Publications by authors named "Tsiporah Shore"

76 Publications

Colonization with Gastrointestinal Pathogens Prior to Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation and Associated Clinical Implications.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York; Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York; New York-Presbyterian Hospital, Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Infectious diarrhea following hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) significantly contributes to morbidity and mortality. Most HCT recipients experience diarrhea in the post-transplantation period, and infectious pathogens are frequently detected during diarrheal episodes. However, little is known about how frequently these patients are colonized with gastrointestinal (GI) pathogens before their transplantation and whether colonization predicts future diarrheal illness. We sought to determine how frequently HCT recipients are colonized with GI pathogens before HCT and the degree to which pre-HCT colonization predicts post-transplantation infectious diarrheal illness. We conducted a prospective cohort study of allogeneic and autologous HCT recipients at a single center between December 2016 and January 2019. Stool samples were collected during the week before HCT, and formed samples were evaluated for the presence of 22 diarrheal pathogens using the BioFire FilmArray GI panel. We determined the frequency with which participants were colonized with each pathogen and identified factors associated with colonization. We then determined how frequently pretransplantation colonization led to post-transplantation diarrheal infections due to the colonizing pathogen and whether colonization was associated with increased number of days of post-transplantation diarrhea during the transplant hospitalization. We enrolled 112 asymptomatic patients (allogeneic, 61%; autologous, 39%) who had a formed stool specimen before HCT, of whom 41 (37%) had a GI pathogen detected. The most commonly detected organisms were Clostridioides difficile (n = 21; 19%), Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 9; 8%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (n = 6; 6%), and norovirus (n = 5; 4%). Female sex and previous C. difficile infection were associated with C. difficile colonization, and having non-Hodgkin lymphoma was associated with being colonized with a diarrheal pathogen other than C. difficile. Thirteen of 21 patients (62%) with pretransplantation C. difficile colonization developed a clinical C. difficile infection post-transplantation, and 8 of 10 patients (80%) colonized with EPEC or enteroaggregative E. coli developed post-transplantation infections due to their colonizing pathogen. Pretransplantation C. difficile colonization was also associated with an increased duration of post-transplantation diarrhea (P = .048). Conversely, none of the 9 patients with pretransplantation Yersinia enterocolitica colonization developed a post-transplantation Y. enterocolitica infection. Patients admitted for HCT are frequently colonized with a diverse range of GI pathogens. Colonization with C. difficile colonization and diarrheagenic E. coli is frequently associated with post-transplantation diarrheal infections caused by these organisms, but the clinical significance of colonization with other GI pathogens is not clear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.02.012DOI Listing
February 2021

Sequential intensive chemotherapy followed by autologous or allogeneic transplantation for refractory lymphoma.

Leuk Lymphoma 2021 Feb 13:1-15. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Weill Cornell Medicine/New York-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

We evaluate the safety of bendamustine as a bridge to stem cell transplantation (SCT) in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma and residual disease after salvage therapy. Thirty-four subjects without complete responses (CR) received bendamustine 200 mg/m/day for 2 days followed 14 days later by SCT. Sixteen subjects in partial remission (PR) with maximal FDG-PET SUVs ≤8 prior to bendamustine received autologous SCT, while 13 with suboptimal responses were allografted. Five subjects did not proceed to transplant. No bendamustine toxicities precluded transplantation and no detrimental effect on engraftment or early treatment-related mortality (TRM) was attributable to bendamustine. At 1 year, 75% of auto-recipients and 31% of allo-recipients were alive with CR. Two subjects in the autologous arm developed therapy-related myeloid neoplasia (t-MN). In conclusion, a bendamustine bridge to SCT can be administered without early toxicity to patients with suboptimal responses to salvage chemotherapy. However this approach may increase the risk of t-MN. (NCT02059239).Supplemental data for this article is available online at here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2021.1881516DOI Listing
February 2021

Allogeneic Transplant Conditioning Regimens for Patients With Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

JAMA Oncol 2020 12;6(12):1983-1984

Stem Cell Transplant and Cell Therapy Program, Division of Hematology Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College/NYP Hospital, New York, New York.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.5158DOI Listing
December 2020

Adoptive immunotherapy with CB following chemotherapy for patients with refractory myeloid malignancy: chimerism and response.

Blood Adv 2020 10;4(20):5146-5156

Division of Hematology/Oncology and.

We conducted a prospective evaluation of cord blood (CB)-derived adoptive cell therapy, after salvage chemotherapy, for patients with advanced myeloid malignancies and poor prognosis. Previously, we reported safety, feasibility, and preliminary efficacy of this approach. We present updated results in 31 patients who received intensive chemotherapy followed by CB infusion and identify predictors of response. To enhance the antileukemic effect, we selected CB units (CBU) with shared inherited paternal antigens and/or noninherited maternal antigens with the recipients. Twenty-eight patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 2 with myelodysplastic syndrome, and 1 in chronic myeloid leukemia myeloid blast crisis were enrolled; 9 had relapsed after allogeneic transplant. Response was defined as <5% blasts in hypocellular bone marrow at 2 weeks after treatment. Thirteen patients (42%) responded; a rate higher than historical data with chemotherapy only. Twelve had CBU-derived chimerism detected; chimerism was a powerful predictor of response (P < .001). CBU lymphocyte content and a prior transplant were associated with chimerism (P < .01). Safety was acceptable: 3 patients developed mild cytokine release syndrome, 2 had grade 1 and 2 had grade 4 graft-versus-host disease. Seven responders and 6 nonresponders (after additional therapy) received subsequent transplant; 5 are alive (follow-up, 5-47 months). The most common cause of death for nonresponders was disease progression, whereas for responders it was infection. CB-derived adoptive cell therapy is feasible and efficacious for refractory AML. Banked CBU are readily available for treatment. Response depends on chimerism, highlighting the graft-versus-leukemia effect of CB cell therapy. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02508324.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020002805DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594383PMC
October 2020

Hematology and oncology clinical care during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.

CA Cancer J Clin 2020 09 14;70(5):349-354. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York.

New York City has been at the epicenter of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic that has already infected over a million people and resulted in more than 70,000 deaths as of early May 2020 in the United States alone. This rapid and enormous influx of patients into the health care system has had profound effects on all aspects of health care, including the care of patients with cancer. In this report, the authors highlight the transformation they underwent within the Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology as they prepared for the COVID-19 crisis in New York City. Under stressful and uncertain conditions, some of the many changes they enacted within their division included developing a regular line of communication among division leaders to ensure the development and implementation of a restructuring strategy, completely reconfiguring the inpatient and outpatient units, rapidly developing the ability to perform telemedicine video visits, and creating new COVID-rule-out and COVID-positive clinics for their patients. These changes allowed them to manage the storm while minimizing the disruption of important continuity of care to their patients with cancer. The authors hope that their experiences will be helpful to other oncology practices about to experience their own individual COVID-19 crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3322/caac.21627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404745PMC
September 2020

Poor graft function after T cell-depleted allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

Leuk Lymphoma 2020 12 14;61(12):2894-2899. Epub 2020 Jul 14.

Pathology, Weill Cornell Medical College/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

PGF implies persistent cytopenia in the presence of predominant donor chimerism. We examined contributors to PGF in 104 HCT recipients who survived ≥100 days without relapse or major complications. Surrogate parameters for PGF were: Hg <10 g/dl, RBC transfusion dependence, platelet count <20 × 10/L or ANC < 0.5 × 10/L. All patients received T cell depletion with alemtuzumab or ATG. The 2-year OS and PFS probabilities were 66%, 95%CI (56 - 75%) and 51%, 95%CI (41-60%) respectively. Fifty-four patients (52%) met one or more PGF criteria. There was significant association between major ABO incompatibility and platelet <20 × 109/L (OR = 4.7, 95%CI 1.05-21.26,  = .043), acute GVHD and Hg <10 g/dl (OR 3.7, 95%CI 1.4-9.6,  = .005) and CMV viremia and ANC < 0.5 × 10/L (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.0, 8.7,  = .043). NRM was significantly higher in the PGF group compared to patients with adequate graft function (45.5% vs 16.7%,  = .014).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2020.1789622DOI Listing
December 2020

Cord blood transplants supported by unrelated donor CD34 progenitor cells.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 12 9;55(12):2298-2307. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

Alternative donor transplantation with the haplo-cord platform allows the use of a lower-dose single umbilical cord blood unit (CBU) by co-infusion of third-party CD34-selected cells from a haploidentical relative, which provides early transient engraftment while awaiting durable CBU engraftment. In our experience, ~15% of patients lack a suitable haploidentical donor. Here we report 26 patients who underwent haplo-cord transplant using CD34-selected partially matched unrelated donor grafts. Twenty-four were conditioned with fludarabine/melphalan +/- low-dose TBI (n = 16). Twenty-five received ATG and all received posttransplant tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. Median time to neutrophil and platelet recovery was 11 and 18 days. CBU engraftment, with CD33 and CD3 >5% cord chimerism in the myeloid/lymphoid compartment by day +60, occurred in 20 of 24 patients (83%). Incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 27% at day +100, and chronic GVHD was 4% at 1 year. Overall survival at 1 year was 54%. For patients in need of an alternative transplant who lack a haploidentical donor, haplo-cord transplantation using CD34-selected partially matched unrelated donor grafts results in rapid engraftment with no increased rate of cord graft failure or GVHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-0959-5DOI Listing
December 2020

KIR B donors improve the outcome for AML patients given reduced intensity conditioning and unrelated donor transplantation.

Blood Adv 2020 02;4(4):740-754

Blood and Marrow Transplant Program, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

Natural killer (NK) cell recognition and killing of target cells are enhanced when inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are unable to engage their cognate HLA class I ligands. The genes of the KIR locus are organized into either KIR B haplotypes, containing 1 or more activating KIR genes or KIR A haplotypes, which lack those genes. Analysis of unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplants (HCT), given to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients between 1988 and 2009, showed that KIR B haplotype donors were associated with better outcomes, primarily from relapse protection. Most of these transplants involved marrow grafts, fully myeloablative (MAC) preparative regimens, and significant HLA mismatch. Because the practice of HCT continues to evolve, with increasing use of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC), peripheral blood stem cell grafts, and better HLA match, we evaluated the impact of URD KIR genotype on HCT outcome for AML in the modern era (2010-2016). This analysis combined data from a prospective trial testing URD selection based on KIR genotypes (n = 243) with that from a larger contemporaneous cohort of transplants (n = 2419). We found that KIR B haplotype donors conferred a significantly reduced risk of leukemia relapse and improved disease-free survival after RIC, but not MAC HCT. All genes defining KIR B haplotypes were associated with relapse protection, which was significant only in transplant recipients expressing the C1 epitope of HLA-C. In the context of current HCT practice using RIC, selection of KIR B donors could reduce relapse and improve overall outcome for AML patients receiving an allogeneic HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001053DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7042994PMC
February 2020

Outcomes of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant for Elderly Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 04 28;26(4):789-797. Epub 2019 Dec 28.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical Center/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, improved HLA matching, and better supportive care allow allogeneic stem cell transplant (alloSCT) to be offered to older patients. Only a small percentage of eligible patients between ages 65 and 74 years actually undergo alloSCT, and comprehensive outcome data from the aging population are still lacking. We examined the outcome of older patients who underwent alloSCT using melphalan-based RIC for hematologic malignancies at our institution. We identified 125 patients older than 65 years (median, 69; range, 66 to 77) who underwent matched related donor, matched unrelated donor, or combined haploidentical/umbilical cord alloSCT between 2012 through November, 2017. Among them, 52 (41.6%) and 70 (56%) had, respectively, intermediate and high/very high Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) disease risk index (DRI). One hundred six patients (85%) received fludarabine/melphalan-based RIC regimen with either antithymocyte globulin (ATG) or alemtuzumab. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 13 days (range, 8 to 37) and platelet engraftment 17 days (range, 9 to 169). The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 11.5% at 100 days and 30.1% and 34.8% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. The cumulative incidence of relapse was 35% and 40% at 1 and 2 years. The cumulative incidence of grades II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at day 100 and 6 months was 29.5% and 34.5%, and chronic GVHD at 6, 12, and 24 months was 2.5%, 5.2%, and 6.3%, respectively. With a median follow-up of 32 months, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 34.6%, 24.4%, and 16.5%, respectively. The graft GVHD-free survival was 24.6%, 16.1%, and 9.3%, respectively. The 1-, 2-, and 3-year overall survival (OS) was 44.5%, 30.7%, and 26.5%, respectively. In multivariable analysis, low albumin was predictive of poor PFS and OS and high hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index, and CIBMTR DRI was predictive of worse graft GVHD-free survival. Among long-term survivors the median Karnofsky performance status was 80. Older patients, even when referred with advanced disease, can benefit from melphalan-based alloSCT with HLA-matched or alternative donor sources without discernible impact of donor source on outcome. Using alemtuzumab- or ATG-based in vivo T cell depletion, the incidence of chronic GVHD is extremely low. Performance status in survivors is excellent. Better predictors for outcome in this patient population need to be identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.12.766DOI Listing
April 2020

Impact of a Multiplexed Polymerase Chain Reaction Panel on Identifying Diarrheal Pathogens in Hematopoietic Cell Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 10;71(7):1693-1700

Division of Infectious Diseases, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Background: Diarrhea is common and associated with substantial morbidity among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients, but the etiology is often not identified. Multiplexed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays increase the detection of diarrheal pathogens, but the impact of this technology in this population has not been evaluated.

Methods: Our center replaced stool cultures and other conventional microbiologic methods with the FilmArray Gastrointestinal Panel (GI PCR) in June 2016. We reviewed all adult patients who received an HCT from June 2014-May 2015 (pre-GI PCR, n = 163) and from June 2016-May 2017 (post-GI PCR, n = 182) and followed them for 1 year after transplantation. Clostridioides difficile infection was diagnosed by an independent PCR test in both cohorts.

Results: The proportion of patients with ≥1 identified infectious diarrheal pathogen increased from 25% to 37% after implementation of GI PCR (P = .01). Eight patients (5%) in the pre-GI PCR cohort tested positive for a pathogen other than C. difficile versus 49 patients (27%) in the post-GI PCR cohort (P < .001). The most common non-C. difficile diarrheal pathogens in the post-GI PCR cohort were enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (n = 14, 8%), norovirus (n = 14, 8%), and Yersinia enterocolitica (n = 7, 4%). The percentage of diarrheal episodes with an identified infectious etiology increased from 14% to 23% (P = .001). Median total costs of stool testing per patient did not increase (pre: $473; post: $425; P = .25).

Conclusions: Infectious etiologies of diarrhea were identified in a higher proportion of HCT recipients after replacing conventional stool testing with a multiplexed PCR assay, without an increase in testing costs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciz1068DOI Listing
October 2020

Haploidentical vs haplo-cord transplant in adults under 60 years receiving fludarabine and melphalan conditioning.

Blood Adv 2019 06;3(12):1858-1867

Department of Stem Cell Transplantation and Cellular Therapy, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX.

Haplo-identical transplant with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (haplo) and umbilical cord blood transplant supported by third-party CD34 cells (haplo-cord) are competing approaches to alternative donor transplant. We compared, in adults younger than age 60 years, the outcomes of 170 haplo at 1 institution with that of 137 haplo-cord at 2 other institutions. All received reduced intensity conditioning with fludarabine and melphalan ± total body irradiation. GVHD prophylaxis for haplo consisted of cyclophosphamide, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate, whereas haplo-cord received antithymocyte globulin, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate. Haplo transplant used mostly bone marrow, and peripheral blood stem cells were used in haplo-cord transplants. Haplo-cord were older and had more advanced disease. Haplo-cord hastened median time to neutrophil (11 vs 18 days, = .001) and platelet recovery (22 vs 25 days, = .03). At 4 years, overall survival (OS) was 50% for haplo-cord vs 49% for haplo. Progression-free survival (PFS) was 40% for haplo-cord vs 45% for haplo. In multivariate analysis, the disease risk index was significant for OS (hazard ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.17; = .00) and PFS. Total body irradiation was associated with decreased recurrence and improved PFS, age >40 with increased nonrelapse mortality. The type of transplant had no effect on OS, PFS, relapse, or nonrelapse mortality. Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) by day 100 was 16% after haplo-cord vs 33% after haplo ( < .0001), but grade 3-4 GVHD was similar. Chronic GVHD at 1 year was 4% after haplo-cord vs 16% after haplo ( < .0001). Haplo or haplo-cord results in similar and encouraging outcomes. Haplo-cord is associated with more rapid neutrophil and platelet recovery and lower acute and chronic GVHD. Institutional review board authorization for this retrospective study was obtained at each institution. Some patients participated in trials registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01810588 and NCT01050946.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019000200DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6595267PMC
June 2019

A Phase II Multicenter Study of the Addition of Azacitidine to Reduced-Intensity Conditioning Allogeneic Transplant for High-Risk Myelodysplasia (and Older Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia): Results of CALGB 100801 (Alliance).

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 10 15;25(10):1984-1992. Epub 2019 Jun 15.

Division of Hematology, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Relapse remains the major cause of death in older patients transplanted for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission or for patients with advanced myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) at any age. Conventional myeloablative conditioning followed by allogeneic blood or marrow transplantation is associated with significantly less relapse compared with reduced-intensity conditioning when performed in younger patients with AML or MDS, but the toxicity of this approach in older patients is prohibitive. We hypothesized that pharmacokinetic targeting to optimize busulfan (BU) exposure, combined with the administration of azacitidine (AZA) post-transplant would mitigate the risk of relapse while reducing nonrelapse mortality and ultimately improve progression-free survival (PFS). On this phase II multicenter study, 63 patients (40 unrelated donors and 23 matched related donors) received a uniform conditioning regimen consisting of fludarabine i.v. (days -7 to -3), BU targeted to a daily area under the curve (AUC) of 4000 μM/min (days -6 to -3) after the administration of a 25-mg/m i.v. test dose on 1 day between days -14 to -9, and antithymocyte globulin (days -6, -5, and -4 (2 doses for matched related donors and 3 for matched unrelated donors only). Beginning on days +42 to +90, all patients were planned to receive up to 6 monthly cycles of AZA at 32 mg/m subcutaneously for 5 days. The median age was 62 years (range, 44 to 74); 13 had AML and 50 had MDS; 87% of patients were within 20% of the target AUC based on a validation sample. Forty-one patients (65%) started AZA at a median of 61 days (range, 43 to 91) post-transplant, and 17 patients (41%) completed all 6 cycles of AZA. The cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 2 years was 33.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 22%-45%). The cumulative incidence of relapse was 25% (95% CI, 15%-37%) at 2 years. With a median follow-up of 58.9 months, the estimated PFS probability at 2 years and 5 years after transplantation was 41.2% (80% CI, 33.9%-49.9%) and 26.9% (80% CI, 20.4%-35.5%), respectively, for the entire group with a median PFS of 15.8 months (95% CI, 6.7 to 28.3). The probability of overall survival at 2 and 5 years was 45.7% (95% CI, 34.9%-59.9%) and 31.2% (95% CI, 21.3% to 45.8%), respectively, for the entire group with a median overall survival of 19.2 months (95% CI, 8.7 to 37.5). In summary, we demonstrated the feasibility of a novel reduced-intensity conditioning regimen with test dose BU targeted to an AUC of 4000 μM/min. The feasibility of AZA in this setting appears to be limited if applied to an unselected population of older hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01168219.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.06.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6790289PMC
October 2019

High-dose bendamustine and melphalan conditioning for autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with multiple myeloma.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 12 12;54(12):2027-2038. Epub 2019 Jun 12.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY, USA.

High-dose melphalan (MEL200) followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) remains a standard of care for multiple myeloma (MM). Bendamustine induces responses in MM resistant to other alkylators. Our prior Phase I trial adding bendamustine to MEL200 transplant conditioning resulted in no additional toxicity. We now report a single-arm, phase II study that evaluated the efficacy of bendamustine 225 mg/m with MEL200 conditioning for ASCT in 18 patients with newly diagnosed MM (NDMM) and 17 with relapsed or refractory MM (RRMM). The primary end point was the complete response (CR/sCR) rate at day+ 100. Sample size was determined according to Simon's two-stage design. At stage 1, sixteen patients entered the study. As there were eight patients with CR/sCR, enrollment increased to 28 patients. Sixteen out of the first 28 evaluable patients achieved CR/sCR, meeting the design criteria. Enrollment was then expanded to a total of 35 patients. 51% achieved a CR/sCR. After a median follow-up of 65 months, 21 patients progressed, including 7 deaths. The median PFS for NDMM and RRMM was 48 and 45 months, respectively. Bendamustine/MEL200 conditioning resulted in excellent overall and depth of response as well as PFS, particularly in the RRMM patients, and is worthy of further investigation (NCT00916058).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0587-0DOI Listing
December 2019

Prophylactic rituximab prevents EBV PTLD in haplo-cord transplant recipients at high risk.

Leuk Lymphoma 2019 07 10;60(7):1693-1696. Epub 2019 Feb 10.

a Department of Hematology and Oncology , Weill Cornell Medicine , New York , NY , USA.

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) reactivation and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) are common and potentially fatal complications after allogeneic transplantation with mismatched donors and T-cell depletion. Haplo-cord transplantation combines a mismatched UCB graft with third-party cells. Conditioning involves thymoglobulin. EBV reactivation and PTLD were common in initial patients. As of March 2017, we administered a prophylactic dose of rituximab 375 mg/m pre-transplant. Among 147 patients who did not receive rituximab, the cumulative incidence of post-transplant EBV reactivation and of EBV PTLD was 13% and 8%, respectively. Among 51 who received pre-transplant rituximab, the incidences were 2% ( = .0017) and 0% ( = .04), respectively. There was no difference in time to hematopoietic recovery, in the incidence of CMV reactivation, of invasive blood stream infections or of proven or probable invasive fungal infections. Pre-transplant administration of rituximab is an effective and nontoxic intervention that drastically reduces EBV reactivation and PTLD in high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428194.2018.1543877DOI Listing
July 2019

Bortezomib and Immune Globulin Have Limited Effects on Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies in Haploidentical Cord Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Detrimental Effect of Persistent Haploidentical Donor-Specific HLA Antibodies.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 26;25(2):e60-e64. Epub 2018 Oct 26.

Weill Cornell Medicine, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs) have been associated with an increased risk of graft failure. To decrease DSA levels and reduce the risk of graft failure in haploidentical cord blood transplantation recipients, we studied the effect of bortezomib (BTZ) and i.v. immune globulin (IVIG) pretransplantation. Between 2012 and 2016, 14 patients with a DSA level >2000 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) to 1 or more mismatched HLA alleles of haploidentical donors, cord blood donors, or both were treated with BTZ and IVIG. Fourteen patients received a median of 4 doses (range, 2 to 8 doses) of BTZ 1.3 mg/m and a median total IVIG of 2 g/kg before transplantation. Only 2 of 14 patients attained a reduction in MFI to <2000 with this combination. After additional IVIG (n = 8), rituximab (n = 4), and/or plasmapheresis (n = 11), 12 of 14 patients were desensitized to a DSA level <2000 MFI at the time of engraftment. All obtained initial hematopoietic reconstitution, and no DSA rebound phenomenon was observed. Responders with DSA MFI <2000 to the haploidentical donor by transplantation engrafted at a rate comparable to that of historical controls, whereas engraftment in nonresponders took 3 times as long. BTZ and IVIG alone do not appear sufficient to rapidly induce DSA desensitization, and persistent DSAs to a haploidentical donor lead to delayed count recovery. Our data suggest that additional pretreatment with BTZ and IVIG in combination with the conditioning regimen may help abrogate the rebound phenomenon observed with plasmapheresis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.10.018DOI Listing
February 2019

Adoptive Immunotherapy with Cord Blood for the Treatment of Refractory Acute Myelogenous Leukemia: Feasibility, Safety, and Preliminary Outcomes.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 03 9;25(3):466-473. Epub 2018 Nov 9.

Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine. Weill Cornell Medicine, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, NY. Electronic address:

Adoptive immunotherapy has shown efficacy in patients with relapsed/refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). We conducted a prospective evaluation of cord blood (CB)-based adoptive cell therapy following salvage chemotherapy in patients with AML or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and describe the safety and early outcomes of this approach. To enhance the antileukemic effect, we selected CB units (CBUs) with a shared inherited paternal antigen (IPA) and/or noninherited maternal antigen (NIMA) match with the recipients. Furthermore, the CBUs had total nucleated cell (TNC) dose <2.5 × 10/kg and were at least 4/6 HLA-matched with the patients; a higher allele-level match was preferred. Heavily pretreated adult patients with AML/MDS were enrolled. CBU searches were performed for 50 patients. CBUs with shared IPA targets were identified for all, and CBUs with NIMA matches were found for 80%. Twenty-one patients underwent treatment (AML, primary induction failure, n = 8; refractory relapse, n = 10, including 7 recipients of previous allogeneic HSCT; blast crisis chronic myelogenous leukemia, n = 1; MDS, n = 2). Most received combination chemotherapy; those not fit for intensive treatment received a hypomethylating agent. Response was defined as <10% residual blasts in hypocellular bone marrow at approximately 2 weeks after treatment. Ten of the 19 evaluable patients responded, including 5 of the 7 recipients of previous transplant. Response was seen in 4 of 4 patients with full CBU-derived chimerism, 2 of 2 of those with partial, low-level chimerism and 4 of 12 of the recipients with no detectable CBU chimerism. The most common adverse events were infections (bacterial, n = 5; viral, n = 2; fungal, n = 5). Grade IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) developed in 2 patients with full CBU chimerism; 2 other patients had grade 1 skin GVHD. A total of 11 patients died, 7 from disease recurrence and 4 from infections (1 early death; the other 3 in remission at the time of death). Overall, 12 patients proceeded to allogeneic HSCT; of those, 7 had responded to treatment, 3 had not (and had received additional therapy), and 2 had persistent minimal residual disease. In conclusion, the use of CB as adoptive immunotherapy in combination with salvage chemotherapy for patients with refractory AML/MDS is feasible, can induce disease control, can serve as a bridge to allogeneic HSCT, and has an acceptable incidence of adverse events. Alloreactivity was enhanced through the selection of CBUs targeting a shared IPA and/or NIMA match with the patients. CBUs with lower cell doses, already available in the CB bank and unlikely to be adequate grafts for adult transplants, can be used for cell therapy within a short time frame.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.11.002DOI Listing
March 2019

Incidence, significance, and persistence of human coronavirus infection in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 1;54(7):1058-1066. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill Cornell Medical Center, New York, USA.

Hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients are at increased risk of respiratory viral infections and their associated complications. Unlike other respiratory viruses, little is known about the clinical significance of human coronavirus infection (HCoV) in this population. We retrospectively identified all HSCT recipients who were transplanted between May 2013 and June 2017 at our institution and characterized the cumulative incidence of post-transplant HCoV infection. Of 678 patients who underwent HSCT during the study period, 112 (17%) developed HCoV infection, making HCoV the fourth most common respiratory viral infection. Thirty-four (30%) HCoV-infected patients progressed to proven or probable lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Age ≥50, graft-versus-host disease, corticosteroids, hypoalbuminemia, and inpatient status at the time of infection were independently associated with progression to LRTI. Twenty-seven (59%) patients who underwent repeat NP swab had persistent viral shedding for ≥21 days, with a median duration of 4 weeks of viral shedding. We conclude that HCoV is common and clinically significant in HSCT recipients, with nearly one-third of patients progressing to proven or probable LRTI. Evaluating for LRTI risk factors found in this study may identify patients who require closer surveillance and aggressive supportive care when infected with HCoV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0386-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7091595PMC
July 2019

A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Phase 3 Trial of Oral Brincidofovir for Cytomegalovirus Prophylaxis in Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 02 4;25(2):369-381. Epub 2018 Oct 4.

Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington; Vaccine and Infectious Disease Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is a common complication of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this trial, we randomized adult CMV-seropositive HCT recipients without CMV viremia at screening 2:1 to receive brincidofovir or placebo until week 14 post-HCT. Randomization was stratified by center and risk of CMV infection. Patients were assessed weekly through week 15 and every third week thereafter through week 24 post-HCT. Patients who developed clinically significant CMV infection (CS-CMVi; CMV viremia requiring preemptive therapy or CMV disease) discontinued the study drug and began anti-CMV treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with CS-CMVi through week 24 post-HCT; patients who discontinued the trial or with missing data were imputed as primary endpoint events. Between August 2013 and June 2015, 452 patients were randomized at a median of 15 days after HCT and received study drug. The proportion of patients who developed CS-CMVi or were imputed as having a primary endpoint event through week 24 was similar between brincidofovir-treated patients and placebo recipients (155 of 303 [51.2%] versus 78 of 149 [52.3%]; odds ratio, .95 [95% confidence interval, .64 to 1.41]; P = .805); fewer brincidofovir recipients developed CMV viremia through week 14 compared with placebo recipients (41.6%; P < .001). Serious adverse events were more frequent among brincidofovir recipients (57.1% versus 37.6%), driven by acute graft-versus-host disease (32.3% versus 6.0%) and diarrhea (6.9% versus 2.7%). Week 24 all-cause mortality was 15.5% among brincidofovir recipients and 10.1% among placebo recipients. Brincidofovir did not reduce CS-CMVi by week 24 post-HCT and was associated with gastrointestinal toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.09.038DOI Listing
February 2019

Final results from a defibrotide treatment-IND study for patients with hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

Br J Haematol 2018 06 16;181(6):816-827. Epub 2018 May 16.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is a potentially life-threatening complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) conditioning and chemotherapy. Defibrotide is approved for treatment of hepatic VOD/SOS with pulmonary or renal dysfunction [i.e., multi-organ dysfunction (MOD)] after HSCT in the United States and severe VOD/SOS after HSCT in patients aged older than 1 month in the European Union. Defibrotide was available as an investigational drug by an expanded-access treatment programme (T-IND; NCT00628498). In the completed T-IND, the Kaplan-Meier estimated Day +100 survival for 1000 patients with documented defibrotide treatment after HSCT was 58·9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 55·7-61·9%]. Day +100 survival was also analysed by age and MOD status, and post hoc analyses were performed to determine Day +100 survival by transplant type, timing of VOD/SOS onset (≤21 or >21 days) and timing of defibrotide treatment initiation after VOD/SOS diagnosis. Day +100 survival in paediatric patients was 67·9% (95% CI, 63·8-71·6%) and 47·1% (95% CI, 42·3-51·8%) in adults. All patient subgroups without MOD had higher Day +100 survival than those with MOD; earlier defibrotide initiation was also associated with higher Day +100 survival. The safety profile of defibrotide in the completed T-IND study was similar to previous reports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15267DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6032999PMC
June 2018

Colonization With Levofloxacin-resistant Extended-spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Risk of Bacteremia in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients.

Clin Infect Dis 2018 11;67(11):1720-1728

Public Health Research Institute, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark.

Background: Bacteremia caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) is associated with inadequate empirical therapy and substantial mortality in neutropenic patients. Strategies are needed to identify neutropenic patients at high risk of these infections.

Methods: From April 2014 to September 2016, we collected perianal swabs, both at admission and weekly thereafter, from patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Patients received prophylactic levofloxacin while neutropenic. Swabs were plated onto selective agar, colonies were identified and underwent antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and phenotypic ESBL testing and polymerase chain reaction for β-lactamase genes were performed on ceftriaxone-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. We then determined the prevalence of pre-transplant ESBL-E colonization and risk of ESBL-E bacteremia. Colonizing and bloodstream isolates from patients with ESBL-E bacteremia underwent multilocus sequence typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.

Results: We analyzed 312 patients, including 212 allogeneic and 100 autologous HSCT recipients. Ten percent (31/312) of patients had pre-transplant ESBL-E colonization. Susceptibility rates of colonizing ESBL-E were: levofloxacin, 25%; cefepime, 9%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 84%; and meropenem, 97%. Of 31 patients colonized with ESBL-E pre-transplant, 10 (32%) developed ESBL-E bacteremia during their transplant admission, compared to 1 (0.4%) of 281 patients not colonized with ESBL-E (P < .001). All bloodstream ESBL-E were levofloxacin-resistant and colonizing and bloodstream isolates from individual patients had identical genotypic profiles.

Conclusions: HSCT recipients who are colonized with levofloxacin-resistant ESBL-E pre-transplant and receive levofloxacin prophylaxis have high rates of bacteremia from their colonizing strain during neutropenia. Assessing for ESBL-E colonization in neutropenic patients could lead to optimization of empirical antibacterial therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233682PMC
November 2018

Safety and efficacy of plerixafor dose escalation for the mobilization of CD34 hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients with sickle cell disease: interim results.

Haematologica 2018 05 1;103(5):770-777. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Sickle Cell Program, Division of Hematology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USA

Gene therapy for sickle cell disease is limited by the yield of hematopoietic progenitor cells that can be harvested for transduction or gene editing. We therefore performed a phase I dose-escalation study of the hematopoietic progenitor cell mobilizing agent plerixafor to evaluate the efficacy and safety of standard dosing on peripheral blood CD34 cell mobilization. Of 15 patients enrolled to date, only one was chronically transfused and ten were on hydroxyurea. Of eight patients who achieved a CD34 cell concentration >30 cells/μL, six were on hydroxyurea. There was no clear dose response to increasing plerixafor dosage. There was a low rate of serious adverse events; two patients developed vaso-occlusive crises, at the doses of 80 μg/kg and 240 μg/kg. Hydroxyurea may have contributed to the limited CD34 mobilization by affecting baseline peripheral blood CD34 counts, which correlated strongly with peak peripheral blood CD34 counts. Plerixafor administration did not induce significant increases in the fraction of activated neutrophils, monocytes, or platelets. However, increased neutrophils positive for activated β2 integrin and Mac-1 were associated with serious adverse events. In summary, plerixafor was well tolerated but did not achieve consistent CD34 cell mobilization in this cohort of patients, most of whom were being actively treated with hydroxyurea and only one was chronically transfused. The study will continue with escalation of the dose of plerixafor and modification of hydroxyurea administration. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.187047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5927989PMC
May 2018

Reduced-Intensity Allogeneic Transplant for Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Myelodysplastic Syndrome Using Combined CD34-Selected Haploidentical Graft and a Single Umbilical Cord Unit Compared with Matched Unrelated Donor Stem Cells in Older Adults.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 05 27;24(5):997-1004. Epub 2017 Dec 27.

Section of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. Electronic address:

Haplo/cord transplantation combines an umbilical cord blood (UCB) graft with CD34-selected haploidentical cells and results in rapid hematopoietic recovery followed by durable UCB engraftment. We compared outcomes of transplants in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who received either HLA-matched unrelated donor (MUD) cells or haplo/cord grafts. Between 2007 and 2013, 109 adults ages 50 and older underwent similar reduced-intensity conditioning with fludarabine and melphalan and antibody-mediated T cell depletion for AML (n = 83) or high-risk MDS (n = 26) followed by either a MUD (n = 68) or haplo/cord (n = 41) graft. Patient characteristics were similar for each graft source except for more minority patients receiving a haplo/cord transplant (P = .01). One half of the AML patients were not in remission. Two-year progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and graft-versus-host disease-free relapse-free survival were 38%, 48%, and 32.1% for MUD and 33%, 48%, and 33.8% for haplo/cord transplants (P = .62 for PFS; P = .97 for OS; P= .84), respectively. Acute grades II to IV and chronic graft-versus-host-disease rates did not differ at 19.5% and 4.9% in haplo/cord compared with 25% and 7.4% after MUD (P = .53 and P = .62, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed no significant differences in transplant outcomes by donor type. Haplo/cord reduced-intensity transplantation achieves similar outcomes relative to MUD in older AML and MDS patients, making this a promising option for those without matched donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.794DOI Listing
May 2018

Validating and implementing the use of an infusion pump for the administration of thawed hematopoietic progenitor cells-a single-institution experience.

Transfusion 2018 02 29;58(2):339-344. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College.

Background: Direct thaw and administration of previously cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell products is a commonly used practice and should be performed rapidly to reduce cellular damage caused by dimethyl sulfoxide exposure. Cells are typically thawed at the bedside and infused by gravity through a high-flow-rate central venous catheter. An existing nontunneled catheter is occasionally used instead and often results in a slower infusion rate. To ensure expedient and consistent infusions, we validated and implemented the use of an infusion pump for thawed peripheral blood stem cells.

Study Design And Methods: Validation was performed in two phases: in vitro simulation and in vivo clinical assessment. Total nucleated cell recovery and viability plus progenitor cell viability and potency were compared in vitro between two cryopreserved peripheral blood stem cell units that were either passed through a preset infusion pump or drained by gravity. The infusion rate, adverse events, and engraftment times were retrospectively compared between patients who received infusions by infusion pump (n = 35) and by gravity (n = 38).

Results: No significant differences were observed in vitro between the infusion methods for all measured variables. Overall infusion rates were similar in vivo for both groups but were significantly lower for patients who had nontunneled catheters that delivered the infusion by gravity. The time to neutrophil and platelet engraftment was similar for both groups.

Conclusion: This is the first study to assess the use of an infusion pump for stem cell transplant. The use of an infusion pump for peripheral blood stem cell infusion is safe, provides a reliable and consistent infusion method, and can mitigate the effect of the type of venous access line used.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.14409DOI Listing
February 2018

Combined Haploidentical and Umbilical Cord Blood Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation for High-Risk Lymphoma and Chronic Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 02 8;24(2):359-365. Epub 2017 Nov 8.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Cornell Medical College/New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York. Electronic address:

Limited studies have reported on outcomes for lymphoid malignancy patients receiving alternative donor allogeneic stem cell transplants. We have previously described combining CD34-selected haploidentical grafts with umbilical cord blood (haplo-cord) to accelerate neutrophil and platelet engraftment. Here, we examine the outcome of patients with lymphoid malignancies undergoing haplo-cord transplantation at the University of Chicago and Weill Cornell Medical College. We analyzed 42 lymphoma and chronic lymphoblastic leukemia (CLL) patients who underwent haplo-cord allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Patients underwent transplant for Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 9, 21%), CLL (n = 5, 12%) and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (n = 28, 67%), including 13 T cell lymphomas. Twenty-four patients (52%) had 3 or more lines of therapies. Six (14%) and 1 (2%) patients had prior autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplant, respectively. At the time of transplant 12 patients (29%) were in complete remission, 18 had chemotherapy-sensitive disease, and 12 patients had chemotherapy-resistant disease. Seven (17%), 11 (26%), and 24 (57%) patients had low, intermediate, and high disease risk index before transplant. Comorbidity index was evenly distributed among 3 groups, with 13 (31%), 14 (33%), and 15 (36%) patients scoring 0, 1 to 2, and ≥3. Median age for the cohort was 49 years (range, 23 to 71). All patients received fludarabine/melphalan/antithymocyte globulin conditioning regimen and post-transplant graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil. The median time to neutrophil engraftment was 11 days (range, 9 to 60) and to platelet engraftment 19.5 days (range, 11 to 88). Cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality was 11.6% at 100 days and 19 % at one year. Cumulative incidence of relapse was 9.3% at 100 days and 19% at one year. With a median follow-up of survivors of 42 months, the 3-year rates of GVHD relapse free survival, progression-free survival, and overall survival were 53%, 62%, and 65%, respectively, for these patients. Only 8% of the survivors had chronic GVHD. In conclusion, haplo-cord transplantation offers a transplant alternative for patients with recurrent or refractory lymphoid malignancies who lack matching donors. Both neutrophil and platelet count recovery is rapid, nonrelapse mortality is limited, excellent disease control can be achieved, and the incidence of chronic GVHD is limited. Thus, haplo-cord achieves high rates of engraftment and encouraging results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.10.040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6574086PMC
February 2018

Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Use after Autologous Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation: Comparison of Two Practices.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 02 20;24(2):288-293. Epub 2017 Oct 20.

Department of Medicine, NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT) is generally recommended to reduce the duration of severe neutropenia; however, data regarding the optimal timing of G-CSFs post-transplantation are limited and conflicting. This retrospective study was performed at NewYork-Presbyterian/Weill Cornell Medical Center between November 5, 2013, and August 9, 2016, of adult inpatient autologous PBSCT recipients who received G-CSF empirically starting on day +5 (early) versus on those who received G-CSF on day +12 only if absolute neutrophil count (ANC) was <0.5 × 10/L (ANC-driven). G-CSF was dosed at 300 µg in patients weighing <75 kg and 480 µg in those weighing ≥75 kg. One hundred consecutive patients underwent autologous PBSCT using either the early (n = 50) or ANC-driven (n = 50) G-CSF regimen. Patient and transplantation characteristics were comparable in the 2 groups. In the ANC-driven group, 24% (n = 12) received G-CSF on day +12 and 60% (n = 30) started G-CSF earlier due to febrile neutropenia or at the physician's discretion, 6% (n = 3) started after day +12 at the physician's discretion, and 10% (n = 5) did not receive any G-CSF. The median start day of G-CSF therapy was day +10 in the ANC-driven group versus day +5 in the early group (P < .0001). For the primary outcome, the median time to neutrophil engraftment was 12 days (interquartile range [IQR] 11-13 days) in the early group versus 13 days (IQR, 12-14 days) in the ANC-driven group (P = .07). There were no significant between-group differences in time to platelet engraftment, 1-year relapse rate, or 1-year overall survival. The incidence of febrile neutropenia was 74% in the early group versus 90% in the ANC-driven group (P = .04); however, there was no significant between-group difference in the incidence of positive bacterial cultures or transfer to the intensive care unit. The duration of G-CSF administration until neutrophil engraftment was 6 days in the early group versus 3 days in the ANC-driven group (P < .0001). The median duration of post-transplantation hospitalization was 15 days (IQR, 14-19 days) in the early group versus 16 days (IQR, 15-22 days) in the ANC-driven group (P = .28). Our data show that early initiation of G-CSF (on day +5) and ANC-driven initiation of G-CSF following autologous PBSCT were associated with a similar time to neutrophil engraftment, length of stay post-transplantation, and 1-year overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.10.026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6574227PMC
February 2018

A Phase I Trial of High-Dose Lenalidomide and Melphalan as Conditioning for Autologous Stem Cell Transplantation in Relapsed or Refractory Multiple Myeloma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Jun 8;23(6):930-937. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology/Oncology, Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York Presbyterian Hospital, New York, New York.

Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) conditioned with high-dose chemotherapy has long been established as the standard of care for eligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma. Despite recent therapeutic advances, high-dose melphalan (HDM) remains the chemotherapy regimen of choice in this setting. Lenalidomide (LEN) in combination with low-dose dexamethasone is recognized as a standard of care for patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM), and there is growing support for the administration of LEN as maintenance therapy post-ASCT. In view of the above, the present phase I clinical trial was designed to evaluate the safety and tolerability of high-dose LEN (HDLEN) in patients with RRMM, and to determine the maximum tolerated dose of HDLEN when added to HDM before ASCT. Despite administering HDLEN at doses of up to 350 mg/day, the maximum tolerated dose could not be determined, owing to an insufficient number of dose-limiting toxicities in the 21 patients enrolled in the trial. Conditioning with HDLEN plus HDM was associated with a favorable tolerability profile. Adverse events following ASCT were as expected with HDM. Median progression-free and overall survival were 10 months and 22 months, respectively, in this population of heavily pretreated patients. Our findings suggest that HDLEN in combination with HDM may offer significant potential as a conditioning regimen before ASCT in patients with RRMM. These preliminary findings are now being evaluated further in an ongoing phase II clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.03.007DOI Listing
June 2017

Defibrotide for Patients with Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease/Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: Interim Results from a Treatment IND Study.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2017 Jun 8;23(6):997-1004. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

Hepatic veno-occlusive disease, or sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS), is a serious and potentially fatal complication of conditioning for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or of chemotherapy regimens alone. Defibrotide is a complex mixture of single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotides that is approved in the United States for treating hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction post-HSCT and in the European Union, Israel, and South Korea for treating severe hepatic VOD/SOS post-HSCT. Defibrotide was previously available in the United States as an investigational drug through a treatment protocol (treatment IND) study. Interim results of that large, treatment IND study of patients with VOD/SOS and with or without multiorgan dysfunction (MOD; also known as multiorgan failure) are presented here. Defibrotide was administered i.v. at 6.25 mg/kg every 6 hours (25 mg/kg/day), with a recommended treatment duration of at least 21 days. Enrolled patients (n = 681) were diagnosed with VOD/SOS based on Baltimore or modified Seattle criteria or liver biopsy analysis. Among the 573 HSCT recipients, 288 (50.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 46.2% to 54.4%) were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Day +100 survival for the pediatric (≤16 years) and adult (>16 years) subgroups was 54.5% (95% CI, 49.1% to 60.0%; n = 174 of 319) and 44.9% (95% CI, 38.8% to 51.0%; n = 114 of 254), respectively. In the MOD subgroup, 159 of 351 patients (45.3%; 95% CI, 40.1% to 50.5%) of patients were alive at day +100 post-HSCT. Treatment with defibrotide was generally well tolerated, and drug-related toxicities were consistent with previous studies. Adverse events were reported in 69.6% of safety-evaluable patients (399 of 573). Other than VOD/SOS and associated MOD symptoms, the most commonly reported treatment-emergent adverse event was hypotension (13.8%). Day +100 survival results observed in this trial were consistent with results seen in previous trials of defibrotide for VOD/SOS in adult and pediatric patients. These data support the potential benefit of defibrotide in treating a VOD/SOS patient population that includes those with and without MOD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.03.008DOI Listing
June 2017

Acute myeloid leukemia in a patient with thrombocytopenia with absent radii: A case report and review of the literature.

Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther 2018 Dec 24;11(4):245-247. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Thrombocytopenia with absent radii (TAR) syndrome is a rare congenital disorder characterized by low platelet counts of various severity, bilateral absent radii but thumbs are usually present. TAR syndrome is not generally associated with bone marrow failure or malignancy. Janus kinase-2, myeloproliferative leukemia protein, and calreticulin are not mutated in TAR patients. Only four cases of leukemia were reported in TAR patients in the literature: three acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and one acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Of the three cases of AML found in TAR patient, only one was reported in an adult. We report a case of myelodysplastic syndrome progressing to AML with calreticulin driver mutation in an adult male with TAR syndrome who was successfully treated with hematopoietic allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hemonc.2017.02.001DOI Listing
December 2018