Publications by authors named "Tsz-Yan Tammy Tong"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

X-chromosome inactivation and PCDH19-associated epileptic encephalopathy: A novel PCDH19 variant in a Chinese family.

Clin Chim Acta 2021 Oct 28;521:285-288. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Kowloon West Cluster Laboratory Genetic Service, Chemical Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, China. Electronic address:

Background: Developmental and epileptic encephalopathy 9 (DEE9, MIM #300088) is an early onset seizure disorder associated with cognitive impairment and behavioral disturbances. It is caused by mutation in protocadherin 19 with an unusual X-linked inheritance selectively involving heterozygous females or mosaic hemizygous males, while hemizygous males are unaffected. Cellular interference was the postulated mechanism underlying the unusual inheritance pattern.

Case Report: We report a Chinese girl who presented with severe treatment refractory seizures at 26 months of age and was found heterozygous for a novel likely pathogenic missense variant NM_001184880.2:c.488T>A p.(Val163Glu) in PCDH19. Her younger sister, who was also heterozygous for the variant, was asymptomatic with normal development at the time of reporting at 37 months of age. X-chromosome inactivation study by androgen receptor gene methylation assay in DNA from peripheral leukocytes was performed which demonstrated somewhat skewed X-chromosome inactivation in the proband and extremely skewed X-chromosome inactivation in the asymptomatic younger sibling.

Conclusion: PCDH19-related seizure disorder has incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity. Further studies are required to determine the potential role of X-chromosome inactivation on the phenotypic variability and patient outcomes. Liberal referral for PCDH19 testing among female patients with early-onset seizures should be considered to enhance case detection.
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October 2021

Clinical and pathological characterization of FLNC-related myofibrillar myopathy caused by founder variant c.8129G>A in Hong Kong Chinese.

Clin Genet 2020 05 23;97(5):747-757. Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Department of Pathology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Hong Kong.

FLNC-related myofibrillar myopathy could manifest as autosomal dominant late-onset slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness; involvements of cardiac and/or respiratory functions are common. We describe 34 patients in nine families of FLNC-related myofibrillar myopathy in Hong Kong ethnic Chinese diagnosed over the last 12 years, in whom the same pathogenic variant c.8129G>A (p.Trp2710*) was detected. Twenty-six patients were symptomatic when diagnosed; four patients died of pneumonia and/or respiratory failure. Abnormal amorphous material or granulofilamentous masses were detected in half of the cases, with mitochondrial abnormalities noted in two-thirds. We also show by haplotype analysis the founder effect associated with this Hong Kong variant, which might have occurred 42 to 71 generations ago or around Tang and Song dynasties, and underlain a higher incidence of myofibrillar myopathy among Hong Kong Chinese. The late-onset nature and slowly progressive course of the highly penetrant condition could have significant impact on the family members, and an early diagnosis could benefit the whole family. Considering another neighboring founder variant in FLNC in German patients, we advocate development of specific therapies such as chaperone-based or antisense oligonucleotide strategies for this particular type of myopathy.
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May 2020