 (p<0.000001) in the first 12 months of treatment compared to the pretreatment 12 month activity, and it stayed at low level during the whole follow up. EDSS was stable or improved with an exception of two cases. In 23 subjects (77%) lack of new/enlarging T2 lesions and lack of gadolineum-enhancing lesions on MRI were observed. 18 patients (60%) had no evidence of disease activity (NEDA-3). PASAT test improved in most of the cases.

Conclusion: The natalizumab therapy was very effective in all cases including those patients who had active disease under the previous immunomodulatory treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.70.0275DOI Listing
July 2017

[EEG-based cerebral networks in 14 neurological disorders].

Ideggyogy Sz 2017 May;70(5-6):159-178

Debreceni Egyetem Klinikai Központ, Neurológiai Klinika, Debrecen.

Background - Brain networks have not been systematically investigated yet in most neurological disorders. Purpose - To investigate EEG functional connectivity (EEGfC) networks in 14 neurological disorders. Patients - Potentially eligible patients were collected from clinical and EEG databases. All the available clinical data and EEG records were critically revised. All the patients who suffered of a single neurological disorder (out of the 14) and had a good quality EEG recording entered the study. Confoundig factors as comorbidity and CNS-active drug effects were eliminated as far as possible. EEG analysis - Three minutes of resting-state, waking EEG activity were selected for analysis. Current source density (CSD) values were computed for 2394 cortical voxels by Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography (LORETA). Thereafter, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed between all pairs of 23 cortical regions of interest (ROI) in each hemisphere (LORETA Source Correlation, LSC software). Computation was carried out for conventional EEG broad bands and very narrow bands (1 Hz bandwidth) between 1 and 25 Hz as well. Correlation coefficients of each group were statistically compared to our normative EEG (LSC) database by two-talied t-tests. Bonferroni-corrected p<0.05 values were accepted as statistically significant, and were graphically displayed as topographical networks. Results and conclusion - Group-specific networks were demonstrated. However, non-specific networks, charasteristic for most groups, were detected as well. Common finding were: decreased connectivity in the alpha band and increased connectivity in the delta, theta bands and upper-beta band. Decreased alpha-band connectivity presumably reflected primary lesional effects and on the other hand, non-specific vulnerability of "rich club connections". Increased connectivity in the slow bands presumably indicated adaptive-compensatory activity of brain homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.70.0159DOI Listing
May 2017

Management of multiple sclerosis patients in central European countries: current needs and potential solutions.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord 2018 22;11:1756286418759189. Epub 2018 Feb 22.

Department of Neurology and Center of Clinical Neuroscience, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) experts in Europe are facing rapidly rising demands of excellence due to the increasing complexity of MS therapy and management. A central European expert board of MS experts met to identify needs and obstacles with respect to raising quality of MS care in central and Eastern European countries. There are substantial variations across countries regarding delivery of care and its cost structure, as well as access to treatment. To date, Eastern European countries are often less able to afford reimbursement of immunomodulatory agents than Western countries. Overall, approximately 40% of working-age patients are not working due to MS. Costs rise steeply with increasing disability; indirect costs constitute the bulk of the financial burden in patients with severe MS. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment is meanwhile obligatory as the diagnostic interface in the management of MS patients. Recommended measures directed at improving quality of care include the collection of patient data in registries, enhanced education of healthcare professionals, implementation of national strategies aiming at reducing regional variation, optimization of approval processes, and removal of administrative barriers. Local partnerships with authorities such as those that represent the interests of employees can contribute to leverage the importance of epidemiological data. The need for education extends to (neuro)radiologists who are responsible for reporting MRI findings in expert quality. Dissemination of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging in MS (MAGNIMS) protocol would be an important step in this context. Also, clinical freedom of choice is rated as essential. Physicians should have access to a range of treatment options due to the complexity of disease. Guidelines such as the upcoming EAN-ECTRIMS clinical practice guideline also aim at providing a basis for argumentation in negotiations with national health authorities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1756286418759189DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826096PMC
February 2018

Treatment effectiveness of alemtuzumab compared with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis: a cohort study.

Lancet Neurol 2017 04 11;16(4):271-281. Epub 2017 Feb 11.

Department of Clinical Neurosciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK.

Background: Alemtuzumab, an anti-CD52 antibody, is proven to be more efficacious than interferon beta-1a in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, but its efficacy relative to more potent immunotherapies is unknown. We compared the effectiveness of alemtuzumab with natalizumab, fingolimod, and interferon beta in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis treated for up to 5 years.

Methods: In this international cohort study, we used data from propensity-matched patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis from the MSBase and six other cohorts. Longitudinal clinical data were obtained from 71 MSBase centres in 21 countries and from six non-MSBase centres in the UK and Germany between Nov 1, 2015, and June 30, 2016. Key inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of definite relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, exposure to one of the study therapies (alemtuzumab, interferon beta, fingolimod, or natalizumab), age 65 years or younger, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 6·5 or lower, and no more than 10 years since the first multiple sclerosis symptom. The primary endpoint was annualised relapse rate. The secondary endpoints were cumulative hazards of relapses, disability accumulation, and disability improvement events. We compared relapse rates with negative binomial models, and estimated cumulative hazards with conditional proportional hazards models.

Findings: Patients were treated between Aug 1, 1994, and June 30, 2016. The cohorts consisted of 189 patients given alemtuzumab, 2155 patients given interferon beta, 828 patients given fingolimod, and 1160 patients given natalizumab. Alemtuzumab was associated with a lower annualised relapse rate than interferon beta (0·19 [95% CI 0·14-0·23] vs 0·53 [0·46-0·61], p<0·0001) and fingolimod (0·15 [0·10-0·20] vs 0·34 [0·26-0·41], p<0·0001), and was associated with a similar annualised relapse rate as natalizumab (0·20 [0·14-0·26] vs 0·19 [0·15-0·23], p=0·78). For the disability outcomes, alemtuzumab was associated with similar probabilities of disability accumulation as interferon beta (hazard ratio [HR] 0·66 [95% CI 0·36-1·22], p=0·37), fingolimod (1·27 [0·60-2·70], p=0·67), and natalizumab (0·81 [0·47-1·39], p=0·60). Alemtuzumab was associated with similar probabilities of disability improvement as interferon beta (0·98 [0·65-1·49], p=0·93) and fingolimod (0·50 [0·25-1·01], p=0·18), and a lower probability of disability improvement than natalizumab (0·35 [0·20-0·59], p=0·0006).

Interpretation: Alemtuzumab and natalizumab seem to have similar effects on annualised relapse rates in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Alemtuzumab seems superior to fingolimod and interferon beta in mitigating relapse activity. Natalizumab seems superior to alemtuzumab in enabling recovery from disability. Both natalizumab and alemtuzumab seem highly effective and viable immunotherapies for multiple sclerosis. Treatment decisions between alemtuzumab and natalizumab should be primarily governed by their safety profiles.

Funding: National Health and Medical Research Council, and the University of Melbourne.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30007-8DOI Listing
April 2017

The effects of fatigue, depression and the level of disability on the health-related quality of life of glatiramer acetate-treated relapsing-remitting patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary.

Mult Scler Relat Disord 2016 May 12;7:26-32. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Centre, University of Szeged, 6 Semmelweis Str., 6725 Szeged, Hungary. Electronic address:

Background: The common symptoms of multiple sclerosis are fatigue, depression, cognitive dysfunction, pain and sexual dysfunction, which influence the health-related quality of life of the patients.

Objective: We aimed to determine the correlations between the health-related quality of life, the level of disability, fatigue and depression in glatiramer acetate-treated patients with multiple sclerosis in Hungary.

Methods: The Hungarian versions of the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54, Fatigue Impact Scale and Beck Depression Inventory questionnaires were completed by 428 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patients treated with glatiramer acetate from 19 Hungarian centers.

Results: The prevalence of fatigue was found to be 62.4%. The prevalence of depression was lower (13.4%) than that described in previous studies (36-54%) among patients with multiple sclerosis. Significant differences in the health-related quality of life were found between fatigued and non-fatigued patients. The level of disability, fatigue, depression and the duration of the disease correlated significantly with the quality of life. However, linear regression analysis indicated that the quality of life was predicted by the level of disability, depression, social and cognitive fatigue, but not by physical fatigue.

Conclusions: Decreasing the disease activity in multiple sclerosis with immunomodulatory therapy, together with improvements of the diagnostics and treatment of the accompanying depression and fatigue are of high priority to improve the health-related quality of life of patients with multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msard.2016.02.006DOI Listing
May 2016

Change in autoantibody and cytokine responses during the evolution of neuromyelitis optica in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: A preliminary study.

Mult Scler 2016 08 29;22(9):1192-201. Epub 2015 Oct 29.

Department of Neurology, Odense University Hospital, Denmark/Institute of Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark

Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO)-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) association is a rare condition characterized by multiple autoantibodies.

Objective: To examine if, during the evolution of NMO, anti-AQP4 responses are part of polyclonal B cell activation, and if T cell responses contribute.

Methods: In 19 samples of six patients who developed NMO during SLE, we examined the correlation of AQP4-IgG1 and IgM with (i) anti-MOG IgG and IgM, (ii) anti-nuclear, anti-nucleosome and anti-dsDNA IgG antibodies, (iii) cytokines and chemokines in the serum and (iv) longitudinal relation to NMO relapses/remission.

Results: AQP4-IgG1 was present 1-2-5 years before the first NMO relapse. During relapse, AQP4-IgG1, ANA, anti-dsDNA and anti-nucleosome antibodies were elevated. Anti-MOG IgG/IgM and AQP4-IgM antibodies were not detected. AQP4-IgG1 antibodies correlated with concentration of anti-nucleosome, IFN-γ,interferon-gamma-induced CCL10/IP-10 and CCL17/TARC (p<0.05, respectively). CCL17/TARC correlated with levels of anti-nucleosome and anti-dsDNA (p<0.05, respectively). Compared to healthy subjects, concentration of IFN-γ and CCL17/TARC was higher in NMO/SLE (p<0.05).

Conclusions: AQP4-IgG1 antibodies are present in the sera years before the first NMO attack in patients with SLE; elevation of anti-AQP4 is part of a polyclonal B cell response during NMO relapses; in spite of multiple autoantibodies in the serum, MOG antibodies were not present; Th1 responses accompany autoantibody responses in NMO/SLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458515613165DOI Listing
August 2016

The Urine Proteome Profile Is Different in Neuromyelitis Optica Compared to Multiple Sclerosis: A Clinical Proteome Study.

PLoS One 2015 13;10(10):e0139659. Epub 2015 Oct 13.

Department of Neurology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark; Institute for Clinical Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Objectives: Inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the CNS comprise a broad spectrum of diseases like neuromyelitis optica (NMO), NMO spectrum disorders (NMO-SD) and multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite clear classification criteria, differentiation can be difficult. We hypothesized that the urine proteome may differentiate NMO from MS.

Methods: The proteins in urine samples from anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4) seropositive NMO/NMO-SD patients (n = 32), patients with MS (n = 46) and healthy subjects (HS, n = 31) were examined by quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) after trypsin digestion and iTRAQ labelling. Immunoglobulins (Ig) in the urine were validated by nephelometry in an independent cohort (n = 9-10 pr. groups).

Results: The analysis identified a total of 1112 different proteins of which 333 were shared by all 109 subjects. Cluster analysis revealed differences in the urine proteome of NMO/NMO-SD compared to HS and MS. Principal component analysis also suggested that the NMO/NMO-SD proteome profile was useful for classification. Multivariate regression analysis revealed a 3-protein profile for the NMO/NMO-SD versus HS discrimination, a 6-protein profile for NMO/NMO-SD versus MS discrimination and an 11-protein profile for MS versus HS discrimination. All protein panels yielded highly significant ROC curves (AUC in all cases >0.85, p≤0.0002). Nephelometry confirmed the presence of increased Ig-light chains in the urine of patients with NMO/NMO-SD.

Conclusion: The urine proteome profile of patients with NMO/NMO-SD is different from MS and HS. This may reflect differences in the pathogenesis of NMO/NMO-SD versus MS and suggests that urine may be a potential source of biomarkers differentiating NMO/NMO-SD from MS.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0139659PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4604198PMC
June 2016

[ALEMTUZUMAB: BENEFITS AND CHALLENGES OF A NEW THERAPY IN MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS].

Ideggyogy Sz 2015 May;68(5-6):155-64

The widening spectrum of MS treatment is partially due to increasing knowledge about the pathogenesis of MS. The humanized monoclonal antibody against CD52, alemtuzumab has been approved in Europe for the treatment of MS, which results in long-term depletion of B and T cells due to complement- and antibody-mediated cytotoxicity. Based on phase 2 and 3 clinical trials, alemtuzumob decreases the risk of sustained neurological deficit and progression compared to high-dose subcutaneous interferon-β1a in patients with active relapsing-remitting MS, either treatment-naïve or with breakthrough disease. We review advantages and benefits of the treatment, discuss safety concerns, and present a case to describe practical issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18071/isz.68.0155DOI Listing
May 2015

Switch to natalizumab versus fingolimod in active relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

Ann Neurol 2015 Mar 17;77(3):425-35. Epub 2015 Jan 17.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia; Department of Neurology, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.

Objective: In patients suffering multiple sclerosis activity despite treatment with interferon β or glatiramer acetate, clinicians often switch therapy to either natalizumab or fingolimod. However, no studies have directly compared the outcomes of switching to either of these agents.

Methods: Using MSBase, a large international, observational, prospectively acquired cohort study, we identified patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis experiencing relapses or disability progression within the 6 months immediately preceding switch to either natalizumab or fingolimod. Quasi-randomization with propensity score-based matching was used to select subpopulations with comparable baseline characteristics. Relapse and disability outcomes were compared in paired, pairwise-censored analyses.

Results: Of the 792 included patients, 578 patients were matched (natalizumab, n = 407; fingolimod, n = 171). Mean on-study follow-up was 12 months. The annualized relapse rates decreased from 1.5 to 0.2 on natalizumab and from 1.3 to 0.4 on fingolimod, with 50% relative postswitch difference in relapse hazard (p = 0.002). A 2.8 times higher rate of sustained disability regression was observed after the switch to natalizumab in comparison to fingolimod (p < 0.001). No difference in the rate of sustained disability progression events was observed between the groups. The change in overall disability burden (quantified as area under the disability-time curve) differed between natalizumab and fingolimod (-0.12 vs 0.04 per year, respectively, p < 0.001).

Interpretation: This study suggests that in active multiple sclerosis during treatment with injectable disease-modifying therapies, switching to natalizumab is more effective than switching to fingolimod in reducing relapse rate and short-term disability burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ana.24339DOI Listing
March 2015

Cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes in multiple sclerosis patients during head-up tilt table test: effect of high-dose intravenous steroid treatment.

J Neurol 2013 Sep 12;260(9):2335-42. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Neurology, University of Debrecen, Moricz Zs. 22, Debrecen 4032, Hungary.

Demyelination in multiple sclerosis (MS) may cause damage to the vegetative nervous system. Our objective was to examine cerebral autoregulation assessed via blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity fluctuations during head-up tilt table testing. We also investigated the effects of high-dose intravenous corticosteroid treatment. Transcranial Doppler registration of middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity and continuous blood pressure and heart rate monitoring were performed at rest and during tilt table testing in 30 MS patients. Ten age-matched healthy subjects were also examined as controls. Correlations between mean arterial blood pressure (MBP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBF) fluctuations were averaged, yielding the correlation coefficient index Mx. For a subgroup of 11 patients with acute exacerbations, results were also evaluated before and after methylprednisolone treatment (1 g/day intravenously for 5 days). No significant differences in the autoregulatory indices were seen between patients and controls, or between pre- and post-steroid results. Modeling CBF velocity changes associated with a 1-mmHg increase in MBP, significant differences (p < 0.05) were detected in patients vs. controls, and also after vs. before steroid administration. We conclude that cerebrovascular autoregulation impairments are detectable in early phase MS. Corticosteroid treatment has a significant effect on hemodynamic changes in acute exacerbations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00415-013-6977-0DOI Listing
September 2013

Recommendations for the use of prolonged-release fampridine in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).

CNS Neurosci Ther 2013 May;19(5):302-6

Department of Neurology and Center for Clinical Neuroscience, Charles University, General Hospital, Prague, Czech Republic.

Prolonged-release fampridine (fampridine PR) is a potassium channel blocker that improves conductivity of signal on demyelinated axons in central nervous system. Fampridine PR has been approved to improve speed of walking in patients with multiple sclerosis. This statement provides a brief summary of data on fampridine PR and recommendations on practical use of the medication in clinical practice, prediction, and evaluation of response to treatment and patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cns.12101DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493348PMC
May 2013

Can a physician predict the clinical response to first-line immunomodulatory treatment in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis?

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2012 23;8:465-73. Epub 2012 Oct 23.

Department of Neurology, University of Debrecen, Debrecen, Hungary.

Background: Decreased relapse rate and slower disease progression have been reported with long-term use of immunomodulatory treatments (IMTs, interferon beta or glatiramer acetate) in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. There are, however, patients who do not respond to such treatments, and they can be potential candidates for alternative therapeutic approaches.

Objective: To identify clinical factors as possible predictors of poor long-term response.

Methods: A 9-year prospective, continuous follow-up at a single center in Hungary to assess clinical efficacy of IMT.

Results: In a patient group of 81 subjects with mean IMT duration of 54 ± 33 months, treatment efficacy expressed as annual relapse rate and change in clinical severity from baseline did not depend on the specific IMT (any of the interferon betas or glatiramer acetate), and on mono- or multifocal features of the initial appearance of the disease. Responders had shorter disease duration and milder clinical signs at the initiation of treatment. Relapse-rate reduction in the initial 2 years of treatment predicted clinical efficacy in subsequent years.

Conclusion: Based on these observations, we suggest that a 2-year trial period is sufficient to decide on the efficacy of a specific IMT. For those with insufficient relapse reduction in the first 2 years of treatment, a different IMT or other therapeutic approaches should be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S36771DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3484901PMC
November 2012

[Current treatment of multiple sclerosis].

Authors:
Tünde Csépány

Lege Artis Med 2011 Feb;21(2):97-104

Debreceni Egyetem Orvos- és Egészségtudományi Centrum, Neurológiai Klinika/University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Department of Neurology; H-4032 Debrecen, Móricz Zsigmond krt. 22.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune and degenerative disorder. In the past decades, the introduction of parenteral immunomodulatory therapies brought significant progress. These agents increase the number of relapses (shubs) by about 30%, and some of them has been shown to halter the accumulation of neurological symptoms and the development of disability. As first-line agents, interferon beta and glatiramer acetate (consisting of amino acids) can be used. Some new therapeutic strategies have been developed as a result of biotechnological development. The advantage of humanised monoclonal antibodies is that they affect the autoimmune inflammatory process more selectively. Among monoclonal antibodies, natalizumab, which binds to alpha-4-beta-1 integrin receptors and inhibits the migration of T-lymphocytes into the central nervous system, is available from February 2010 in Hungary, recommended as second-line treatment. The efficacy of natalizumab in decreasing relapse rate is > 60%. However, its use is associated with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in one out of 1000 treated patient. Currently it is recommended as second-line treatment, if the patient has active disease despite immunomodulatory therapy. Among orally administered agents, a preparation containing fingolimod is expected to become available next year, and another pill, cladribin has been also found to be efficient in randomised, controlled phase III trials. Fingolimod acts on sphingosine 1-phosphate receptors-1 (S1P1). Cladribine is a purine nucleotide analogue, and its efficacy is based on long-term reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Further promising oral immunomodulatory agents are laquinimod and BG000012 (dimethylfumarate), which are currently being tested in phase III clinical trials in relapsing-remitting MS. The most efficient treatment should be chosen on the basis of the activity, aetiology and the posited pathomechanism of the disease. With the increasing number of therapeutic options, choosing the treatment that is optimal for the patient while also considering side effects might be challenging for both the patients and physicians.
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February 2011

Ferritin and prolactin levels in multiple sclerosis.

Isr Med Assoc J 2011 Feb;13(2):91-5

Zabludovicz Center for Autoimmune Diseases, Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomrner, Israel.

Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common demyelnating disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) and ethiopathogenesis has yet to be fully elucidated. The disease may present in several clinical forms that are closely associated with disease morbidity. In recent years various environmental and hormonal factors have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity.

Objectives: To evaluate ferritin and prolactin levels in MS patients and their correlation with clinical manifestations of the disease.

Methods: Serum samples from 150 multiple sclerosis patients were evaluated for demographic characteristics, clinical parameters as well as prolactin and ferritin levels utilizing the Liaison chemiluminescent immunoassays (DiaSorin, Italy). Sera from 100 matched healthy donors were used as controls.

Results: Hyperprolactinemia was documented in 10 of 150 MS patients (6.7%) and hyperferritinemia in 12 (8%), both of which were significantly more common in this group compared with healthy controls (P < 0.01 and P = 0.02 respectively). Among female MS patients, elevated prolactin levels were related to the secondary-progressive type of disease (P = 0.05), whereas hyperferritinemia was associated with male gender (P = 0.03) and with the relapsing-progressive type of the disease (P = 0.02). An inverse association was found between hyperferritinemia and the relapsing-remitting type of MS in male patients (P = 0.05)

Conclusions: Our results suggest a plausible association between these biomarkers and certain clinical types and gender among MS patients. Further studies combining clinical data, CNS imaging and these markers are warranted.
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February 2011

APOE epsilon status in Hungarian patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

Swiss Med Wkly 2010 26;140:w13119. Epub 2010 Nov 26.

Department of Neurology, University of Szeged, Semmelweis u. 6., 6725 Szeged, Hungary.

Principles: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), an important glycoprotein in the transport, uptake and redistribution of cholesterol, is necessary in nerve tissue repair. The APOE gene (APOE) is involved in neurodegenerative diseases, the best-known association being that between the APOE ε4 allele and Alzheimer's disease. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory neurological disease. The aim of this study was to assess (multicentre assessment) the possible influence of the APOE gene on the susceptibility of primary progressive MS (PPMS) in Hungary.

Methods: Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on DNA isolated from 135 volunteers.

Results: The number of PPMS patients without the ε2 allele was found to be remarkably high, whilst the ε2 allele was overrepresented in the RRMS group. A markedly high frequency of the ε4 allele was found in the PPMS group and a very low frequency in the HC group. With regards to the clinical parameters, significant differences were observed between the RRMS and PPMS groups. Differences were also detected regarding the EDSS and MSSS scores when the patients were grouped by the presence or absence of the ε2 allele. All of the observed differences in the clinical parameters disappeared when the patients were further stratified by the type of MS.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the presence of the ε2 and ε4 alleles may play a role in the development of the disease. However, if any type of the disease has already developed the alleles show no association with the clinical parameters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4414/smw.2010.13119DOI Listing
February 2011

Potassium channel expression in human CD4+ regulatory and naïve T cells from healthy subjects and multiple sclerosis patients.

Immunol Lett 2009 Jun 3;124(2):95-101. Epub 2009 May 3.

Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology, Research Center for Molecular Medicine, Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen, Debrecen 4032, Hungary.

The membrane potential of human T cells is regulated by two potassium channels: the voltage-gated K(V)1.3 and the Ca2+-activated K(Ca)3.1. These two channels are essential for efficient antigenic activation and proliferation of T cells and are expressed at different levels in naïve, central memory and effector memory T cells. This provides the opportunity to inhibit the proliferation of the targeted subtype by channel-specific blocking compounds. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) also represent a unique subtype of T cells that perform highly specialized tasks in controlling immune responses, which raises the possibility that they too have a distinctive channel expression pattern. Using whole-cell patch-clamp we tested this hypothesis and determined the ion channel expression of CD4+CD25(hi)CD127(lo) regulatory and CD4+CD25(lo)CD127(hi) naïve T cells from the peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients sorted by flow cytometry. We have found that naïve and Treg cells from healthy controls expressed equal numbers of K(V)1.3 channels, while Tregs had a greater membrane surface as assessed by capacitance measurements, and consequentially lower channel density than naïve cells, indicating an "incomplete activation state" of Tregs. In contrast, Tregs from MS patients had fewer K(V)1.3 channels than naïve cells and there was no difference in the membrane capacitance or channel density between the two subtypes of cells. The expression level of K(Ca)3.1 channels was similar in all cell subsets. The observed differences in K(V)1.3 channel expression density may contribute to the varying responses upon antigenic stimulation by these cell types in health and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2009.04.008DOI Listing
June 2009

Tumour necrosis factor alpha gene (TNF-alpha) -376 polymorphism in Hungarian patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis.

J Neuroimmunol 2009 Mar 6;208(1-2):115-8. Epub 2009 Feb 6.

Department of Neurology, Albert Szent-Györgyi Clinical Centre, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary.

Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is associated with clinical activity in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and the development of progressive disease. Our aim was to investigate the TNF-alpha -376 polymorphism in primary progressive MS (PPMS) patients. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism were carried out on 45 PPMS patients, 45 age and sex-matched RRMS patients and 45 healthy controls (HC). The GG genotype and the guanine allele (G) were detected significantly more often in the PPMS group as compared with the HC group (p=0.027; p=0.032). The G allele may be one of the factors responsible for progression in PPMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2009.01.004DOI Listing
March 2009

Peripheral nerves are progressively involved in multiple sclerosis--a hypothesis from a pilot study of temperature sensitized electroneurographic screening.

Med Hypotheses 2009 May 19;72(5):562-6. Epub 2009 Jan 19.

Department of Neurology, University of Debrecen, Health Science and Medical Center, Debrecen, Hungary.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is primarily a disease of the central nervous system. Although the involvement of the peripheral nervous system in MS was suggested over 100 years ago, the issue is still controversial, and it is generally accepted that except for the optic nerve the peripheral nerves are left unaffected by the disease. We hypothesize, that an electroneurographical study if thorough enough, may reveal differences in some nerve conduction parameters between MS patients and healthy subjects. Second, we assume that the sensitivity of nerve conduction measurements might be increased if performed at a range of temperatures, reflecting a differential effect of cooling and warming on the peripheral nerve conduction parameters in MS patients and controls. Finally, we expect that the differences in these parameters between controls and MS patients will increase with the progression of the disease. To test these hypotheses in a pilot study, we performed a detailed analysis of the motor and sensory nerve conduction features of the right median nerve in 13 MS patients and 13 controls at 5 degrees C increments between 20 and 40 degrees C, and repeated these measurements after 3 years. The motor latencies were 0.3-0.6 ms longer in MS patients compared to the controls both initially and 3 years later (0.058
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2008.07.066DOI Listing
May 2009

Novel biomarkers in autoimmune diseases: prolactin, ferritin, vitamin D, and TPA levels in autoimmune diseases.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2007 Aug;1109:385-400

Department of Medicine B, Wolfson Medical Center, Holon, Israel.

The development of autoimmune diseases may be influenced by hormonal, immunomodulatory, and metabolic pathways. Prolactin (PRL), ferritin, vitamin D, and the tumor marker tissue polypeptide antigen (TPA) were measured in autoimmune diseases: systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), multiple sclerosis (MS), autoimmune thyroid diseases, and antiphospholipid syndrome. Hyperprolactinemia (HPRL) was detected in 24% of PM patients, in 21% of SLE patients, in 6.7% of MS patients, 6% of RA patients, and in 3% of SSc patients. Hyperferritinemia was detected in 23% of SLE patients, 15% of DM patients, 8% of MS patients, and 4% of RA patients. The patients had relatively low levels of 25 OH Vitamin D: the average results (mean +/- SD) were between 9.3 +/- 4.4 to 13.7 +/- 7.1 ng/mL in the different diseases, while the 25 OH Vitamin D concentrations less than 20 ng/mL are regarded as deficient. TPA levels were in the same range of the controls, elevated only in SLE. HPRL, hyperferritinemia, hypovitaminosis D, and TPA levels did not correlate with SLE activity elevated levels of rheumatoid factor or anti-CCP antibodies in RA. HPRL, hyperferritinemia, and hypovitaminosis D have different immunological implications in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune diseases. Preventive treatment with vitamin D or therapy for HPRL with dopamine agonists, may be considered in certain cases. Hyperferritinemia may be used as an acute-phase reactant marker in autoimmune diseases mainly SLE. TPA may be used to indicate the tendency for malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1398.044DOI Listing
August 2007