Publications by authors named "Tsuneo Maegawa"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 and Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 are heterotypic synonyms: evidence from phylogenetic analyses of phospholipase C and 16S rRNA sequences, and DNA relatedness.

Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 2005 May;55(Pt 3):1193-1197

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan.

Clostridium sardiniense Prévot 1938 and Clostridium absonum Nakamura et al. 1973 have long been considered similar in terms of their biological and biochemical properties, but their taxonomic positions have not been clarified by DNA-DNA hybridization studies or rigorous analysis of 16S rRNA genes. In the present study, DNA-DNA hybridization analysis revealed that C. absonum strains DSM 599(T), DSM 600 and KZ 1544 shared 83.0-86.3 % DNA relatedness with C. sardiniense DSM 2632(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the C. absonum strains also shared high identity with C. sardiniense DSM 2632(T) (99.7, 99.3 and 99.8 % for DSM 599(T), DSM 600 and KZ 1544, respectively), implying that C. absonum and C. sardiniense are synonyms. In addition, alignment of the inferred amino acid sequences for phospholipase C (PLC) indicated 96.5 % identity between PLCs from C. sardiniense and C. absonum, but relatively low identity with other clostridial species. These results strongly suggest that the species C. sardiniense and C. absonum should be united, with the name C. sardiniense having priority.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/ijs.0.63271-0DOI Listing
May 2005

Essential involvement of IFN-gamma in Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis.

J Immunol 2004 Mar;172(5):3018-25

Division of Molecular Bioregulation, Cancer Research Institute, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan.

Clostridium difficile has emerged as the important causative agent of antibiotics-associated pseudomembranous colitis; especially its toxin A is presumed to be responsible for the colitis. We examined the pathophysiological roles of IFN-gamma in toxin A-induced enteritis using IFN-gamma knockout (KO) mice. When toxin A of C. difficile was injected into the ileal loops of BALB/c wild-type (WT) mice, massive fluid secretion, disruption of intestinal epithelial structure, and massive neutrophil infiltration developed within 4 h after the injection. IFN-gamma protein was faintly detected in some CD3-positive lymphocytes in the lamina propria and submucosa of the ileum of untreated WT mice. On the contrary, at 2 and 4 h after toxin A injection, IFN-gamma protein was detected in infiltrating neutrophils and to a lesser degree in CD3-positive lymphocytes. In the ileum of WT mice, toxin A treatment markedly enhanced the gene expression of TNF-alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha and -2, KC, and ICAM-1 >2 h after treatment. In contrast, the histopathological changes were marginal, without enhanced fluid secretion in the ileum of toxin A-treated IFN-gamma KO mice. Moreover, toxin A-induced gene expression of TNF-alpha, neutrophil chemotactic chemokines, and ICMA-1 was remarkably attenuated in IFN-gamma KO mice. Furthermore, pretreatment of WT mice with a neutralizing anti-IFN-gamma Ab prevented toxin A-induced enteritis. These observations indicate that IFN-gamma is the crucial mediator of toxin A-induced acute enteritis and suggest that IFN-gamma is an important molecular target for the control of C. difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.172.5.3018DOI Listing
March 2004

Clostridium difficile colonization in healthy adults: transient colonization and correlation with enterococcal colonization.

J Med Microbiol 2004 Feb;53(Pt 2):167-172

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan 2Yakult Central Institute for Microbiological Research, Tokyo 186-8650, Japan.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the colonization status of Clostridium difficile in healthy individuals. In total, 139 healthy adults from two study groups were examined at intervals of 3 months. Among the 18 positive subjects, the number of subjects from whom C. difficile was isolated once, twice, three times or four times was 10 (55.6%), three (16.7%), two (11.1%) and three (16.7%), respectively. In the student group, different subjects were colonized by different PCR ribotype/PFGE types. However, the same PCR ribotype/PFGE types of C. difficile were isolated from different subjects in the employee group, indicating that cross-transmission may have occurred in this group. Continuous colonization by the same PCR ribotype/PFGE type was only observed in three subjects. C. difficile-positive subjects were significantly more densely colonized by enterococci (P<0.05) than C. difficile-negative subjects: subjects that were found to be C. difficile-positive three or four times appeared to have higher concentrations of enterococci. The present results demonstrate that, although colonization by a C. difficile strain is transient in many cases, there are healthy individuals that are colonized persistently by C. difficile. They also suggest that dense colonization of the intestine by enterococci may be associated with C. difficile colonization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/jmm.0.05376-0DOI Listing
February 2004

Clostridium absonum alpha-toxin: new insights into clostridial phospholipase C substrate binding and specificity.

J Mol Biol 2003 Oct;333(4):759-69

School of Crystallography, Birkbeck College, Malet Street, London WC1E 7HX, UK.

Clostridium absonum phospholipase C (Caa) is a 42.7 kDa protein, which shows 60% amino acid sequence identity with the Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C, or alpha-toxin (Cpa), and has been isolated from patients suffering from gas gangrene. We report the cloning and sequencing, purification, characterisation and crystal structure of the Caa enzyme. Caa had twice the phospholipid-hydrolysing (lecithinase) activity, 1.5 times the haemolytic activity and over seven times the activity towards phosphatidylcholine-based liposomes when compared with Cpa. However, the Caa enzyme had a lower activity than Cpa to the free (i.e. not in lipid bilayer) substrate para-nitrophenylphosphorylcholine, towards sphingomyelin-based liposomes and showed half the cytotoxicity. The lethal dose (LD(50)) of Caa in mice was approximately twice that of Cpa. The crystal structure of Caa shows that the 72-93 residue loop is in a conformation different from those of previously determined open-form alpha-toxin structures. This conformational change suggests a role for W84 in membrane binding and a possible route of entry into the active site along a hydrophobic channel created by the re-arrangement of this loop. Overall, the properties of Caa are compatible with a role as a virulence-determinant in gas gangrene caused by C.absonum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2003.07.016DOI Listing
October 2003

Intraperitoneal fluid accumulation induced by Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (phospholipase C).

Acta Microbiol Pol 2002 ;51(4):387-9

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, 13-1 Takara-machi, Kanazawa 920-8640, Japan.

We report that the intraperitoneal injection of Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin into mice induces ascites. This phenomenon was monitored by measuring fluid volume and analyzing hematologic data. The mouse toxicity test provides a simple and useful model for examining C. perfringens alpha-toxin-induced vascular permeability.
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May 2003

Clostridium sordellii phospholipase C: gene cloning and comparison of enzymatic and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipase C.

Infect Immun 2003 Feb;71(2):641-6

Department of Bacteriology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kanazawa University, Japan.

The gene encoding Clostridium sordellii phospholipase C (Csp) was cloned and expressed as a histidine-tagged (His-tag) protein, and the protein was purified to compare its enzymatic and biological activities with those of Clostridium perfringens phospholipase C (Cpa) and Clostridium bifermentans phospholipase C (Cbp). Csp was found to consist of 371 amino acid residues in the mature form and to be more homologous to Cbp than to Cpa. The egg yolk phospholipid hydrolysis activity of the His-tag Csp was about one-third of that of His-tag Cpa, but the hemolytic activity was less than 1% of that of His-tag Cpa. His-tag Csp was nontoxic to mice. Immunization of mice with His-tag Cbp or His-tag Csp did not provide effective protection against the lethal activity of His-tag Cpa. These results indicate that Csp possesses similar molecular properties to Cbp and suggest that comparative analysis of toxic and nontoxic clostridial phospholipases is helpful for characterization of the toxic properties of clostridial phospholipases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC145374PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/IAI.71.2.641-646.2003DOI Listing
February 2003

Characterization of Clostridium butyricum neurotoxin associated with food-borne botulism.

Microb Pathog 2002 Oct;33(4):177-84

Department of Veterinary Science, Graduate School of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531, Japan.

The neurotoxin of Clostridium butyricum strain LCL155 (BuNT/LCL155) associated with type E food-borne botulism showed antigenic and biological properties different from those of C. botulinum type E (BoNT/E) andC. butyricum strain BL5262 (BuNT/BL5262). The specific toxicity of BuNT/LCL155 was found to be about 10% those of BoNT/E and BuNT/BL5262. Immunological analysis with monoclonal antibodies against BoNT/E showed that the heavy chain of BuNT/LCL155 differs partially from those of BoNT/E and BuNT/BL5262. Binding experiments with rat brain synaptic membrane revealed that BuNT/LCL155 possesses a binding activity lower than either BoNT/E or BuNT/BL5262. There was no difference in the catalytic activity of the three neurotoxins, which had been determined with a recombinant of the intracellular target protein SNAP-25. These data suggest that the BuNT/LCL155 shares the receptor-recognition site structurally different from BoNT/E and BuNT/BL5262, perhaps causing a decreased specific toxicity.
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October 2002

Linkage between toxin production and purine biosynthesis in Clostridium difficile.

J Med Microbiol 2002 Jan;51(1):34-41

Department of Bacteriology, School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa 920-8640, *College of Medical Technology and Nursing and †Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305, Japan.

The production of toxins A and B by Clostridium difficile was greatly enhanced under biotin-limited conditions, in which a 140-kDa protein was expressed strongly. Gene cloning revealed that this protein was a homologue of formylglycinamidine ribonucleotide synthetase (FGAM synthetase, EC 6.3.5.3), which is known as PurL in Escherichia coli and catalyses the fourth step of the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway. This enzyme consisted of a single polypeptide, although FGAM synthetases of gram-positive bacteria usually consist of two subunits. Inhibition of the enzymic activity of C. difficile PurL by O-diazoacetyl-L-serine (azaserine) resulted in enhanced toxin B production even in biotin-sufficient conditions. In contrast, blockade of the preceding step of the PurL catalysing step by sulfamethoxazole inhibited toxin B production almost completely. These results suggest that accumulation of formylglycinamide ribonucleotide (FGAR), a substrate of FGAM synthetase, enhances toxin production by C difficile and depletion of FGAR reduces toxin production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/0022-1317-51-1-34DOI Listing
January 2002
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