Publications by authors named "Tullio Florio"

146 Publications

Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition).

Authors:
Daniel J Klionsky Amal Kamal Abdel-Aziz Sara Abdelfatah Mahmoud Abdellatif Asghar Abdoli Steffen Abel Hagai Abeliovich Marie H Abildgaard Yakubu Princely Abudu Abraham Acevedo-Arozena Iannis E Adamopoulos Khosrow Adeli Timon E Adolph Annagrazia Adornetto Elma Aflaki Galila Agam Anupam Agarwal Bharat B Aggarwal Maria Agnello Patrizia Agostinis Javed N Agrewala Alexander Agrotis Patricia V Aguilar S Tariq Ahmad Zubair M Ahmed Ulises Ahumada-Castro Sonja Aits Shu Aizawa Yunus Akkoc Tonia Akoumianaki Hafize Aysin Akpinar Ahmed M Al-Abd Lina Al-Akra Abeer Al-Gharaibeh Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali Simon Alberti Elísabet Alcocer-Gómez Cristiano Alessandri Muhammad Ali M Abdul Alim Al-Bari Saeb Aliwaini Javad Alizadeh Eugènia Almacellas Alexandru Almasan Alicia Alonso Guillermo D Alonso Nihal Altan-Bonnet Dario C Altieri Élida M C Álvarez Sara Alves Cristine Alves da Costa Mazen M Alzaharna Marialaura Amadio Consuelo Amantini Cristina Amaral Susanna Ambrosio Amal O Amer Veena Ammanathan Zhenyi An Stig U Andersen Shaida A Andrabi Magaiver Andrade-Silva Allen M Andres Sabrina Angelini David Ann Uche C Anozie Mohammad Y Ansari Pedro Antas Adam Antebi Zuriñe Antón Tahira Anwar Lionel Apetoh Nadezda Apostolova Toshiyuki Araki Yasuhiro Araki Kohei Arasaki Wagner L Araújo Jun Araya Catherine Arden Maria-Angeles Arévalo Sandro Arguelles Esperanza Arias Jyothi Arikkath Hirokazu Arimoto Aileen R Ariosa Darius Armstrong-James Laetitia Arnauné-Pelloquin Angeles Aroca Daniela S Arroyo Ivica Arsov Rubén Artero Dalia Maria Lucia Asaro Michael Aschner Milad Ashrafizadeh Osnat Ashur-Fabian Atanas G Atanasov Alicia K Au Patrick Auberger Holger W Auner Laure Aurelian Riccardo Autelli Laura Avagliano Yenniffer Ávalos Sanja Aveic Célia Alexandra Aveleira Tamar Avin-Wittenberg Yucel Aydin Scott Ayton Srinivas Ayyadevara Maria Azzopardi Misuzu Baba Jonathan M Backer Steven K Backues Dong-Hun Bae Ok-Nam Bae Soo Han Bae Eric H Baehrecke Ahruem Baek Seung-Hoon Baek Sung Hee Baek Giacinto Bagetta Agnieszka Bagniewska-Zadworna Hua Bai Jie Bai Xiyuan Bai Yidong Bai Nandadulal Bairagi Shounak Baksi Teresa Balbi Cosima T Baldari Walter Balduini Andrea Ballabio Maria Ballester Salma Balazadeh Rena Balzan Rina Bandopadhyay Sreeparna Banerjee Sulagna Banerjee Ágnes Bánréti Yan Bao Mauricio S Baptista Alessandra Baracca Cristiana Barbati Ariadna Bargiela Daniela Barilà Peter G Barlow Sami J Barmada Esther Barreiro George E Barreto Jiri Bartek Bonnie Bartel Alberto Bartolome Gaurav R Barve Suresh H Basagoudanavar Diane C Bassham Robert C Bast Alakananda Basu Henri Batoko Isabella Batten Etienne E Baulieu Bradley L Baumgarner Jagadeesh Bayry Rupert Beale Isabelle Beau Florian Beaumatin Luiz R G Bechara George R Beck Michael F Beers Jakob Begun Christian Behrends Georg M N Behrens Roberto Bei Eloy Bejarano Shai Bel Christian Behl Amine Belaid Naïma Belgareh-Touzé Cristina Bellarosa Francesca Belleudi Melissa Belló Pérez Raquel Bello-Morales Jackeline Soares de Oliveira Beltran Sebastián Beltran Doris Mangiaracina Benbrook Mykolas Bendorius Bruno A Benitez Irene Benito-Cuesta Julien Bensalem Martin W Berchtold Sabina Berezowska Daniele Bergamaschi Matteo Bergami Andreas Bergmann Laura Berliocchi Clarisse Berlioz-Torrent Amélie Bernard Lionel Berthoux Cagri G Besirli Sebastien Besteiro Virginie M Betin Rudi Beyaert Jelena S Bezbradica Kiran Bhaskar Ingrid Bhatia-Kissova Resham Bhattacharya Sujoy Bhattacharya Shalmoli Bhattacharyya Md Shenuarin Bhuiyan Sujit Kumar Bhutia Lanrong Bi Xiaolin Bi Trevor J Biden Krikor Bijian Viktor A Billes Nadine Binart Claudia Bincoletto Asa B Birgisdottir Geir Bjorkoy Gonzalo Blanco Ana Blas-Garcia Janusz Blasiak Robert Blomgran Klas Blomgren Janice S Blum Emilio Boada-Romero Mirta Boban Kathleen Boesze-Battaglia Philippe Boeuf Barry Boland Pascale Bomont Paolo Bonaldo Srinivasa Reddy Bonam Laura Bonfili Juan S Bonifacino Brian A Boone Martin D Bootman Matteo Bordi Christoph Borner Beat C Bornhauser Gautam Borthakur Jürgen Bosch Santanu Bose Luis M Botana Juan Botas Chantal M Boulanger Michael E Boulton Mathieu Bourdenx Benjamin Bourgeois Nollaig M Bourke Guilhem Bousquet Patricia Boya Peter V Bozhkov Luiz H M Bozi Tolga O Bozkurt Doug E Brackney Christian H Brandts Ralf J Braun Gerhard H Braus Roberto Bravo-Sagua José M Bravo-San Pedro Patrick Brest Marie-Agnès Bringer Alfredo Briones-Herrera V Courtney Broaddus Peter Brodersen Jeffrey L Brodsky Steven L Brody Paola G Bronson Jeff M Bronstein Carolyn N Brown Rhoderick E Brown Patricia C Brum John H Brumell Nicola Brunetti-Pierri Daniele Bruno Robert J Bryson-Richardson Cecilia Bucci Carmen Buchrieser Marta Bueno Laura Elisa Buitrago-Molina Simone Buraschi Shilpa Buch J Ross Buchan Erin M Buckingham Hikmet Budak Mauricio Budini Geert Bultynck Florin Burada Joseph R Burgoyne M Isabel Burón Victor Bustos Sabrina Büttner Elena Butturini Aaron Byrd Isabel Cabas Sandra Cabrera-Benitez Ken Cadwell Jingjing Cai Lu Cai Qian Cai Montserrat Cairó Jose A Calbet Guy A Caldwell Kim A Caldwell Jarrod A Call Riccardo Calvani Ana C Calvo Miguel Calvo-Rubio Barrera Niels Os Camara Jacques H Camonis Nadine Camougrand Michelangelo Campanella Edward M Campbell François-Xavier Campbell-Valois Silvia Campello Ilaria Campesi Juliane C Campos Olivier Camuzard Jorge Cancino Danilo Candido de Almeida Laura Canesi Isabella Caniggia Barbara Canonico Carles Cantí Bin Cao Michele Caraglia Beatriz Caramés Evie H Carchman Elena Cardenal-Muñoz Cesar Cardenas Luis Cardenas Sandra M Cardoso Jennifer S Carew Georges F Carle Gillian Carleton Silvia Carloni Didac Carmona-Gutierrez Leticia A Carneiro Oliana Carnevali Julian M Carosi Serena Carra Alice Carrier Lucie Carrier Bernadette Carroll A Brent Carter Andreia Neves Carvalho Magali Casanova Caty Casas Josefina Casas Chiara Cassioli Eliseo F Castillo Karen Castillo Sonia Castillo-Lluva Francesca Castoldi Marco Castori Ariel F Castro Margarida Castro-Caldas Javier Castro-Hernandez Susana Castro-Obregon Sergio D Catz Claudia Cavadas Federica Cavaliere Gabriella Cavallini Maria Cavinato Maria L Cayuela Paula Cebollada Rica Valentina Cecarini Francesco Cecconi Marzanna Cechowska-Pasko Simone Cenci Victòria Ceperuelo-Mallafré João J Cerqueira Janete M Cerutti Davide Cervia Vildan Bozok Cetintas Silvia Cetrullo Han-Jung Chae Andrei S Chagin Chee-Yin Chai Gopal Chakrabarti Oishee Chakrabarti Tapas Chakraborty Trinad Chakraborty Mounia Chami Georgios Chamilos David W Chan Edmond Y W Chan Edward D Chan H Y Edwin Chan Helen H Chan Hung Chan Matthew T V Chan Yau Sang Chan Partha K Chandra Chih-Peng Chang Chunmei Chang Hao-Chun Chang Kai Chang Jie Chao Tracey Chapman Nicolas Charlet-Berguerand Samrat Chatterjee Shail K Chaube Anu Chaudhary Santosh Chauhan Edward Chaum Frédéric Checler Michael E Cheetham Chang-Shi Chen Guang-Chao Chen Jian-Fu Chen Liam L Chen Leilei Chen Lin Chen Mingliang Chen Mu-Kuan Chen Ning Chen Quan Chen Ruey-Hwa Chen Shi Chen Wei Chen Weiqiang Chen Xin-Ming Chen Xiong-Wen Chen Xu Chen Yan Chen Ye-Guang Chen Yingyu Chen Yongqiang Chen Yu-Jen Chen Yue-Qin Chen Zhefan Stephen Chen Zhi Chen Zhi-Hua Chen Zhijian J Chen Zhixiang Chen Hanhua Cheng Jun Cheng Shi-Yuan Cheng Wei Cheng Xiaodong Cheng Xiu-Tang Cheng Yiyun Cheng Zhiyong Cheng Zhong Chen Heesun Cheong Jit Kong Cheong Boris V Chernyak Sara Cherry Chi Fai Randy Cheung Chun Hei Antonio Cheung King-Ho Cheung Eric Chevet Richard J Chi Alan Kwok Shing Chiang Ferdinando Chiaradonna Roberto Chiarelli Mario Chiariello Nathalia Chica Susanna Chiocca Mario Chiong Shih-Hwa Chiou Abhilash I Chiramel Valerio Chiurchiù Dong-Hyung Cho Seong-Kyu Choe Augustine M K Choi Mary E Choi Kamalika Roy Choudhury Norman S Chow Charleen T Chu Jason P Chua John Jia En Chua Hyewon Chung Kin Pan Chung Seockhoon Chung So-Hyang Chung Yuen-Li Chung Valentina Cianfanelli Iwona A Ciechomska Mariana Cifuentes Laura Cinque Sebahattin Cirak Mara Cirone Michael J Clague Robert Clarke Emilio Clementi Eliana M Coccia Patrice Codogno Ehud Cohen Mickael M Cohen Tania Colasanti Fiorella Colasuonno Robert A Colbert Anna Colell Miodrag Čolić Nuria S Coll Mark O Collins María I Colombo Daniel A Colón-Ramos Lydie Combaret Sergio Comincini Márcia R Cominetti Antonella Consiglio Andrea Conte Fabrizio Conti Viorica Raluca Contu Mark R Cookson Kevin M Coombs Isabelle Coppens Maria Tiziana Corasaniti Dale P Corkery Nils Cordes Katia Cortese Maria do Carmo Costa Sarah Costantino Paola Costelli Ana Coto-Montes Peter J Crack Jose L Crespo Alfredo Criollo Valeria Crippa Riccardo Cristofani Tamas Csizmadia Antonio Cuadrado Bing Cui Jun Cui Yixian Cui Yong Cui Emmanuel Culetto Andrea C Cumino Andrey V Cybulsky Mark J Czaja Stanislaw J Czuczwar Stefania D'Adamo Marcello D'Amelio Daniela D'Arcangelo Andrew C D'Lugos Gabriella D'Orazi James A da Silva Hormos Salimi Dafsari Ruben K Dagda Yasin Dagdas Maria Daglia Xiaoxia Dai Yun Dai Yuyuan Dai Jessica Dal Col Paul Dalhaimer Luisa Dalla Valle Tobias Dallenga Guillaume Dalmasso Markus Damme Ilaria Dando Nico P Dantuma April L Darling Hiranmoy Das Srinivasan Dasarathy Santosh K Dasari Srikanta Dash Oliver Daumke Adrian N Dauphinee Jeffrey S Davies Valeria A Dávila Roger J Davis Tanja Davis Sharadha Dayalan Naidu Francesca De Amicis Karolien De Bosscher Francesca De Felice Lucia De Franceschi Chiara De Leonibus Mayara G de Mattos Barbosa Guido R Y De Meyer Angelo De Milito Cosimo De Nunzio Clara De Palma Mauro De Santi Claudio De Virgilio Daniela De Zio Jayanta Debnath Brian J DeBosch Jean-Paul Decuypere Mark A Deehan Gianluca Deflorian James DeGregori Benjamin Dehay Gabriel Del Rio Joe R Delaney Lea M D Delbridge Elizabeth Delorme-Axford M Victoria Delpino Francesca Demarchi Vilma Dembitz Nicholas D Demers Hongbin Deng Zhiqiang Deng Joern Dengjel Paul Dent Donna Denton Melvin L DePamphilis Channing J Der Vojo Deretic Albert Descoteaux Laura Devis Sushil Devkota Olivier Devuyst Grant Dewson Mahendiran Dharmasivam Rohan Dhiman Diego di Bernardo Manlio Di Cristina Fabio Di Domenico Pietro Di Fazio Alessio Di Fonzo Giovanni Di Guardo Gianni M Di Guglielmo Luca Di Leo Chiara Di Malta Alessia Di Nardo Martina Di Rienzo Federica Di Sano George Diallinas Jiajie Diao Guillermo Diaz-Araya Inés Díaz-Laviada Jared M Dickinson Marc Diederich Mélanie Dieudé Ivan Dikic Shiping Ding Wen-Xing Ding Luciana Dini Jelena Dinić Miroslav Dinic Albena T Dinkova-Kostova Marc S Dionne Jörg H W Distler Abhinav Diwan Ian M C Dixon Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny Ina Dobrinski Oxana Dobrovinskaya Radek Dobrowolski Renwick C J Dobson Jelena Đokić Serap Dokmeci Emre Massimo Donadelli Bo Dong Xiaonan Dong Zhiwu Dong Gerald W Dorn Ii Volker Dotsch Huan Dou Juan Dou Moataz Dowaidar Sami Dridi Liat Drucker Ailian Du Caigan Du Guangwei Du Hai-Ning Du Li-Lin Du André du Toit Shao-Bin Duan Xiaoqiong Duan Sónia P Duarte Anna Dubrovska Elaine A Dunlop Nicolas Dupont Raúl V Durán Bilikere S Dwarakanath Sergey A Dyshlovoy Darius Ebrahimi-Fakhari Leopold Eckhart Charles L Edelstein Thomas Efferth Eftekhar Eftekharpour Ludwig Eichinger Nabil Eid Tobias Eisenberg N Tony Eissa Sanaa Eissa Miriam Ejarque Abdeljabar El Andaloussi Nazira El-Hage Shahenda El-Naggar Anna Maria Eleuteri Eman S El-Shafey Mohamed Elgendy Aristides G Eliopoulos María M Elizalde Philip M Elks Hans-Peter Elsasser Eslam S Elsherbiny Brooke M Emerling N C Tolga Emre Christina H Eng Nikolai Engedal Anna-Mart Engelbrecht Agnete S T Engelsen Jorrit M Enserink Ricardo Escalante Audrey Esclatine Mafalda Escobar-Henriques Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen Lucile Espert Makandjou-Ola Eusebio Gemma Fabrias Cinzia Fabrizi Antonio Facchiano Francesco Facchiano Bengt Fadeel Claudio Fader Alex C Faesen W Douglas Fairlie Alberto Falcó Bjorn H Falkenburger Daping Fan Jie Fan Yanbo Fan Evandro F Fang Yanshan Fang Yognqi Fang Manolis Fanto Tamar Farfel-Becker Mathias Faure Gholamreza Fazeli Anthony O Fedele Arthur M Feldman Du Feng Jiachun Feng Lifeng Feng Yibin Feng Yuchen Feng Wei Feng Thais Fenz Araujo Thomas A Ferguson Álvaro F Fernández Jose C Fernandez-Checa Sonia Fernández-Veledo Alisdair R Fernie Anthony W Ferrante Alessandra Ferraresi Merari F Ferrari Julio C B Ferreira Susan Ferro-Novick Antonio Figueras Riccardo Filadi Nicoletta Filigheddu Eduardo Filippi-Chiela Giuseppe Filomeni Gian Maria Fimia Vittorio Fineschi Francesca Finetti Steven Finkbeiner Edward A Fisher Paul B Fisher Flavio Flamigni Steven J Fliesler Trude H Flo Ida Florance Oliver Florey Tullio Florio Erika Fodor Carlo Follo Edward A Fon Antonella Forlino Francesco Fornai Paola Fortini Anna Fracassi Alessandro Fraldi Brunella Franco Rodrigo Franco Flavia Franconi Lisa B Frankel Scott L Friedman Leopold F Fröhlich Gema Frühbeck Jose M Fuentes Yukio Fujiki Naonobu Fujita Yuuki Fujiwara Mitsunori Fukuda Simone Fulda Luc Furic Norihiko Furuya Carmela Fusco Michaela U Gack Lidia Gaffke Sehamuddin Galadari Alessia Galasso Maria F Galindo Sachith Gallolu Kankanamalage Lorenzo Galluzzi Vincent Galy Noor Gammoh Boyi Gan Ian G Ganley Feng Gao Hui Gao Minghui Gao Ping Gao Shou-Jiang Gao Wentao Gao Xiaobo Gao Ana Garcera Maria Noé Garcia Verónica E Garcia Francisco García-Del Portillo Vega Garcia-Escudero Aracely Garcia-Garcia Marina Garcia-Macia Diana García-Moreno Carmen Garcia-Ruiz Patricia García-Sanz Abhishek D Garg Ricardo Gargini Tina Garofalo Robert F Garry Nils C Gassen Damian Gatica Liang Ge Wanzhong Ge Ruth Geiss-Friedlander Cecilia Gelfi Pascal Genschik Ian E Gentle Valeria Gerbino Christoph Gerhardt Kyla Germain Marc Germain David A Gewirtz Elham Ghasemipour Afshar Saeid Ghavami Alessandra Ghigo Manosij Ghosh Georgios Giamas Claudia Giampietri Alexandra Giatromanolaki Gary E Gibson Spencer B Gibson Vanessa Ginet Edward Giniger Carlotta Giorgi Henrique Girao Stephen E Girardin Mridhula Giridharan Sandy Giuliano Cecilia Giulivi Sylvie Giuriato Julien Giustiniani Alexander Gluschko Veit Goder Alexander Goginashvili Jakub Golab David C Goldstone Anna Golebiewska Luciana R Gomes Rodrigo Gomez Rubén Gómez-Sánchez Maria Catalina Gomez-Puerto Raquel Gomez-Sintes Qingqiu Gong Felix M Goni Javier González-Gallego Tomas Gonzalez-Hernandez Rosa A Gonzalez-Polo Jose A Gonzalez-Reyes Patricia González-Rodríguez Ing Swie Goping Marina S Gorbatyuk Nikolai V Gorbunov Kıvanç Görgülü Roxana M Gorojod Sharon M Gorski Sandro Goruppi Cecilia Gotor Roberta A Gottlieb Illana Gozes Devrim Gozuacik Martin Graef Markus H Gräler Veronica Granatiero Daniel Grasso Joshua P Gray Douglas R Green Alexander Greenhough Stephen L Gregory Edward F Griffin Mark W Grinstaff Frederic Gros Charles Grose Angelina S Gross Florian Gruber Paolo Grumati Tilman Grune Xueyan Gu Jun-Lin Guan Carlos M Guardia Kishore Guda Flora Guerra Consuelo Guerri Prasun Guha Carlos Guillén Shashi Gujar Anna Gukovskaya Ilya Gukovsky Jan Gunst Andreas Günther Anyonya R Guntur Chuanyong Guo Chun Guo Hongqing Guo Lian-Wang Guo Ming Guo Pawan Gupta Shashi Kumar Gupta Swapnil Gupta Veer Bala Gupta Vivek Gupta Asa B Gustafsson David D Gutterman Ranjitha H B Annakaisa Haapasalo James E Haber Aleksandra Hać Shinji Hadano Anders J Hafrén Mansour Haidar Belinda S Hall Gunnel Halldén Anne Hamacher-Brady Andrea Hamann Maho Hamasaki Weidong Han Malene Hansen Phyllis I Hanson Zijian Hao Masaru Harada Ljubica Harhaji-Trajkovic Nirmala Hariharan Nigil Haroon James Harris Takafumi Hasegawa Noor Hasima Nagoor Jeffrey A Haspel Volker Haucke Wayne D Hawkins Bruce A Hay Cole M Haynes Soren B Hayrabedyan Thomas S Hays Congcong He Qin He Rong-Rong He You-Wen He Yu-Ying He Yasser Heakal Alexander M Heberle J Fielding Hejtmancik Gudmundur Vignir Helgason Vanessa Henkel Marc Herb Alexander Hergovich Anna Herman-Antosiewicz Agustín Hernández Carlos Hernandez Sergio Hernandez-Diaz Virginia Hernandez-Gea Amaury Herpin Judit Herreros Javier H Hervás Daniel Hesselson Claudio Hetz Volker T Heussler Yujiro Higuchi Sabine Hilfiker Joseph A Hill William S Hlavacek Emmanuel A Ho Idy H T Ho Philip Wing-Lok Ho Shu-Leong Ho Wan Yun Ho G Aaron Hobbs Mark Hochstrasser Peter H M Hoet Daniel Hofius Paul Hofman Annika Höhn Carina I Holmberg Jose R Hombrebueno Chang-Won Hong Yi-Ren Hong Lora V Hooper Thorsten Hoppe Rastislav Horos Yujin Hoshida I-Lun Hsin Hsin-Yun Hsu Bing Hu Dong Hu Li-Fang Hu Ming Chang Hu Ronggui Hu Wei Hu Yu-Chen Hu Zhuo-Wei Hu Fang Hua Jinlian Hua Yingqi Hua Chongmin Huan Canhua Huang Chuanshu Huang Chuanxin Huang Chunling Huang Haishan Huang Kun Huang Michael L H Huang Rui Huang Shan Huang Tianzhi Huang Xing Huang Yuxiang Jack Huang Tobias B Huber Virginie Hubert Christian A Hubner Stephanie M Hughes William E Hughes Magali Humbert Gerhard Hummer James H Hurley Sabah Hussain Salik Hussain Patrick J Hussey Martina Hutabarat Hui-Yun Hwang Seungmin Hwang Antonio Ieni Fumiyo Ikeda Yusuke Imagawa Yuzuru Imai Carol Imbriano Masaya Imoto Denise M Inman Ken Inoki Juan Iovanna Renato V Iozzo Giuseppe Ippolito Javier E Irazoqui Pablo Iribarren Mohd Ishaq Makoto Ishikawa Nestor Ishimwe Ciro Isidoro Nahed Ismail Shohreh Issazadeh-Navikas Eisuke Itakura Daisuke Ito Davor Ivankovic Saška Ivanova Anand Krishnan V Iyer José M Izquierdo Masanori Izumi Marja Jäättelä Majid Sakhi Jabir William T Jackson Nadia Jacobo-Herrera Anne-Claire Jacomin Elise Jacquin Pooja Jadiya Hartmut Jaeschke Chinnaswamy Jagannath Arjen J Jakobi Johan Jakobsson Bassam Janji Pidder Jansen-Dürr Patric J Jansson Jonathan Jantsch Sławomir Januszewski Alagie Jassey Steve Jean Hélène Jeltsch-David Pavla Jendelova Andreas Jenny Thomas E Jensen Niels Jessen Jenna L Jewell Jing Ji Lijun Jia Rui Jia Liwen Jiang Qing Jiang Richeng Jiang Teng Jiang Xuejun Jiang Yu Jiang Maria Jimenez-Sanchez Eun-Jung Jin Fengyan Jin Hongchuan Jin Li Jin Luqi Jin Meiyan Jin Si Jin Eun-Kyeong Jo Carine Joffre Terje Johansen Gail V W Johnson Simon A Johnston Eija Jokitalo Mohit Kumar Jolly Leo A B Joosten Joaquin Jordan Bertrand Joseph Dianwen Ju Jeong-Sun Ju Jingfang Ju Esmeralda Juárez Delphine Judith Gábor Juhász Youngsoo Jun Chang Hwa Jung Sung-Chul Jung Yong Keun Jung Heinz Jungbluth Johannes Jungverdorben Steffen Just Kai Kaarniranta Allen Kaasik Tomohiro Kabuta Daniel Kaganovich Alon Kahana Renate Kain Shinjo Kajimura Maria Kalamvoki Manjula Kalia Danuta S Kalinowski Nina Kaludercic Ioanna Kalvari Joanna Kaminska Vitaliy O Kaminskyy Hiromitsu Kanamori Keizo Kanasaki Chanhee Kang Rui Kang Sang Sun Kang Senthilvelrajan Kaniyappan Tomotake Kanki Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti Anumantha G Kanthasamy Arthi Kanthasamy Marc Kantorow Orsolya Kapuy Michalis V Karamouzis Md Razaul Karim Parimal Karmakar Rajesh G Katare Masaru Kato Stefan H E Kaufmann Anu Kauppinen Gur P Kaushal Susmita Kaushik Kiyoshi Kawasaki Kemal Kazan Po-Yuan Ke Damien J Keating Ursula Keber John H Kehrl Kate E Keller Christian W Keller Jongsook Kim Kemper Candia M Kenific Oliver Kepp Stephanie Kermorgant Andreas Kern Robin Ketteler Tom G Keulers Boris Khalfin Hany Khalil Bilon Khambu Shahid Y Khan Vinoth Kumar Megraj Khandelwal Rekha Khandia Widuri Kho Noopur V Khobrekar Sataree Khuansuwan Mukhran Khundadze Samuel A Killackey Dasol Kim Deok Ryong Kim Do-Hyung Kim Dong-Eun Kim Eun Young Kim Eun-Kyoung Kim Hak-Rim Kim Hee-Sik Kim Hyung-Ryong Kim Jeong Hun Kim Jin Kyung Kim Jin-Hoi Kim Joungmok Kim Ju Hwan Kim Keun Il Kim Peter K Kim Seong-Jun Kim Scot R Kimball Adi Kimchi Alec C Kimmelman Tomonori Kimura Matthew A King Kerri J Kinghorn Conan G Kinsey Vladimir Kirkin Lorrie A Kirshenbaum Sergey L Kiselev Shuji Kishi Katsuhiko Kitamoto Yasushi Kitaoka Kaio Kitazato Richard N Kitsis Josef T Kittler Ole Kjaerulff Peter S Klein Thomas Klopstock Jochen Klucken Helene Knævelsrud Roland L Knorr Ben C B Ko Fred Ko Jiunn-Liang Ko Hotaka Kobayashi Satoru Kobayashi Ina Koch Jan C Koch Ulrich Koenig Donat Kögel Young Ho Koh Masato Koike Sepp D Kohlwein Nur M Kocaturk Masaaki Komatsu Jeannette König Toru Kono Benjamin T Kopp Tamas Korcsmaros Gözde Korkmaz Viktor I Korolchuk Mónica Suárez Korsnes Ali Koskela Janaiah Kota Yaichiro Kotake Monica L Kotler Yanjun Kou Michael I Koukourakis Evangelos Koustas Attila L Kovacs Tibor Kovács Daisuke Koya Tomohiro Kozako Claudine Kraft Dimitri Krainc Helmut Krämer Anna D Krasnodembskaya Carole Kretz-Remy Guido Kroemer Nicholas T Ktistakis Kazuyuki Kuchitsu Sabine Kuenen Lars Kuerschner Thomas Kukar Ajay Kumar Ashok Kumar Deepak Kumar Dhiraj Kumar Sharad Kumar Shinji Kume Caroline Kumsta Chanakya N Kundu Mondira Kundu Ajaikumar B Kunnumakkara Lukasz Kurgan Tatiana G Kutateladze Ozlem Kutlu SeongAe Kwak Ho Jeong Kwon Taeg Kyu Kwon Yong Tae Kwon Irene Kyrmizi Albert La Spada Patrick Labonté Sylvain Ladoire Ilaria Laface Frank Lafont Diane C Lagace Vikramjit Lahiri Zhibing Lai Angela S Laird Aparna Lakkaraju Trond Lamark Sheng-Hui Lan Ane Landajuela Darius J R Lane Jon D Lane Charles H Lang Carsten Lange Ülo Langel Rupert Langer Pierre Lapaquette Jocelyn Laporte Nicholas F LaRusso Isabel Lastres-Becker Wilson Chun Yu Lau Gordon W Laurie Sergio Lavandero Betty Yuen Kwan Law Helen Ka-Wai Law Rob Layfield Weidong Le Herve Le Stunff Alexandre Y Leary Jean-Jacques Lebrun Lionel Y W Leck Jean-Philippe Leduc-Gaudet Changwook Lee Chung-Pei Lee Da-Hye Lee Edward B Lee Erinna F Lee Gyun Min Lee He-Jin Lee Heung Kyu Lee Jae Man Lee Jason S Lee Jin-A Lee Joo-Yong Lee Jun Hee Lee Michael Lee Min Goo Lee Min Jae Lee Myung-Shik Lee Sang Yoon Lee Seung-Jae Lee Stella Y Lee Sung Bae Lee Won Hee Lee Ying-Ray Lee Yong-Ho Lee Youngil Lee Christophe Lefebvre Renaud Legouis Yu L Lei Yuchen Lei Sergey Leikin Gerd Leitinger Leticia Lemus Shuilong Leng Olivia Lenoir Guido Lenz Heinz Josef Lenz Paola Lenzi Yolanda León Andréia M Leopoldino Christoph Leschczyk Stina Leskelä Elisabeth Letellier Chi-Ting Leung Po Sing Leung Jeremy S Leventhal Beth Levine Patrick A Lewis Klaus Ley Bin Li Da-Qiang Li Jianming Li Jing Li Jiong Li Ke Li Liwu Li Mei Li Min Li Min Li Ming Li Mingchuan Li Pin-Lan Li Ming-Qing Li Qing Li Sheng Li Tiangang Li Wei Li Wenming Li Xue Li Yi-Ping Li Yuan Li Zhiqiang Li Zhiyong Li Zhiyuan Li Jiqin Lian Chengyu Liang Qiangrong Liang Weicheng Liang Yongheng Liang YongTian Liang Guanghong Liao Lujian Liao Mingzhi Liao Yung-Feng Liao Mariangela Librizzi Pearl P Y Lie Mary A Lilly Hyunjung J Lim Thania R R Lima Federica Limana Chao Lin Chih-Wen Lin Dar-Shong Lin Fu-Cheng Lin Jiandie D Lin Kurt M Lin Kwang-Huei Lin Liang-Tzung Lin Pei-Hui Lin Qiong Lin Shaofeng Lin Su-Ju Lin Wenyu Lin Xueying Lin Yao-Xin Lin Yee-Shin Lin Rafael Linden Paula Lindner Shuo-Chien Ling Paul Lingor Amelia K Linnemann Yih-Cherng Liou Marta M Lipinski Saška Lipovšek Vitor A Lira Natalia Lisiak Paloma B Liton Chao Liu Ching-Hsuan Liu Chun-Feng Liu Cui Hua Liu Fang Liu Hao Liu Hsiao-Sheng Liu Hua-Feng Liu Huifang Liu Jia Liu Jing Liu Julia Liu Leyuan Liu Longhua Liu Meilian Liu Qin Liu Wei Liu Wende Liu Xiao-Hong Liu Xiaodong Liu Xingguo Liu Xu Liu Xuedong Liu Yanfen Liu Yang Liu Yang Liu Yueyang Liu Yule Liu J Andrew Livingston Gerard Lizard Jose M Lizcano Senka Ljubojevic-Holzer Matilde E LLeonart David Llobet-Navàs Alicia Llorente Chih Hung Lo Damián Lobato-Márquez Qi Long Yun Chau Long Ben Loos Julia A Loos Manuela G López Guillermo López-Doménech José Antonio López-Guerrero Ana T López-Jiménez Óscar López-Pérez Israel López-Valero Magdalena J Lorenowicz Mar Lorente Peter Lorincz Laura Lossi Sophie Lotersztajn Penny E Lovat Jonathan F Lovell Alenka Lovy Péter Lőw Guang Lu Haocheng Lu Jia-Hong Lu Jin-Jian Lu Mengji Lu Shuyan Lu Alessandro Luciani John M Lucocq Paula Ludovico Micah A Luftig Morten Luhr Diego Luis-Ravelo Julian J Lum Liany Luna-Dulcey Anders H Lund Viktor K Lund Jan D Lünemann Patrick Lüningschrör Honglin Luo Rongcan Luo Shouqing Luo Zhi Luo Claudio Luparello Bernhard Lüscher Luan Luu Alex Lyakhovich Konstantin G Lyamzaev Alf Håkon Lystad Lyubomyr Lytvynchuk Alvin C Ma Changle Ma Mengxiao Ma Ning-Fang Ma Quan-Hong Ma Xinliang Ma Yueyun Ma Zhenyi Ma Ormond A MacDougald Fernando Macian Gustavo C MacIntosh Jeffrey P MacKeigan Kay F Macleod Sandra Maday Frank Madeo Muniswamy Madesh Tobias Madl Julio Madrigal-Matute Akiko Maeda Yasuhiro Maejima Marta Magarinos Poornima Mahavadi Emiliano Maiani Kenneth Maiese Panchanan Maiti Maria Chiara Maiuri Barbara Majello Michael B Major Elena Makareeva Fayaz Malik Karthik Mallilankaraman Walter Malorni Alina Maloyan Najiba Mammadova Gene Chi Wai Man Federico Manai Joseph D Mancias Eva-Maria Mandelkow Michael A Mandell Angelo A Manfredi Masoud H Manjili Ravi Manjithaya Patricio Manque Bella B Manshian Raquel Manzano Claudia Manzoni Kai Mao Cinzia Marchese Sandrine Marchetti Anna Maria Marconi Fabrizio Marcucci Stefania Mardente Olga A Mareninova Marta Margeta Muriel Mari Sara Marinelli Oliviero Marinelli Guillermo Mariño Sofia Mariotto Richard S Marshall Mark R Marten Sascha Martens Alexandre P J Martin Katie R Martin Sara Martin Shaun Martin Adrián Martín-Segura Miguel A Martín-Acebes Inmaculada Martin-Burriel Marcos Martin-Rincon Paloma Martin-Sanz José A Martina Wim Martinet Aitor Martinez Ana Martinez Jennifer Martinez Moises Martinez Velazquez Nuria Martinez-Lopez Marta Martinez-Vicente Daniel O Martins Joilson O Martins Waleska K Martins Tania Martins-Marques Emanuele Marzetti Shashank Masaldan Celine Masclaux-Daubresse Douglas G Mashek Valentina Massa Lourdes Massieu Glenn R Masson Laura Masuelli Anatoliy I Masyuk Tetyana V Masyuk Paola Matarrese Ander Matheu Satoaki Matoba Sachiko Matsuzaki Pamela Mattar Alessandro Matte Domenico Mattoscio José L Mauriz Mario Mauthe Caroline Mauvezin Emanual Maverakis Paola Maycotte Johanna Mayer Gianluigi Mazzoccoli Cristina Mazzoni Joseph R Mazzulli Nami McCarty Christine McDonald Mitchell R McGill Sharon L McKenna BethAnn McLaughlin Fionn McLoughlin Mark A McNiven Thomas G McWilliams Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou Tania Catarina Medeiros Diego L Medina Lynn A Megeney Klara Megyeri Maryam Mehrpour Jawahar L Mehta Alfred J Meijer Annemarie H Meijer Jakob Mejlvang Alicia Meléndez Annette Melk Gonen Memisoglu Alexandrina F Mendes Delong Meng Fei Meng Tian Meng Rubem Menna-Barreto Manoj B Menon Carol Mercer Anne E Mercier Jean-Louis Mergny Adalberto Merighi Seth D Merkley Giuseppe Merla Volker Meske Ana Cecilia Mestre Shree Padma Metur Christian Meyer Hemmo Meyer Wenyi Mi Jeanne Mialet-Perez Junying Miao Lucia Micale Yasuo Miki Enrico Milan Małgorzata Milczarek Dana L Miller Samuel I Miller Silke Miller Steven W Millward Ira Milosevic Elena A Minina Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Mehdi Mirzaei Amit Mishra Nandita Mishra Paras Kumar Mishra Maja Misirkic Marjanovic Roberta Misasi Amit Misra Gabriella Misso Claire Mitchell Geraldine Mitou Tetsuji Miura Shigeki Miyamoto Makoto Miyazaki Mitsunori Miyazaki Taiga Miyazaki Keisuke Miyazawa Noboru Mizushima Trine H Mogensen Baharia Mograbi Reza Mohammadinejad Yasir Mohamud Abhishek Mohanty Sipra Mohapatra Torsten Möhlmann Asif Mohmmed Anna Moles Kelle H Moley Maurizio Molinari Vincenzo Mollace Andreas Buch Møller Bertrand Mollereau Faustino Mollinedo Costanza Montagna Mervyn J Monteiro Andrea Montella L Ruth Montes Barbara Montico Vinod K Mony Giacomo Monzio Compagnoni Michael N Moore Mohammad A Moosavi Ana L Mora Marina Mora David Morales-Alamo Rosario Moratalla Paula I Moreira Elena Morelli Sandra Moreno Daniel Moreno-Blas Viviana Moresi Benjamin Morga Alwena H Morgan Fabrice Morin Hideaki Morishita Orson L Moritz Mariko Moriyama Yuji Moriyasu Manuela Morleo Eugenia Morselli Jose F Moruno-Manchon Jorge Moscat Serge Mostowy Elisa Motori Andrea Felinto Moura Naima Moustaid-Moussa Maria Mrakovcic Gabriel Muciño-Hernández Anupam Mukherjee Subhadip Mukhopadhyay Jean M Mulcahy Levy Victoriano Mulero Sylviane Muller Christian Münch Ashok Munjal Pura Munoz-Canoves Teresa Muñoz-Galdeano Christian Münz Tomokazu Murakawa Claudia Muratori Brona M Murphy J Patrick Murphy Aditya Murthy Timo T Myöhänen Indira U Mysorekar Jennifer Mytych Seyed Mohammad Nabavi Massimo Nabissi Péter Nagy Jihoon Nah Aimable Nahimana Ichiro Nakagawa Ken Nakamura Hitoshi Nakatogawa Shyam S Nandi Meera Nanjundan Monica Nanni Gennaro Napolitano Roberta Nardacci Masashi Narita Melissa Nassif Ilana Nathan Manabu Natsumeda Ryno J Naude Christin Naumann Olaia Naveiras Fatemeh Navid Steffan T Nawrocki Taras Y Nazarko Francesca Nazio Florentina Negoita Thomas Neill Amanda L Neisch Luca M Neri Mihai G Netea Patrick Neubert Thomas P Neufeld Dietbert Neumann Albert Neutzner Phillip T Newton Paul A Ney Ioannis P Nezis Charlene C W Ng Tzi Bun Ng Hang T T Nguyen Long T Nguyen Hong-Min Ni Clíona Ní Cheallaigh Zhenhong Ni M Celeste Nicolao Francesco Nicoli Manuel Nieto-Diaz Per Nilsson Shunbin Ning Rituraj Niranjan Hiroshi Nishimune Mireia Niso-Santano Ralph A Nixon Annalisa Nobili Clevio Nobrega Takeshi Noda Uxía Nogueira-Recalde Trevor M Nolan Ivan Nombela Ivana Novak Beatriz Novoa Takashi Nozawa Nobuyuki Nukina Carmen Nussbaum-Krammer Jesper Nylandsted Tracey R O'Donovan Seónadh M O'Leary Eyleen J O'Rourke Mary P O'Sullivan Timothy E O'Sullivan Salvatore Oddo Ina Oehme Michinaga Ogawa Eric Ogier-Denis Margret H Ogmundsdottir Besim Ogretmen Goo Taeg Oh Seon-Hee Oh Young J Oh Takashi Ohama Yohei Ohashi Masaki Ohmuraya Vasileios Oikonomou Rani Ojha Koji Okamoto Hitoshi Okazawa Masahide Oku Sara Oliván Jorge M A Oliveira Michael Ollmann James A Olzmann Shakib Omari M Bishr Omary Gizem Önal Martin Ondrej Sang-Bing Ong Sang-Ging Ong Anna Onnis Juan A Orellana Sara Orellana-Muñoz Maria Del Mar Ortega-Villaizan Xilma R Ortiz-Gonzalez Elena Ortona Heinz D Osiewacz Abdel-Hamid K Osman Rosario Osta Marisa S Otegui Kinya Otsu Christiane Ott Luisa Ottobrini Jing-Hsiung James Ou Tiago F Outeiro Inger Oynebraten Melek Ozturk Gilles Pagès Susanta Pahari Marta Pajares Utpal B Pajvani Rituraj Pal Simona Paladino Nicolas Pallet Michela Palmieri Giuseppe Palmisano Camilla Palumbo Francesco Pampaloni Lifeng Pan Qingjun Pan Wenliang Pan Xin Pan Ganna Panasyuk Rahul Pandey Udai B Pandey Vrajesh Pandya Francesco Paneni Shirley Y Pang Elisa Panzarini Daniela L Papademetrio Elena Papaleo Daniel Papinski Diana Papp Eun Chan Park Hwan Tae Park Ji-Man Park Jong-In Park Joon Tae Park Junsoo Park Sang Chul Park Sang-Youel Park Abraham H Parola Jan B Parys Adrien Pasquier Benoit Pasquier João F Passos Nunzia Pastore Hemal H Patel Daniel Patschan Sophie Pattingre Gustavo Pedraza-Alva Jose Pedraza-Chaverri Zully Pedrozo Gang Pei Jianming Pei Hadas Peled-Zehavi Joaquín M Pellegrini Joffrey Pelletier Miguel A Peñalva Di Peng Ying Peng Fabio Penna Maria Pennuto Francesca Pentimalli Cláudia Mf Pereira Gustavo J S Pereira Lilian C Pereira Luis Pereira de Almeida Nirma D Perera Ángel Pérez-Lara Ana B Perez-Oliva María Esther Pérez-Pérez Palsamy Periyasamy Andras Perl Cristiana Perrotta Ida Perrotta Richard G Pestell Morten Petersen Irina Petrache Goran Petrovski Thorsten Pfirrmann Astrid S Pfister Jennifer A Philips Huifeng Pi Anna Picca Alicia M Pickrell Sandy Picot Giovanna M Pierantoni Marina Pierdominici Philippe Pierre Valérie Pierrefite-Carle Karolina Pierzynowska Federico Pietrocola Miroslawa Pietruczuk Claudio Pignata Felipe X Pimentel-Muiños Mario Pinar Roberta O Pinheiro Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski Paolo Pinton Karolina Pircs Sujan Piya Paola Pizzo Theo S Plantinga Harald W Platta Ainhoa Plaza-Zabala Markus Plomann Egor Y Plotnikov Helene Plun-Favreau Ryszard Pluta Roger Pocock Stefanie Pöggeler Christian Pohl Marc Poirot Angelo Poletti Marisa Ponpuak Hana Popelka Blagovesta Popova Helena Porta Soledad Porte Alcon Eliana Portilla-Fernandez Martin Post Malia B Potts Joanna Poulton Ted Powers Veena Prahlad Tomasz K Prajsnar Domenico Praticò Rosaria Prencipe Muriel Priault Tassula Proikas-Cezanne Vasilis J Promponas Christopher G Proud Rosa Puertollano Luigi Puglielli Thomas Pulinilkunnil Deepika Puri Rajat Puri Julien Puyal Xiaopeng Qi Yongmei Qi Wenbin Qian Lei Qiang Yu Qiu Joe Quadrilatero Jorge Quarleri Nina Raben Hannah Rabinowich Debora Ragona Michael J Ragusa Nader Rahimi Marveh Rahmati Valeria Raia Nuno Raimundo Namakkal-Soorappan Rajasekaran Sriganesh Ramachandra Rao Abdelhaq Rami Ignacio Ramírez-Pardo David B Ramsden Felix Randow Pundi N Rangarajan Danilo Ranieri Hai Rao Lang Rao Rekha Rao Sumit Rathore J Arjuna Ratnayaka Edward A Ratovitski Palaniyandi Ravanan Gloria Ravegnini Swapan K Ray Babak Razani Vito Rebecca Fulvio Reggiori Anne Régnier-Vigouroux Andreas S Reichert David Reigada Jan H Reiling Theo Rein Siegfried Reipert Rokeya Sultana Rekha Hongmei Ren Jun Ren Weichao Ren Tristan Renault Giorgia Renga Karen Reue Kim Rewitz Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade Ramos S Amer Riazuddin Teresa M Ribeiro-Rodrigues Jean-Ehrland Ricci Romeo Ricci Victoria Riccio Des R Richardson Yasuko Rikihisa Makarand V Risbud Ruth M Risueño Konstantinos Ritis Salvatore Rizza Rosario Rizzuto Helen C Roberts Luke D Roberts Katherine J Robinson Maria Carmela Roccheri Stephane Rocchi George G Rodney Tiago Rodrigues Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva Amaia Rodriguez Ruth Rodriguez-Barrueco Nieves Rodriguez-Henche Humberto Rodriguez-Rocha Jeroen Roelofs Robert S Rogers Vladimir V Rogov Ana I Rojo Krzysztof Rolka Vanina Romanello Luigina Romani Alessandra Romano Patricia S Romano David Romeo-Guitart Luis C Romero Montserrat Romero Joseph C Roney Christopher Rongo Sante Roperto Mathias T Rosenfeldt Philip Rosenstiel Anne G Rosenwald Kevin A Roth Lynn Roth Steven Roth Kasper M A Rouschop Benoit D Roussel Sophie Roux Patrizia Rovere-Querini Ajit Roy Aurore Rozieres Diego Ruano David C Rubinsztein Maria P Rubtsova Klaus Ruckdeschel Christoph Ruckenstuhl Emil Rudolf Rüdiger Rudolf Alessandra Ruggieri Avnika Ashok Ruparelia Paola Rusmini Ryan R Russell Gian Luigi Russo Maria Russo Rossella Russo Oxana O Ryabaya Kevin M Ryan Kwon-Yul Ryu Maria Sabater-Arcis Ulka Sachdev Michael Sacher Carsten Sachse Abhishek Sadhu Junichi Sadoshima Nathaniel Safren Paul Saftig Antonia P Sagona Gaurav Sahay Amirhossein Sahebkar Mustafa Sahin Ozgur Sahin Sumit Sahni Nayuta Saito Shigeru Saito Tsunenori Saito Ryohei Sakai Yasuyoshi Sakai Jun-Ichi Sakamaki Kalle Saksela Gloria Salazar Anna Salazar-Degracia Ghasem H Salekdeh Ashok K Saluja Belém Sampaio-Marques Maria Cecilia Sanchez Jose A Sanchez-Alcazar Victoria Sanchez-Vera Vanessa Sancho-Shimizu J Thomas Sanderson Marco Sandri Stefano Santaguida Laura Santambrogio Magda M Santana Giorgio Santoni Alberto Sanz Pascual Sanz Shweta Saran Marco Sardiello Timothy J Sargeant Apurva Sarin Chinmoy Sarkar Sovan Sarkar Maria-Rosa Sarrias Surajit Sarkar Dipanka Tanu Sarmah Jaakko Sarparanta Aishwarya Sathyanarayan Ranganayaki Sathyanarayanan K Matthew Scaglione Francesca Scatozza Liliana Schaefer Zachary T Schafer Ulrich E Schaible Anthony H V Schapira Michael Scharl Hermann M Schatzl Catherine H Schein Wiep Scheper David Scheuring Maria Vittoria Schiaffino Monica Schiappacassi Rainer Schindl Uwe Schlattner Oliver Schmidt Roland Schmitt Stephen D Schmidt Ingo Schmitz Eran Schmukler Anja Schneider Bianca E Schneider Romana Schober Alejandra C Schoijet Micah B Schott Michael Schramm Bernd Schröder Kai Schuh Christoph Schüller Ryan J Schulze Lea Schürmanns Jens C Schwamborn Melanie Schwarten Filippo Scialo Sebastiano Sciarretta Melanie J Scott Kathleen W Scotto A Ivana Scovassi Andrea Scrima Aurora Scrivo David Sebastian Salwa Sebti Simon Sedej Laura Segatori Nava Segev Per O Seglen Iban Seiliez Ekihiro Seki Scott B Selleck Frank W Sellke Joshua T Selsby Michael Sendtner Serif Senturk Elena Seranova Consolato Sergi Ruth Serra-Moreno Hiromi Sesaki Carmine Settembre Subba Rao Gangi Setty Gianluca Sgarbi Ou Sha John J Shacka Javeed A Shah Dantong Shang Changshun Shao Feng Shao Soroush Sharbati Lisa M Sharkey Dipali Sharma Gaurav Sharma Kulbhushan Sharma Pawan Sharma Surendra Sharma Han-Ming Shen Hongtao Shen Jiangang Shen Ming Shen Weili Shen Zheni Shen Rui Sheng Zhi Sheng Zu-Hang Sheng Jianjian Shi Xiaobing Shi Ying-Hong Shi Kahori Shiba-Fukushima Jeng-Jer Shieh Yohta Shimada Shigeomi Shimizu Makoto Shimozawa Takahiro Shintani Christopher J Shoemaker Shahla Shojaei Ikuo Shoji Bhupendra V Shravage Viji Shridhar Chih-Wen Shu Hong-Bing Shu Ke Shui Arvind K Shukla Timothy E Shutt Valentina Sica Aleem Siddiqui Amanda Sierra Virginia Sierra-Torre Santiago Signorelli Payel Sil Bruno J de Andrade Silva Johnatas D Silva Eduardo Silva-Pavez Sandrine Silvente-Poirot Rachel E Simmonds Anna Katharina Simon Hans-Uwe Simon Matias Simons Anurag Singh Lalit P Singh Rajat Singh Shivendra V Singh Shrawan K Singh Sudha B Singh Sunaina Singh Surinder Pal Singh Debasish Sinha Rohit Anthony Sinha Sangita Sinha Agnieszka Sirko Kapil Sirohi Efthimios L Sivridis Panagiotis Skendros Aleksandra Skirycz Iva Slaninová Soraya S Smaili Andrei Smertenko Matthew D Smith Stefaan J Soenen Eun Jung Sohn Sophia P M Sok Giancarlo Solaini Thierry Soldati Scott A Soleimanpour Rosa M Soler Alexei Solovchenko Jason A Somarelli Avinash Sonawane Fuyong Song Hyun Kyu Song Ju-Xian Song Kunhua Song Zhiyin Song Leandro R Soria Maurizio Sorice Alexander A Soukas Sandra-Fausia Soukup Diana Sousa Nadia Sousa Paul A Spagnuolo Stephen A Spector M M Srinivas Bharath Daret St Clair Venturina Stagni Leopoldo Staiano Clint A Stalnecker Metodi V Stankov Peter B Stathopulos Katja Stefan Sven Marcel Stefan Leonidas Stefanis Joan S Steffan Alexander Steinkasserer Harald Stenmark Jared Sterneckert Craig Stevens Veronika Stoka Stephan Storch Björn Stork Flavie Strappazzon Anne Marie Strohecker Dwayne G Stupack Huanxing Su Ling-Yan Su Longxiang Su Ana M Suarez-Fontes Carlos S Subauste Selvakumar Subbian Paula V Subirada Ganapasam Sudhandiran Carolyn M Sue Xinbing Sui Corey Summers Guangchao Sun Jun Sun Kang Sun Meng-Xiang Sun Qiming Sun Yi Sun Zhongjie Sun Karen K S Sunahara Eva Sundberg Katalin Susztak Peter Sutovsky Hidekazu Suzuki Gary Sweeney J David Symons Stephen Cho Wing Sze Nathaniel J Szewczyk Anna Tabęcka-Łonczynska Claudio Tabolacci Frank Tacke Heinrich Taegtmeyer Marco Tafani Mitsuo Tagaya Haoran Tai Stephen W G Tait Yoshinori Takahashi Szabolcs Takats Priti Talwar Chit Tam Shing Yau Tam Davide Tampellini Atsushi Tamura Chong Teik Tan Eng-King Tan Ya-Qin Tan Masaki Tanaka Motomasa Tanaka Daolin Tang Jingfeng Tang Tie-Shan Tang Isei Tanida Zhipeng Tao Mohammed Taouis Lars Tatenhorst Nektarios Tavernarakis Allen Taylor Gregory A Taylor Joan M Taylor Elena Tchetina Andrew R Tee Irmgard Tegeder David Teis Natercia Teixeira Fatima Teixeira-Clerc Kumsal A Tekirdag Tewin Tencomnao Sandra Tenreiro Alexei V Tepikin Pilar S Testillano Gianluca Tettamanti Pierre-Louis Tharaux Kathrin Thedieck Arvind A Thekkinghat Stefano Thellung Josephine W Thinwa V P Thirumalaikumar Sufi Mary Thomas Paul G Thomes Andrew Thorburn Lipi Thukral Thomas Thum Michael Thumm Ling Tian Ales Tichy Andreas Till Vincent Timmerman Vladimir I Titorenko Sokol V Todi Krassimira Todorova Janne M Toivonen Luana Tomaipitinca Dhanendra Tomar Cristina Tomas-Zapico Sergej Tomić Benjamin Chun-Kit Tong Chao Tong Xin Tong Sharon A Tooze Maria L Torgersen Satoru Torii Liliana Torres-López Alicia Torriglia Christina G Towers Roberto Towns Shinya Toyokuni Vladimir Trajkovic Donatella Tramontano Quynh-Giao Tran Leonardo H Travassos Charles B Trelford Shirley Tremel Ioannis P Trougakos Betty P Tsao Mario P Tschan Hung-Fat Tse Tak Fu Tse Hitoshi Tsugawa Andrey S Tsvetkov David A Tumbarello Yasin Tumtas María J Tuñón Sandra Turcotte Boris Turk Vito Turk Bradley J Turner Richard I Tuxworth Jessica K Tyler Elena V Tyutereva Yasuo Uchiyama Aslihan Ugun-Klusek Holm H Uhlig Marzena Ułamek-Kozioł Ilya V Ulasov Midori Umekawa Christian Ungermann Rei Unno Sylvie Urbe Elisabet Uribe-Carretero Suayib Üstün Vladimir N Uversky Thomas Vaccari Maria I Vaccaro Björn F Vahsen Helin Vakifahmetoglu-Norberg Rut Valdor Maria J Valente Ayelén Valko Richard B Vallee Angela M Valverde Greet Van den Berghe Stijn van der Veen Luc Van Kaer Jorg van Loosdregt Sjoerd J L van Wijk Wim Vandenberghe Ilse Vanhorebeek Marcos A Vannier-Santos Nicola Vannini M Cristina Vanrell Chiara Vantaggiato Gabriele Varano Isabel Varela-Nieto Máté Varga M Helena Vasconcelos Somya Vats Demetrios G Vavvas Ignacio Vega-Naredo Silvia Vega-Rubin-de-Celis Guillermo Velasco Ariadna P Velázquez Tibor Vellai Edo Vellenga Francesca Velotti Mireille Verdier Panayotis Verginis Isabelle Vergne Paul Verkade Manish Verma Patrik Verstreken Tim Vervliet Jörg Vervoorts Alexandre T Vessoni Victor M Victor Michel Vidal Chiara Vidoni Otilia V Vieira Richard D Vierstra Sonia Viganó Helena Vihinen Vinoy Vijayan Miquel Vila Marçal Vilar José M Villalba Antonio Villalobo Beatriz Villarejo-Zori Francesc Villarroya Joan Villarroya Olivier Vincent Cecile Vindis Christophe Viret Maria Teresa Viscomi Dora Visnjic Ilio Vitale David J Vocadlo Olga V Voitsekhovskaja Cinzia Volonté Mattia Volta Marta Vomero Clarissa Von Haefen Marc A Vooijs Wolfgang Voos Ljubica Vucicevic Richard Wade-Martins Satoshi Waguri Kenrick A Waite Shuji Wakatsuki David W Walker Mark J Walker Simon A Walker Jochen Walter Francisco G Wandosell Bo Wang Chao-Yung Wang Chen Wang Chenran Wang Chenwei Wang Cun-Yu Wang Dong Wang Fangyang Wang Feng Wang Fengming Wang Guansong Wang Han Wang Hao Wang Hexiang Wang Hong-Gang Wang Jianrong Wang Jigang Wang Jiou Wang Jundong Wang Kui Wang Lianrong Wang Liming Wang Maggie Haitian Wang Meiqing Wang Nanbu Wang Pengwei Wang Peipei Wang Ping Wang Ping Wang Qing Jun Wang Qing Wang Qing Kenneth Wang Qiong A Wang Wen-Tao Wang Wuyang Wang Xinnan Wang Xuejun Wang Yan Wang Yanchang Wang Yanzhuang Wang Yen-Yun Wang Yihua Wang Yipeng Wang Yu Wang Yuqi Wang Zhe Wang Zhenyu Wang Zhouguang Wang Gary Warnes Verena Warnsmann Hirotaka Watada Eizo Watanabe Maxinne Watchon Anna Wawrzyńska Timothy E Weaver Grzegorz Wegrzyn Ann M Wehman Huafeng Wei Lei Wei Taotao Wei Yongjie Wei Oliver H Weiergräber Conrad C Weihl Günther Weindl Ralf Weiskirchen Alan Wells Runxia H Wen Xin Wen Antonia Werner Beatrice Weykopf Sally P Wheatley J Lindsay Whitton Alexander J Whitworth Katarzyna Wiktorska Manon E Wildenberg Tom Wileman Simon Wilkinson Dieter Willbold Brett Williams Robin S B Williams Roger L Williams Peter R Williamson Richard A Wilson Beate Winner Nathaniel J Winsor Steven S Witkin Harald Wodrich Ute Woehlbier Thomas Wollert Esther Wong Jack Ho Wong Richard W Wong Vincent Kam Wai Wong W Wei-Lynn Wong An-Guo Wu Chengbiao Wu Jian Wu Junfang Wu Kenneth K Wu Min Wu Shan-Ying Wu Shengzhou Wu Shu-Yan Wu Shufang Wu William K K Wu Xiaohong Wu Xiaoqing Wu Yao-Wen Wu Yihua Wu Ramnik J Xavier Hongguang Xia Lixin Xia Zhengyuan Xia Ge Xiang Jin Xiang Mingliang Xiang Wei Xiang Bin Xiao Guozhi Xiao Hengyi Xiao Hong-Tao Xiao Jian Xiao Lan Xiao Shi Xiao Yin Xiao Baoming Xie Chuan-Ming Xie Min Xie Yuxiang Xie Zhiping Xie Zhonglin Xie Maria Xilouri Congfeng Xu En Xu Haoxing Xu Jing Xu JinRong Xu Liang Xu Wen Wen Xu Xiulong Xu Yu Xue Sokhna M S Yakhine-Diop Masamitsu Yamaguchi Osamu Yamaguchi Ai Yamamoto Shunhei Yamashina Shengmin Yan Shian-Jang Yan Zhen Yan Yasuo Yanagi Chuanbin Yang Dun-Sheng Yang Huan Yang Huang-Tian Yang Hui Yang Jin-Ming Yang Jing Yang Jingyu Yang Ling Yang Liu Yang Ming Yang Pei-Ming Yang Qian Yang Seungwon Yang Shu Yang Shun-Fa Yang Wannian Yang Wei Yuan Yang Xiaoyong Yang Xuesong Yang Yi Yang Ying Yang Honghong Yao Shenggen Yao Xiaoqiang Yao Yong-Gang Yao Yong-Ming Yao Takahiro Yasui Meysam Yazdankhah Paul M Yen Cong Yi Xiao-Ming Yin Yanhai Yin Zhangyuan Yin Ziyi Yin Meidan Ying Zheng Ying Calvin K Yip Stephanie Pei Tung Yiu Young H Yoo Kiyotsugu Yoshida Saori R Yoshii Tamotsu Yoshimori Bahman Yousefi Boxuan Yu Haiyang Yu Jun Yu Jun Yu Li Yu Ming-Lung Yu Seong-Woon Yu Victor C Yu W Haung Yu Zhengping Yu Zhou Yu Junying Yuan Ling-Qing Yuan Shilin Yuan Shyng-Shiou F Yuan Yanggang Yuan Zengqiang Yuan Jianbo Yue Zhenyu Yue Jeanho Yun Raymond L Yung David N Zacks Gabriele Zaffagnini Vanessa O Zambelli Isabella Zanella Qun S Zang Sara Zanivan Silvia Zappavigna Pilar Zaragoza Konstantinos S Zarbalis Amir Zarebkohan Amira Zarrouk Scott O Zeitlin Jialiu Zeng Ju-Deng Zeng Eva Žerovnik Lixuan Zhan Bin Zhang Donna D Zhang Hanlin Zhang Hong Zhang Hong Zhang Honghe Zhang Huafeng Zhang Huaye Zhang Hui Zhang Hui-Ling Zhang Jianbin Zhang Jianhua Zhang Jing-Pu Zhang Kalin Y B Zhang Leshuai W Zhang Lin Zhang Lisheng Zhang Lu Zhang Luoying Zhang Menghuan Zhang Peng Zhang Sheng Zhang Wei Zhang Xiangnan Zhang Xiao-Wei Zhang Xiaolei Zhang Xiaoyan Zhang Xin Zhang Xinxin Zhang Xu Dong Zhang Yang Zhang Yanjin Zhang Yi Zhang Ying-Dong Zhang Yingmei Zhang Yuan-Yuan Zhang Yuchen Zhang Zhe Zhang Zhengguang Zhang Zhibing Zhang Zhihai Zhang Zhiyong Zhang Zili Zhang Haobin Zhao Lei Zhao Shuang Zhao Tongbiao Zhao Xiao-Fan Zhao Ying Zhao Yongchao Zhao Yongliang Zhao Yuting Zhao Guoping Zheng Kai Zheng Ling Zheng Shizhong Zheng Xi-Long Zheng Yi Zheng Zu-Guo Zheng Boris Zhivotovsky Qing Zhong Ao Zhou Ben Zhou Cefan Zhou Gang Zhou Hao Zhou Hong Zhou Hongbo Zhou Jie Zhou Jing Zhou Jing Zhou Jiyong Zhou Kailiang Zhou Rongjia Zhou Xu-Jie Zhou Yanshuang Zhou Yinghong Zhou Yubin Zhou Zheng-Yu Zhou Zhou Zhou Binglin Zhu Changlian Zhu Guo-Qing Zhu Haining Zhu Hongxin Zhu Hua Zhu Wei-Guo Zhu Yanping Zhu Yushan Zhu Haixia Zhuang Xiaohong Zhuang Katarzyna Zientara-Rytter Christine M Zimmermann Elena Ziviani Teresa Zoladek Wei-Xing Zong Dmitry B Zorov Antonio Zorzano Weiping Zou Zhen Zou Zhengzhi Zou Steven Zuryn Werner Zwerschke Beate Brand-Saberi X Charlie Dong Chandra Shekar Kenchappa Zuguo Li Yong Lin Shigeru Oshima Yueguang Rong Judith C Sluimer Christina L Stallings Chun-Kit Tong

Autophagy 2021 Jan 8;17(1):1-382. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Hong Kong Baptist University, School of Chinese Medicine, Hong Kong, China.

In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7996087PMC
January 2021

Emerging Therapies in Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma: Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in the Starting Blocks.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 29;10(1). Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, 00161 Rome, Italy.

Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma are neuroendocrine neoplasms, originating in the adrenal medulla and in parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous system ganglia, respectively. They usually present as localized tumours curable with surgery. However, these tumours may exhibit heterogeneous clinical course, ranging from no/minimal progression to aggressive (progressive/metastatic) behavior. For this setting of patients, current therapies are unsatisfactory. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown outstanding results for several types of solid cancers. We therefore aimed to summarize and discuss available data on efficacy and safety of current FDA-approved immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma. After an extensive search, we found 15 useful data sources (four full-published articles, four supplements of scientific journals, seven ongoing registered clinical trials). The data we detected, even with the limit of the small number of patients treated, make a great expectation on the therapeutic use of immune checkpoint inhibitors. Besides, the newly detected predictors of response will (hopefully) be of great helps in selecting the subset of patients that might benefit the most from this class of drugs. Finally, new trials are in the starting blocks, and they are expected to shed in the next future new light on a therapy, which is considered a milestone in oncology.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795591PMC
December 2020

Extracellular Vesicles Loaded miRNAs as Potential Modulators Shared Between Glioblastoma, and Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases.

Front Cell Neurosci 2020 4;14:590034. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Instituto de Investigación en Biomedicina de Buenos Aires - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas - Partner Institute of the Max Planck Society, Buenos Aires, Argentina.

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the deadliest brain tumor. Its poor prognosis is due to cell heterogeneity, invasiveness, and high vascularization that impede an efficient therapeutic approach. In the past few years, several molecular links connecting GBM to neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) were identified at preclinical and clinical level. In particular, giving the increasing critical role that epigenetic alterations play in both GBM and NDDs, we deeply analyzed the role of miRNAs, small non-coding RNAs acting epigenetic modulators in several key biological processes. Specific miRNAs, transported by extracellular vesicles (EVs), act as intercellular communication signals in both diseases. In this way, miRNA-loaded EVs modulate GBM tumorigenesis, as they spread oncogenic signaling within brain parenchyma, and control the aggregation of neurotoxic protein (Tau, Aβ-amyloid peptide, and α-synuclein) in NDDs. In this review, we highlight the most promising miRNAs linking GBM and NDDs playing a significant pathogenic role in both diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2020.590034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7671965PMC
November 2020

Exosomes and Extracellular Vesicles as Emerging Theranostic Platforms in Cancer Research.

Cells 2020 12 1;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Genova, 16147 Genova, Italy.

Exosomes are endosome-derived nanovesicles produced by healthy as well as diseased cells. Their proteic, lipidic and nucleic acid composition is related to the cell of origin, and by vehiculating bioactive molecules they are involved in cell-to-cell signaling, both in healthy and pathologic conditions. Being nano-sized, non-toxic, biocompatible, scarcely immunogenic, and possessing targeting ability and organotropism, exosomes have been proposed as nanocarriers for their potential application in diagnosis and therapy. Among the different techniques exploited for exosome isolation, the sequential ultracentrifugation/ultrafiltration method seems to be the gold standard; alternatively, commercially available kits for exosome selective precipitation from cell culture media are frequently employed. To load a drug or a detectable agent into exosomes, endogenous or exogenous loading approaches have been developed, while surface engineering procedures, such as click chemistry, hydrophobic insertion and exosome display technology, allow for obtaining actively targeted exosomes. This review reports on diagnostic or theranostic platforms based on exosomes or exosome-mimetic vesicles, highlighting the diverse preparation, loading and surface modification methods applied, and the results achieved so far.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells9122569DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7761021PMC
December 2020

Co-Administration of Fendiline Hydrochloride Enhances Chemotherapeutic Efficacy of Cisplatin in Neuroblastoma Treatment.

Molecules 2020 Nov 10;25(22). Epub 2020 Nov 10.

IRCCS AOU San Martino Polyclinic Hospital, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Despite significant improvement of neuroblastoma (NB) patients' survival due to recent treatment advancements in recent years, NB is still associated with high mortality rate. In search of novel strategies to increase NB's susceptibility to pharmacological treatments, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of fendiline hydrochloride as an enhancer of cisplatin antitumor activity. To assess the modulation of fendiline treatment on cisplatin responses, we used in vitro (evaluating NB cell proliferation by XCELLigence technology and colony formation, and gene expression by RT-PCR) and in vivo (NB cell grafts in NOD-SCID mice) models of NB. NB cell treatment with fendiline induced the expression of the ncRNA NDM29, leading to cell differentiation and to the reduction of the expression of MDRs/ABC transporters linked to multidrug resistance. These events were correlated to higher NB cell susceptibility to cisplatin and, consequently, increased its cytotoxic potency. In vivo, this drug interaction causes an enhanced ability of cisplatin to induce apoptosis in NB masses, resulting in tumor growth reduction and prolonged animal survival rate. Thus, the administration of fendiline might be a possible novel therapeutic approach to increase cisplatin efficacy in aggressive and poorly responsive NB cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25225234DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7698186PMC
November 2020

MCM2 and Carbonic Anhydrase 9 Are Novel Potential Targets for Neuroblastoma Pharmacological Treatment.

Biomedicines 2020 Nov 3;8(11). Epub 2020 Nov 3.

IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy.

To overcome the lack of effective pharmacological treatments for high-risk neuroblastoma (HR-NB), the development of novel in vitro and in vivo models that better recapitulate the disease is required. Here, we used an in vitro multiclonal cell model encompassing NB cell differentiation stages, to identify potential novel pharmacological targets. This model allowed us to identify, by low-density RT-PCR arrays, two gene sets, one over-expressed during NB cell differentiation, and the other up-regulated in more malignant cells. Challenging two HR-NB gene expression datasets, we found that these two gene sets are related to high and low survival, respectively. Using mouse NB cisplatin-treated xenografts, we identified two genes within the list associated to the malignant stage (MCM2 and carbonic anhydrase 9), whose expression is positively correlated with tumor growth. Thus, we tested their pharmacological targeting as potential therapeutic strategy. We measured mice survival and tumor growth rate after xenografts of human NB treated with cisplatin in the presence of MCM2/carbonic anhydrase 9 inhibitors (ciprofloxacin and acetazolamide). MCM2 or carbonic anhydrase 9 inhibition significantly increased cisplatin activity, supporting their possible testing for NB therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8110471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7692293PMC
November 2020

Identification of the hydantoin alkaloids parazoanthines as novel CXCR4 antagonists by computational and in vitro functional characterization.

Bioorg Chem 2020 12 6;105:104337. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry, National Research Council (ICB-CNR), Via Campi Flegrei 34, 80078, Pozzuoli, (NA), Italy. Electronic address:

CXCR4 chemokine receptor represents an attractive pharmacological target due to its key role in cancer metastasis and inflammatory diseases. Starting from our previously-developed pharmacophoric model, we applied a combined computational and experimental approach that led to the identification of the hydantoin alkaloids parazoanthines, isolated from the Mediterranean Sea anemone Parazoanthus axinellae, as novel CXCR4 antagonists. Parazoanthine analogues were then synthesized to evaluate the contribution of functional groups to the overall activity. Within the panel of synthesized natural and non-natural parazoanthines, parazoanthine-B was identified as the most potent CXCR4 antagonist with an IC value of 9.3 nM, even though all the investigated compounds were able to antagonize in vitro the down-stream effects of CXC12, albeit with variable potency and efficacy. The results of our study strongly support this class of small molecules as potent CXCR4 antagonists in tumoral pathologies characterized by an overexpression of this receptor. Furthermore, their structure-activity relationships allowed the optimization of our pharmacophoric model, useful for large-scale in silico screening.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.104337DOI Listing
December 2020

Cross talk between mesenchymal and glioblastoma stem cells: Communication beyond controversies.

Stem Cells Transl Med 2020 11 15;9(11):1310-1330. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from bone marrow or other adult tissues (adipose tissue, dental pulp, amniotic fluid, and umbilical cord). In vitro, MSCs grow as adherent cells, display fibroblast-like morphology, and self-renew, undergoing specific mesodermal differentiation. High heterogeneity of MSCs from different origin, and differences in preparation techniques, make difficult to uniform their functional properties for therapeutic purposes. Immunomodulatory, migratory, and differentiation ability, fueled clinical MSC application in regenerative medicine, whereas beneficial effects are currently mainly ascribed to their secretome and extracellular vesicles. MSC translational potential in cancer therapy exploits putative anti-tumor activity and inherent tropism toward tumor sites to deliver cytotoxic drugs. However, controversial results emerged evaluating either the therapeutic potential or homing efficiency of MSCs, as both antitumor and protumor effects were reported. Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant brain tumor and its development and aggressive nature is sustained by cancer stem cells (CSCs) and the identification of effective therapeutic is required. MSC dualistic action, tumor-promoting or tumor-targeting, is dependent on secreted factors and extracellular vesicles driving a complex cross talk between MSCs and GBM CSCs. Tumor-tropic ability of MSCs, besides providing an alternative therapeutic approach, could represent a tool to understand the biology of GBM CSCs and related paracrine mechanisms, underpinning MSC-GBM interactions. In this review, recent findings on the complex nature of MSCs will be highlighted, focusing on their elusive impact on GBM progression and aggressiveness by direct cell-cell interaction and via secretome, also facing the perspectives and challenges in treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581451PMC
November 2020

Experimental Evidence and Clinical Implications of Pituitary Adenoma Stem Cells.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 20;11:54. Epub 2020 Feb 20.

Section of Pharmacology, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna and Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica (CEBR), Università di Genova, Genoa, Italy.

Pituitary adenomas, accounting for 15% of diagnosed intracranial neoplasms, are usually benign and pharmacologically and surgically treatable; however, the critical location, mass effects and hormone hypersecretion sustain their significant morbidity. Approximately 35% of pituitary tumors show a less benign course since they are highly proliferative and invasive, poorly resectable, and likely recurring. The latest WHO classification of pituitary tumors includes pituitary transcription factor assessment to determine adenohypophysis cell lineages and accurate designation of adenomas, nevertheless little is known about molecular and cellular pathways which contribute to pituitary tumorigenesis. In malignant tumors the identification of cancer stem cells radically changed the concepts of both tumorigenesis and pharmacological approaches. Cancer stem cells are defined as a subset of undifferentiated transformed cells from which the bulk of cancer cells populating a tumor mass is generated. These cells are able to self-renew, promoting tumor progression and recurrence of malignant tumors, also conferring cytotoxic drug resistance. On the other hand, the existence of stem cells within benign tumors is still debated. The presence of adult stem cells in human and murine pituitaries where they sustain the high plasticity of hormone-producing cells, allowed the hypothesis that putative tumor stem cells might exist in pituitary adenomas, reinforcing the concept that the cancer stem cell model could also be applied to pituitary tumorigenesis. In the last few years, the isolation and phenotypic characterization of putative pituitary adenoma stem-like cells was performed using a wide and heterogeneous variety of experimental models and techniques, although the role of these cells in adenoma initiation and progression is still not completely definite. The assessment of possible pituitary adenoma-initiating cell population would be of extreme relevance to better understand pituitary tumor biology and to identify novel potential diagnostic markers and pharmacological targets. In this review, we summarize the most updated studies focused on the definition of pituitary adenoma stem cell phenotype and functional features, highlighting the biological processes and intracellular pathways potentially involved in driving tumor growth, relapse, and therapy resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.00054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7044184PMC
February 2021

Emerging Role of Cellular Prion Protein in the Maintenance and Expansion of Glioma Stem Cells.

Cells 2019 11 18;8(11). Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna & Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica (CEBR), Università di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Cellular prion protein (PrP) is a membrane-anchored glycoprotein representing the physiological counterpart of PrP scrapie (PrP), which plays a pathogenetic role in prion diseases. Relatively little information is however available about physiological role of PrP. Although PrP ablation in mice does not induce lethal phenotypes, impairment of neuronal and bone marrow plasticity was reported in embryos and adult animals. In neurons, PrP stimulates neurite growth, prevents oxidative stress-dependent cell death, and favors antiapoptotic signaling. However, PrP activity is not restricted to post-mitotic neurons, but promotes cell proliferation and migration during embryogenesis and tissue regeneration in adult. PrP acts as scaffold to stabilize the binding between different membrane receptors, growth factors, and basement proteins, contributing to tumorigenesis. Indeed, ablation of PrP expression reduces cancer cell proliferation and migration and restores cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. Conversely, PrP overexpression in cancer stem cells (CSCs) from different tumors, including gliomas-the most malignant brain tumors-is predictive for poor prognosis, and correlates with relapses. The mechanisms of the PrP role in tumorigenesis and its molecular partners in this activity are the topic of the present review, with a particular focus on PrP contribution to glioma CSCs multipotency, invasiveness, and tumorigenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8111458DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912268PMC
November 2019

Biological and Biochemical Basis of the Differential Efficacy of First and Second Generation Somatostatin Receptor Ligands in Neuroendocrine Neoplasms.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Aug 13;20(16). Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Dipartimento di Medicina Interna & Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica (CEBR), Università di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.

Endogenous somatostatin shows anti-secretory effects in both physiological and pathological settings, as well as inhibitory activity on cell growth. Since somatostatin is not suitable for clinical practice, researchers developed synthetic somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs) to overcome this limitation. Currently, SRLs represent pivotal tools in the treatment algorithm of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Octreotide and lanreotide are the first-generation SRLs developed and show a preferential binding affinity to somatostatin receptor (SST) subtype 2, while pasireotide, which is a second-generation SRL, has high affinity for multiple SSTs (SST > SST > SST > SST). A number of studies demonstrated that first-generation and second-generation SRLs show distinct functional properties, besides the mere receptor affinity. Therefore, the aim of the present review is to critically review the current evidence on the biological effects of SRLs in pituitary adenomas and neuroendocrine tumors, by mainly focusing on the differences between first-generation and second-generation ligands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163940DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6720449PMC
August 2019

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Impair Vasculogenic Mimicry from Glioblastoma Cells.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 May 29;11(6). Epub 2019 May 29.

Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies, University of Campania "Luigi Vanvitelli", 81100 Caserta, Italy.

Glioblastoma (GBM), a high-grade glioma (WHO grade IV), is the most aggressive form of brain cancer. Available treatment options for GBM involve a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy but result in a poor survival outcome. GBM is a high-vascularized tumor and antiangiogenic drugs are widely used in GBM therapy as adjuvants to control abnormal vasculature. Vasculogenic mimicry occurs in GBM as an alternative vascularization mechanism, providing a means whereby GBM can escape anti-angiogenic therapies. Here, using an in vitro tube formation assay on Matrigel, we evaluated the ability of different histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis) to interfere with vasculogenic mimicry. We found that vorinostat (SAHA) and MC1568 inhibit tube formation by rat glioma C6 cells. Moreover, at sublethal doses for GBM cells, SAHA, trichostatin A (TSA), entinostat (MS275), and MC1568 significantly decrease tube formation by U87MG and by patient-derived human GBM cancer stem cells (CSCs). The reduced migration and invasion of HDACis-treated U87 cells, at least in part, may account for the inhibition of tube formation. In conclusion, our results indicate that HDACis are promising candidates for blocking vascular mimicry in GBM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11060747DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627137PMC
May 2019

Repurposed Biguanide Drugs in Glioblastoma Exert Antiproliferative Effects via the Inhibition of Intracellular Chloride Channel 1 Activity.

Front Oncol 2019 13;9:135. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna & Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica, Università di Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

The lack of in-depth knowledge about the molecular determinants of glioblastoma (GBM) occurrence and progression, combined with few effective and BBB crossing-targeted compounds represents a major challenge for the discovery of novel and efficacious drugs for GBM. Among relevant molecular factors controlling the aggressive behavior of GBM, chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) represents an emerging prognostic and predictive biomarker, as well as a promising therapeutic target. CLIC1 is a metamorphic protein, co-existing as both soluble cytoplasmic and membrane-associated conformers, with the latter acting as chloride selective ion channel. CLIC1 is involved in several physiological cell functions and its abnormal expression triggers tumor development, favoring tumor cell proliferation, invasion, and metastasis. CLIC1 overexpression is associated with aggressive features of various human solid tumors, including GBM, in which its expression level is correlated with poor prognosis. Moreover, increasing evidence shows that modification of microglia ion channel activity, and CLIC1 in particular, contributes to the development of different neuropathological states and brain tumors. Intriguingly, CLIC1 is constitutively active within cancer stem cells (CSCs), while it seems less relevant for the survival of non-CSC GBM subpopulations and for normal cells. CSCs represent GBM development and progression driving force, being endowed with stem cell-like properties (self-renewal and differentiation), ability to survive therapies, to expand and differentiate, causing tumor recurrence. Downregulation of CLIC1 results in drastic inhibition of GBM CSC proliferation and , making the control of the activity this of channel a possible innovative pharmacological target. Recently, drugs belonging to the biguanide class (including metformin) were reported to selectively inhibit CLIC1 activity in CSCs, impairing their viability and invasiveness, but sparing normal stem cells, thus representing potential novel antitumor drugs with a safe toxicological profile. On these premises, we review the most recent insights into the biological role of CLIC1 as a potential selective pharmacological target in GBM. Moreover, we examine old and new drugs able to functionally target CLIC1 activity, discussing the challenges and potential development of CLIC1-targeted therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2019.00135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6424887PMC
March 2019

Proteases Upregulation in Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease Brain.

J Alzheimers Dis 2019 ;68(3):931-938

Department of Medicine and Health Sciences "V. Tiberio", University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.

Certain proteases are involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and their erroneous control may contribute to the pathology onset and progression. In this study we evaluated the cerebral expression of eight proteases, involved in both AβPP processing and extracellular matrix remodeling. Among these proteases, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, Cathepsin D, and Meprin β show a significantly higher mRNAs expression in sporadic AD subjects versus controls, while ADAMTS1, Cathepsin D, and Meprin β show an increment also at the protein level. These data indicate that transcriptional events affecting brain proteases are activated in AD patients, suggesting a link between proteolysis and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-181284DOI Listing
August 2020

Autophagy Activator Drugs: A New Opportunity in Neuroprotection from Misfolded Protein Toxicity.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 19;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna & Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica (CEBR), Università di Genova, 16132 Genova, Italy.

The aim of this review is to critically analyze promises and limitations of pharmacological inducers of autophagy against protein misfolding-associated neurodegeneration. Effective therapies against neurodegenerative disorders can be developed by regulating the "self-defense" equipment of neurons, such as autophagy. Through the degradation and recycling of the intracellular content, autophagy promotes neuron survival in conditions of trophic factor deprivation, oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, or accumulation of misfolded proteins. Autophagy involves the activation of self-digestive pathways, which is different for dynamics (macro, micro and chaperone-mediated autophagy), or degraded material (mitophagy, lysophagy, aggrephagy). All neurodegenerative disorders share common pathogenic mechanisms, including the impairment of autophagic flux, which causes the inability to remove the neurotoxic oligomers of misfolded proteins. Pharmacological activation of autophagy is typically achieved by blocking the kinase activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) enzymatic complex 1 (mTORC1), removing its autophagy suppressor activity observed under physiological conditions; acting in this way, rapamycin provided the first proof of principle that pharmacological autophagy enhancement can induce neuroprotection through the facilitation of oligomers' clearance. The demand for effective disease-modifying strategies against neurodegenerative disorders is currently stimulating the development of a wide number of novel molecules, as well as the re-evaluation of old drugs for their pro-autophagic potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6412775PMC
February 2019

Inhibition of Chloride Intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1) as Biguanide Class-Effect to Impair Human Glioblastoma Stem Cell Viability.

Front Pharmacol 2018 21;9:899. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Sezione di Farmacologia, Dipartimento di Medicina Interna and Centro di Eccellenza per la Ricerca Biomedica, Università di Genova, Genova, Italy.

The antidiabetic biguanide metformin exerts antiproliferative effects in different solid tumors. However, during preclinical studies, metformin concentrations required to induce cell growth arrest were invariably within the mM range, thus difficult to translate in a clinical setting. Consequently, the search for more potent metformin derivatives is a current goal for new drug development. Although several cell-specific intracellular mechanisms contribute to the anti-tumor activity of metformin, the inhibition of the chloride intracellular channel 1 activity (CLIC1) at G1/S transition is a key events in metformin antiproliferative effect in glioblastoma stem cells (GSCs). Here we tested several known biguanide-related drugs for the ability to affect glioblastoma (but not normal) stem cell viability, and in particular: phenformin, a withdrawn antidiabetic drug; moroxydine, a former antiviral agent; and proguanil, an antimalarial compound, all of them possessing a linear biguanide structure as metformin; moreover, we evaluated cycloguanil, the active form of proguanil, characterized by a cyclized biguanide moiety. All these drugs caused a significant impairment of GSC proliferation, invasiveness, and self-renewal reaching IC values significantly lower than metformin, (range 0.054-0.53 mM vs. 9.4 mM of metformin). All biguanides inhibited CLIC1-mediated ion current, showing the same potency observed in the antiproliferative effects, with the exception of proguanil which was ineffective. These effects were specific for GSCs, since no (or little) cytotoxicity was observed in normal umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, whose viability was not affected by metformin and moroxydine, while cycloguanil and phenformin induced toxicity only at much higher concentrations than required to reduce GSC proliferation or invasiveness. Conversely, proguanil was highly cytotoxic also for normal mesenchymal stem cells. In conclusion, the inhibition of CLIC1 activity represents a biguanide class-effect to impair GSC viability, invasiveness, and self-renewal, although dissimilarities among different drugs were observed as far as potency, efficacy and selectivity as CLIC1 inhibitors. Being CLIC1 constitutively active in GSCs, this feature is relevant to grant the molecules with high specificity toward GSCs while sparing normal cells. These results could represent the basis for the development of novel biguanide-structured molecules, characterized by high antitumor efficacy and safe toxicological profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00899DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110922PMC
August 2018

Mutual Influence of ROS, pH, and CLIC1 Membrane Protein in the Regulation of G-S Phase Progression in Human Glioblastoma Stem Cells.

Mol Cancer Ther 2018 11 22;17(11):2451-2461. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Dipartimento di Bioscienze, Università degli Studi di Milano, Milan, Italy.

Glioblastoma (GB) is the most lethal, aggressive, and diffuse brain tumor. The main challenge for successful treatment is targeting the cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation responsible for tumor origin, progression, and recurrence. Chloride Intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1), highly expressed in CSCs, is constitutively present in the plasma membrane where it is associated with chloride ion permeability. , CLIC1 inhibition leads to a significant arrest of GB CSCs in G phase of the cell cycle. Furthermore, CLIC1 knockdown impairs tumor growth Here, we demonstrate that CLIC1 membrane localization and function is specific for GB CSCs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) do not show CLIC1-associated chloride permeability, and inhibition of CLIC1 protein function has no influence on MSC cell-cycle progression. Investigation of the basic functions of GB CSCs reveals a constitutive state of oxidative stress and cytoplasmic alkalinization compared with MSCs. Both intracellular oxidation and cytoplasmic pH changes have been reported to affect CLIC1 membrane functional expression. We now report that in CSCs these three elements are temporally linked during CSC G-S transition. Impeding CLIC1-mediated chloride current prevents both intracellular ROS accumulation and pH changes. CLIC1 membrane functional impairment results in GB CSCs resetting from an allostatic tumorigenic condition to a homeostatic steady state. In contrast, inhibiting NADPH oxidase and NHE1 proton pump results in cell death of both GB CSCs and MSCs. Our results show that CLIC1 membrane protein is crucial and specific for GB CSC proliferation, and is a promising pharmacologic target for successful brain tumor therapies. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-1223DOI Listing
November 2018

Effects of Prion Protein on Aβ42 and Pyroglutamate-Modified AβpΕ3-42 Oligomerization and Toxicity.

Mol Neurobiol 2019 Mar 6;56(3):1957-1971. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Istituto per lo Studio delle Macromolecole (ISMAC), CNR, Milan, Italy.

Soluble Aβ oligomers are widely recognized as the toxic forms responsible for triggering AD, and Aβ receptors are hypothesized to represent the first step in a neuronal cascade leading to dementia. Cellular prion protein (PrP) has been reported as a high-affinity binder of Aβ oligomers. The interactions of PrP with both Aβ42 and the highly toxic N-truncated pyroglutamylated species (AβpE3-42) are here investigated, at a molecular level, by means of ThT fluorescence, NMR and TEM. We demonstrate that soluble PrP binds both Aβ42 and AβpE3-42, preferentially interacting with oligomeric species and delaying fibril formation. Residue level analysis of Aβ42 oligomerization process reveals, for the first time, that PrP is able to differently interact with the forming oligomers, depending on the aggregation state of the starting Aβ42 sample. A distinct behavior is observed for Aβ42 1-30 region and C-terminal residues, suggesting that PrP protects Aβ42 N-tail from entangling on the mature NMR-invisible fibril, consistent with the hypothesis that Aβ42 N-tail is the locus of interaction with PrP. PrP/AβpE3-42 interactions are here reported for the first time. All interaction data are validated and complemented by cellular tests performed on Wt and PrP-silenced neuronal cell lines, clearly showing PrP dependent Aβ oligomer cell internalization and toxicity. The ability of soluble PrP to compete with membrane-anchored PrP for binding to Aβ oligomers bears relevance for studies of druggable pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-018-1202-xDOI Listing
March 2019

Emerging multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitors in the treatment of neuroendocrine neoplasms.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2018 09 16;25(9):R453-R466. Epub 2018 May 16.

Department of Clinical Medicine and SurgeryUniversity 'Federico II', Naples, Italy.

In the last few years, the therapeutic approach for neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has changed dramatically following the approval of several novel targeted treatments. The multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MTKI), sunitinib malate, has been approved by Regulatory Agencies in pancreatic NENs. The MTKI class, however, includes several other molecules (approved for other conditions), which are currently being studied in NENs. An in-depth review on the studies published on the MTKIs in neuroendocrine tumors such as axitinib, cabozantinib, famitinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, pazopanib, sorafenib and sulfatinib was performed. Furthermore, we extensively searched on the Clinical Trial Registries databases worldwide, in order to collect information on the ongoing clinical trials related to this topic. Our systematic analysis on emerging MTKIs in the treatment of gastroenteropancreatic and lung NENs identifies and studies, which demonstrate anti-tumor activity of diverse MTKIs on neuroendocrine cells and tumors. Moreover, for the first time in the literature, we report an updated view concerning the upcoming clinical trials in this field: presently, phase I, II and III clinical trials are ongoing and will include, overall, a staggering 1667 patients. This fervid activity underlines the increasing interest of the scientific community in the use of emerging MTKIs in NEN treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-17-0531DOI Listing
September 2018

Sprouty2 enhances the tumorigenic potential of glioblastoma cells.

Neuro Oncol 2018 07;20(8):1044-1054

Division of Neuroanatomy, Medical University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Background: Sprouty2 (SPRY2), a feedback regulator of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling, has been shown to be associated with drug resistance and cell proliferation in glioblastoma (GBM), but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly defined.

Methods: SPRY2 expression and survival patterns of patients with gliomas were analyzed using publicly available databases. Effects of RNA interference targeting SPRY2 on cellular proliferation in established GBM or patient-derived GBM stemlike cells were examined. Loss- or gain-of-function of SPRY2 to regulate the tumorigenic capacity was assessed in both intracranial and subcutaneous xenografts.

Results: SPRY2 was found to be upregulated in GBM, which correlated with reduced survival in GBM patients. SPRY2 knockdown significantly impaired proliferation of GBM cells but not of normal astrocytes. Silencing of SPRY2 increased epidermal growth factor-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and Akt activation causing premature onset of DNA replication, increased DNA damage, and impaired proliferation, suggesting that SPRY2 suppresses DNA replication stress. Abrogating SPRY2 function strongly inhibited intracranial tumor growth and led to significantly prolonged survival of U87 xenograft-bearing mice. In contrast, SPRY2 overexpression promoted tumor propagation of low-tumorigenic U251 cells.

Conclusions: The present study highlights an antitumoral effect of SPRY2 inhibition that is based on excessive activation of ERK signaling and DNA damage response, resulting in reduced cell proliferation and increased cytotoxicity, proposing SPRY2 as a promising pharmacological target in GBM patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noy028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280149PMC
July 2018

Development of an Injectable Slow-Release Metformin Formulation and Evaluation of Its Potential Antitumor Effects.

Sci Rep 2018 03 2;8(1):3929. Epub 2018 Mar 2.

Department of Internal Medicine (DiMI), University of Genova, 16132, Genova, Italy.

Metformin is an antidiabetic drug which possesses antiproliferative activity in cancer cells when administered at high doses, due to its unfavorable pharmacokinetics. The aim of this work was to develop a pharmacological tool for the release of metformin in proximity of the tumor, allowing high local concentrations, and to demonstrate the in vivo antitumor efficacy after a prolonged metformin exposition. A 1.2% w/w metformin thermoresponsive parenteral formulation based on poloxamers P407 and P124, injectable at room temperature and undergoing a sol-gel transition at body temperature, has been developed and optimized for rheological, thermal and release control properties; the formulation is easily scalable, and proved to be stable during a 1-month storage at 5 °C. Using NOD/SCID mice pseudo-orthotopically grafted with MDA-MB-231/luc human breast cancer cells, we report that multiple administrations of 100 mg of the optimized metformin formulation close to the tumor site cause tissue accumulation of the drug at levels significantly higher than those observed in plasma, and enough to exert antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. Our results demonstrate that this formulation is endowed with good stability, tolerability, thermal and rheological properties, representing a novel tool to be pursued in further investigations for adjuvant cancer treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-22054-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5834504PMC
March 2018

In Silico Identification and Experimental Validation of Novel Anti-Alzheimer's Multitargeted Ligands from a Marine Source Featuring a "2-Aminoimidazole plus Aromatic Group" Scaffold.

ACS Chem Neurosci 2018 06 7;9(6):1290-1303. Epub 2018 Mar 7.

Institute of Biomolecular Chemistry (ICB) , National Research Council (CNR) , Comprensorio Olivetti, Ed.70, Via Campi Flegrei, 34 , I-80078 Pozzuoli ( NA ), Italy.

Multitargeting or polypharmacological approaches, looking for single chemical entities retaining the ability to bind two or more molecular targets, are a potentially powerful strategy to fight complex, multifactorial pathologies. Unfortunately, the search for multiligand agents is challenging because only a small subset of molecules contained in molecular databases are bioactive and even fewer are active on a preselected set of multiple targets. However, collections of natural compounds feature a significantly higher fraction of bioactive molecules than synthetic ones. In this view, we searched our library of 1175 natural compounds from marine sources for molecules including a 2-aminoimidazole+aromatic group motif, found in known compounds active on single relevant targets for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This identified two molecules, a pseudozoanthoxanthin (1) and a bromo-pyrrole alkaloid (2), which were predicted by a computational approach to possess interesting multitarget profiles on AD target proteins. Biochemical assays experimentally confirmed their biological activities. The two compounds inhibit acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase, and β-secretase enzymes in high- to sub-micromolar range. They are also able to prevent and revert β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation of both Aβ and Aβ peptides, with 1 being more active than 2. Preliminary in vivo studies suggest that compound 1 is able to restore cholinergic cortico-hippocampal functional connectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.7b00416DOI Listing
June 2018

Pharmacological activation of autophagy favors the clearing of intracellular aggregates of misfolded prion protein peptide to prevent neuronal death.

Cell Death Dis 2018 02 7;9(2):166. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine (DiMI), and Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

According to the "gain-of-toxicity mechanism", neuronal loss during cerebral proteinopathies is caused by accumulation of aggregation-prone conformers of misfolded cellular proteins, although it is still debated which aggregation state actually corresponds to the neurotoxic entity. Autophagy, originally described as a variant of programmed cell death, is now emerging as a crucial mechanism for cell survival in response to a variety of cell stressors, including nutrient deprivation, damage of cytoplasmic organelles, or accumulation of misfolded proteins. Impairment of autophagic flux in neurons often associates with neurodegeneration during cerebral amyloidosis, suggesting a role in clearing neurons from aggregation-prone misfolded proteins. Thus, autophagy may represent a target for innovative therapies. In this work, we show that alterations of autophagy progression occur in neurons following in vitro exposure to the amyloidogenic and neurotoxic prion protein-derived peptide PrP90-231. We report that the increase of autophagic flux represents a strategy adopted by neurons to survive the intracellular accumulation of misfolded PrP90-231. In particular, PrP90-231 internalization in A1 murine mesencephalic neurons occurs in acidic structures, showing electron microscopy hallmarks of autophagosomes and autophagolysosomes. However, these structures do not undergo resolution and accumulate in cytosol, suggesting that, in the presence of PrP90-231, autophagy is activated but its progression is impaired; the inability to clear PrP90-231 via autophagy induces cytotoxicity, causing impairment of lysosomal integrity and cytosolic diffusion of hydrolytic enzymes. Conversely, the induction of autophagy by pharmacological  blockade of mTOR kinase or trophic factor deprivation restored autophagy resolution, reducing intracellular PrP90-231 accumulation and neuronal death. Taken together, these data indicate that PrP90-231 internalization induces an autophagic defensive response in A1 neurons, although incomplete and insufficient to grant survival; the pharmacological enhancement of this process exerts neuroprotection favoring the clearing of the internalized peptide and could represents a promising neuroprotective tool for neurodegenerative proteinopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-017-0252-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5833808PMC
February 2018

In vitro and in vivo characterization of stem-like cells from canine osteosarcoma and assessment of drug sensitivity.

Exp Cell Res 2018 02 4;363(1):48-64. Epub 2018 Jan 4.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR), University of Genova, Viale Benedetto XV, 2, 16132 Genova, Italy. Electronic address:

Cancer stem cell (CSC) self-renewing and drug resistance cause treatment failure and tumor recurrence. Osteosarcoma is an aggressive bone tumor characterized by biological and molecular heterogeneity, possibly dependent on CSCs. CSC identification in osteosarcoma and their efficient targeting are still open questions. Spontaneous canine osteosarcoma shares clinical and biological features with the human tumors, representing a model for translational studies. We characterized three CSC-enriched canine osteosarcoma cultures. In serum-free conditions, these CSC cultures grow as anchorage-independent spheroids, show mesenchymal-like properties and in vivo tumorigenicity, recapitulating the heterogeneity of the original osteosarcoma. Osteosarcoma CSCs express stem-related factors (Sox2, Oct4, CD133) and chemokine receptors and ligands (CXCR4, CXCL12) involved in tumor proliferation and self-renewal. Standard drugs for osteosarcoma treatment (doxorubicin and cisplatin) affected CSC-enriched and parental primary cultures, showing different efficacy within tumors. Moreover, metformin, a type-2 diabetes drug, significantly inhibits osteosarcoma CSC viability, migration and self-renewal and, in co-treatment with doxorubicin and cisplatin, enhances drug cytotoxicity. Collectively, we demonstrate that canine osteosarcoma primary cultures contain CSCs exhibiting distinctive sensitivity to anticancer agents, as a reliable experimental model to assay drug efficacy. We also provide proof-of-principle of metformin efficacy, alone or in combination, as pharmacological strategy to target osteosarcoma CSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yexcr.2018.01.002DOI Listing
February 2018

Complexity and Selectivity of γ-Secretase Cleavage on Multiple Substrates: Consequences in Alzheimer's Disease and Cancer.

J Alzheimers Dis 2018 ;61(1):1-15

Department of Medicine and Health Sciences "V. Tiberio", University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy.

The processing of the amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) by β- and γ-secretases is a pivotal event in the genesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Besides familial mutations on the AβPP gene, or upon its overexpression, familial forms of AD are often caused by mutations or deletions in presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and 2 (PSEN2) genes: the catalytic components of the proteolytic enzyme γ-secretase (GS). The "amyloid hypothesis", modified over time, states that the aberrant processing of AβPP by GS induces the formation of specific neurotoxic soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides which, in turn, cause neurodegeneration. This theory, however, has recently evidenced significant limitations and, in particular, the following issues are debated: 1) the concept and significance of presenilin's "gain of function" versus "loss of function"; and 2) the presence of several and various GS substrates, which interact with AβPP and may influence Aβ formation. The latter consideration is suggestive: despite the increasing number of GS substrates so far identified, their reciprocal interaction with AβPP itself, even in the AD field, is significantly unexplored. On the other hand, GS is also an important pharmacological target in the cancer field; inhibitors or GS activity are investigated in clinical trials for treating different tumors. Furthermore, the function of AβPP and PSENs in brain development and in neuronal migration is well known. In this review, we focused on a specific subset of GS substrates that directly interact with AβPP and are involved in its proteolysis and signaling, by evaluating their role in neurodegeneration and in cell motility or proliferation, as a possible connection between AD and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170628DOI Listing
July 2018

Different Effects of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Glioblastoma Stem Cells by Direct Cell Interaction or Via Released Soluble Factors.

Front Cell Neurosci 2017 13;11:312. Epub 2017 Oct 13.

Section of Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine and Centre of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor in adults, is an aggressive, fast-growing and highly vascularized tumor, characterized by extensive invasiveness and local recurrence. In GBM and other malignancies, cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to drive invasive tumor growth and recurrence, being responsible for radio- and chemo-therapy resistance. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent progenitors that exhibit tropism for tumor microenvironment mediated by cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Initial studies proposed that MSCs might exert inhibitory effects on tumor development, although, to date, contrasting evidence has been provided. Different studies reported either MSC anti-tumor activity or their support to tumor growth. Here, we examined the effects of umbilical cord (UC)-MSCs on GBM-derived CSC growth, by direct cell-to-cell interaction or indirect modulation, via the release of soluble factors. We demonstrate that UC-MSCs and CSCs exhibit reciprocal tropism when co-cultured as 3D spheroids and their direct cell interaction reduces the proliferation of both cell types. Contrasting effects were obtained by UC-MSC released factors: CSCs, cultured in the presence of conditioned medium (CM) collected from UC-MSCs, increased proliferation rate through transient ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation/activation. Analysis of the profile of the cytokines released by UC-MSCs in the CM revealed a strong production of molecules involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, such as IL-8, GRO, ENA-78 and IL-6. Since CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2), a receptor shared by several of these ligands, is expressed in GBM CSCs, we evaluated its involvement in CSC proliferation induced by UC-MSC-CM. Using the CXCR2 antagonist SB225002, we observed a partial but statistically significant inhibition of CSC proliferation and migration induced by the UC-MSC-released cytokines. Conversely, CXCR2 blockade did not reduce the reciprocal tropism between CSCs and UC-MSCs grown as spheroids. In conclusion, we show that direct (cell-to-cell contact) or indirect (via the release of soluble factors) interactions between GBM CSCs and UC-MSCs in co-culture produce divergent effects on cell growth, invasion and migration, with the former mainly causing an inhibitory response and the latter a stimulatory one, involving a paracrine activation of CXCR2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2017.00312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5645520PMC
October 2017

The inhibition of FGF receptor 1 activity mediates sorafenib antiproliferative effects in human malignant pleural mesothelioma tumor-initiating cells.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2017 05 25;8(1):119. Epub 2017 May 25.

IRCCS-AOU San Martino-IST, Largo R. Benzi, 10, 16132, Genova, Italy.

Background: Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer, characterized by rapid progression and high mortality. Persistence of tumor-initiating cells (TICs, or cancer stem cells) after cytotoxic drug treatment is responsible for tumor relapse, and represents one of the main reasons for the poor prognosis of mesothelioma. In fact, identification of the molecules affecting TIC viability is still a significant challenge.

Methods: TIC-enriched cultures were obtained from 10 human malignant pleural mesotheliomas and cultured in vitro. Three fully characterized tumorigenic cultures, named MM1, MM3, and MM4, were selected and used to assess antiproliferative effects of the multi-kinase inhibitor sorafenib. Cell viability was investigated by MTT assay, and cell cycle analysis as well as induction of apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Western blotting was performed to reveal the modulation of protein expression and the phosphorylation status of pathways associated with sorafenib treatment.

Results: We analyzed the molecular mechanisms of the antiproliferative effects of sorafenib in mesothelioma TIC cultures. Sorafenib inhibited cell cycle progression in all cultures, but only in MM3 and MM4 cells was this effect associated with Mcl-1-dependent apoptosis. To investigate the mechanisms of sorafenib-mediated antiproliferative activity, TICs were treated with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) causing, in MM3 and MM4 cells, MEK, ERK1/2, Akt, and STAT3 phosphorylation. These effects were abolished by sorafenib only in bFGF-treated cells, while a modest inhibition occurred after EGF stimulation, suggesting that sorafenib effects are mainly due to FGF receptor (FGFR) inhibition. Indeed, FGFR1 phosphorylation was inhibited by sorafenib. Moreover, in MM1 cells, which release high levels of bFGF and showed autocrine activation of FGFR1 and constitutive phosphorylation/activation of MEK-ERK1/2, sorafenib induced a more effective antiproliferative response, confirming that the main target of the drug is the inhibition of FGFR1 activity.

Conclusions: These results suggest that, in malignant pleural mesothelioma TICs, bFGF signaling is the main target of the antiproliferative response of sorafenib, acting directly on the FGFR1 activation. Patients with constitutive FGFR1 activation via an autocrine loop may be more sensitive to sorafenib treatment and the analysis of this possibility warrants further clinical investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-017-0573-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5445511PMC
May 2017

Different Molecular Mechanisms Mediate Direct or Glia-Dependent Prion Protein Fragment 90-231 Neurotoxic Effects in Cerebellar Granule Neurons.

Neurotox Res 2017 Oct 25;32(3):381-397. Epub 2017 May 25.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, Department of Internal Medicine, and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR), University of Genova, 16132, Genoa, Italy.

Glia over-stimulation associates with amyloid deposition contributing to the progression of central nervous system neurodegenerative disorders. Here we analyze the molecular mechanisms mediating microglia-dependent neurotoxicity induced by prion protein (PrP)90-231, an amyloidogenic polypeptide corresponding to the protease-resistant portion of the pathological prion protein scrapie (PrP). PrP90-231 neurotoxicity is enhanced by the presence of microglia within neuronal culture, and associated to a rapid neuronal [Ca] increase. Indeed, while in "pure" cerebellar granule neuron cultures, PrP90-231 causes a delayed intracellular Ca entry mediated by the activation of NMDA receptors; when neuron and glia are co-cultured, a transient increase of [Ca] occurs within seconds after treatment in both granule neurons and glial cells, then followed by a delayed and sustained [Ca] raise, associated with the induction of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and phagocytic NADPH oxidase. [Ca] fast increase in neurons is dependent on the activation of multiple pathways since it is not only inhibited by the blockade of voltage-gated channel activity and NMDA receptors but also prevented by the inhibition of nitric oxide and PGE release from glial cells. Thus, Ca homeostasis alteration, directly induced by PrP90-231 in cerebellar granule cells, requires the activation of NMDA receptors, but is greatly enhanced by soluble molecules released by activated glia. In glia-enriched cerebellar granule cultures, the activation of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) and NADPH oxidase represents the main mechanism of toxicity since their pharmacological inhibition prevented PrP90-231 neurotoxicity, whereas NMDA blockade by D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid is ineffective; conversely, in pure cerebellar granule cultures, NMDA blockade but not iNOS inhibition strongly reduced PrP90-231 neurotoxicity. These data indicate that amyloidogenic peptides induce neurotoxic signals via both direct neuron interaction and glia activation through different mechanisms responsible of calcium homeostasis disruption in neurons and potentiating each other: the activation of excitotoxic pathways via NMDA receptors and the release of radical species that establish an oxidative milieu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12640-017-9749-2DOI Listing
October 2017

Anti-proliferative and anti-secretory effects of everolimus on human pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors primary cultures: is there any benefit from combination with somatostatin analogs?

Oncotarget 2017 Jun;8(25):41044-41063

Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CRN2M, Marseille, France.

Therapeutic management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) is challenging. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus recently obtained approval from the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with advanced pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs). Despite its promising antitumor efficacy observed in cell lines, clinical benefit for patients is unsatisfactory. The limited therapeutic potential of everolimus in cancer cells has been attributed to Akt activation due to feedback loops relief following mTOR inhibition. Combined inhibition of Akt might then improve everolimus antitumoral effect. In this regard, the somatostatin analog (SSA) octreotide has been shown to repress the PI3K/Akt pathway in some tumor cell lines. Moreover, SSAs are well tolerated and routinely used to reduce symptoms caused by peptide release in patients carrying functional GEP-NETs. We have recently established and characterized primary cultures of human pNETs and demonstrated the anti-proliferative effects of both octreotide and pasireotide. In this study, we aim at determining the antitumor efficacy of everolimus alone or in combination with the SSAs octreotide and pasireotide in primary cultures of pNETs. Everolimus reduced both Chromogranin A secretion and cell viability and upregulated Akt activity in single treatment. Its anti-proliferative and anti-secretory efficacy was not improved combined with the SSAs. Both SSAs did not overcome everolimus-induced Akt upregulation. Furthermore, caspase-dependent apoptosis induced by SSAs was lost in combined treatments. These molecular events provide the first evidence supporting the lack of marked benefit in patients co-treated with everolimus and SSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.17008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5522327PMC
June 2017

Does pasireotide directly modulate skeletal muscle metabolism?

Endocrine 2017 07 6;57(1):6-8. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

Department of Internal Medicine and Center of Excellence for Biomedical Research (CEBR), University of Genova, Genova, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-017-1291-8DOI Listing
July 2017