Publications by authors named "Trupti Kawli"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Expanded encyclopaedias of DNA elements in the human and mouse genomes.

Nature 2020 07 29;583(7818):699-710. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Biological Science, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA.

The human and mouse genomes contain instructions that specify RNAs and proteins and govern the timing, magnitude, and cellular context of their production. To better delineate these elements, phase III of the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project has expanded analysis of the cell and tissue repertoires of RNA transcription, chromatin structure and modification, DNA methylation, chromatin looping, and occupancy by transcription factors and RNA-binding proteins. Here we summarize these efforts, which have produced 5,992 new experimental datasets, including systematic determinations across mouse fetal development. All data are available through the ENCODE data portal (https://www.encodeproject.org), including phase II ENCODE and Roadmap Epigenomics data. We have developed a registry of 926,535 human and 339,815 mouse candidate cis-regulatory elements, covering 7.9 and 3.4% of their respective genomes, by integrating selected datatypes associated with gene regulation, and constructed a web-based server (SCREEN; http://screen.encodeproject.org) to provide flexible, user-defined access to this resource. Collectively, the ENCODE data and registry provide an expansive resource for the scientific community to build a better understanding of the organization and function of the human and mouse genomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2493-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410828PMC
July 2020

Analytical and clinical validation of a microbial cell-free DNA sequencing test for infectious disease.

Nat Microbiol 2019 04 11;4(4):663-674. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA.

Thousands of pathogens are known to infect humans, but only a fraction are readily identifiable using current diagnostic methods. Microbial cell-free DNA sequencing offers the potential to non-invasively identify a wide range of infections throughout the body, but the challenges of clinical-grade metagenomic testing must be addressed. Here we describe the analytical and clinical validation of a next-generation sequencing test that identifies and quantifies microbial cell-free DNA in plasma from 1,250 clinically relevant bacteria, DNA viruses, fungi and eukaryotic parasites. Test accuracy, precision, bias and robustness to a number of metagenomics-specific challenges were determined using a panel of 13 microorganisms that model key determinants of performance in 358 contrived plasma samples, as well as 2,625 infections simulated in silico and 580 clinical study samples. The test showed 93.7% agreement with blood culture in a cohort of 350 patients with a sepsis alert and identified an independently adjudicated cause of the sepsis alert more often than all of the microbiological testing combined (169 aetiological determinations versus 132). Among the 166 samples adjudicated to have no sepsis aetiology identified by any of the tested methods, sequencing identified microbial cell-free DNA in 62, likely derived from commensal organisms and incidental findings unrelated to the sepsis alert. Analysis of the first 2,000 patient samples tested in the CLIA laboratory showed that more than 85% of results were delivered the day after sample receipt, with 53.7% of reports identifying one or more microorganisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-018-0349-6DOI Listing
April 2019

Systematic evaluation of the impact of ChIP-seq read designs on genome coverage, peak identification, and allele-specific binding detection.

BMC Bioinformatics 2016 Feb 24;17:96. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Department of Statistics, University of Wisconsin Madison, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.

Background: Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) experiments revolutionized genome-wide profiling of transcription factors and histone modifications. Although maturing sequencing technologies allow these experiments to be carried out with short (36-50 bps), long (75-100 bps), single-end, or paired-end reads, the impact of these read parameters on the downstream data analysis are not well understood. In this paper, we evaluate the effects of different read parameters on genome sequence alignment, coverage of different classes of genomic features, peak identification, and allele-specific binding detection.

Results: We generated 101 bps paired-end ChIP-seq data for many transcription factors from human GM12878 and MCF7 cell lines. Systematic evaluations using in silico variations of these data as well as fully simulated data, revealed complex interplay between the sequencing parameters and analysis tools, and indicated clear advantages of paired-end designs in several aspects such as alignment accuracy, peak resolution, and most notably, allele-specific binding detection.

Conclusions: Our work elucidates the effect of design on the downstream analysis and provides insights to investigators in deciding sequencing parameters in ChIP-seq experiments. We present the first systematic evaluation of the impact of ChIP-seq designs on allele-specific binding detection and highlights the power of pair-end designs in such studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-016-0957-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4765064PMC
February 2016

Principles of regulatory information conservation between mouse and human.

Nature 2014 Nov;515(7527):371-375

Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

To broaden our understanding of the evolution of gene regulation mechanisms, we generated occupancy profiles for 34 orthologous transcription factors (TFs) in human-mouse erythroid progenitor, lymphoblast and embryonic stem-cell lines. By combining the genome-wide transcription factor occupancy repertoires, associated epigenetic signals, and co-association patterns, here we deduce several evolutionary principles of gene regulatory features operating since the mouse and human lineages diverged. The genomic distribution profiles, primary binding motifs, chromatin states, and DNA methylation preferences are well conserved for TF-occupied sequences. However, the extent to which orthologous DNA segments are bound by orthologous TFs varies both among TFs and with genomic location: binding at promoters is more highly conserved than binding at distal elements. Notably, occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences tend to be pleiotropic; they function in several tissues and also co-associate with many TFs. Single nucleotide variants at sites with potential regulatory functions are enriched in occupancy-conserved TF-occupied sequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4343047PMC
November 2014

A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome.

Nature 2014 Nov;515(7527):355-64

Bioinformatics and Genomics, Centre for Genomic Regulation (CRG) and UPF, Doctor Aiguader, 88, 08003 Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

The laboratory mouse shares the majority of its protein-coding genes with humans, making it the premier model organism in biomedical research, yet the two mammals differ in significant ways. To gain greater insights into both shared and species-specific transcriptional and cellular regulatory programs in the mouse, the Mouse ENCODE Consortium has mapped transcription, DNase I hypersensitivity, transcription factor binding, chromatin modifications and replication domains throughout the mouse genome in diverse cell and tissue types. By comparing with the human genome, we not only confirm substantial conservation in the newly annotated potential functional sequences, but also find a large degree of divergence of sequences involved in transcriptional regulation, chromatin state and higher order chromatin organization. Our results illuminate the wide range of evolutionary forces acting on genes and their regulatory regions, and provide a general resource for research into mammalian biology and mechanisms of human diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4266106PMC
November 2014

Comparative analysis of regulatory information and circuits across distant species.

Nature 2014 Aug;512(7515):453-6

National Human Genome Research Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, 20892, USA.

Despite the large evolutionary distances between metazoan species, they can show remarkable commonalities in their biology, and this has helped to establish fly and worm as model organisms for human biology. Although studies of individual elements and factors have explored similarities in gene regulation, a large-scale comparative analysis of basic principles of transcriptional regulatory features is lacking. Here we map the genome-wide binding locations of 165 human, 93 worm and 52 fly transcription regulatory factors, generating a total of 1,019 data sets from diverse cell types, developmental stages, or conditions in the three species, of which 498 (48.9%) are presented here for the first time. We find that structural properties of regulatory networks are remarkably conserved and that orthologous regulatory factor families recognize similar binding motifs in vivo and show some similar co-associations. Our results suggest that gene-regulatory properties previously observed for individual factors are general principles of metazoan regulation that are remarkably well-preserved despite extensive functional divergence of individual network connections. The comparative maps of regulatory circuitry provided here will drive an improved understanding of the regulatory underpinnings of model organism biology and how these relate to human biology, development and disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4336544PMC
August 2014

Regulatory analysis of the C. elegans genome with spatiotemporal resolution.

Nature 2014 Aug;512(7515):400-5

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Discovering the structure and dynamics of transcriptional regulatory events in the genome with cellular and temporal resolution is crucial to understanding the regulatory underpinnings of development and disease. We determined the genomic distribution of binding sites for 92 transcription factors and regulatory proteins across multiple stages of Caenorhabditis elegans development by performing 241 ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing) experiments. Integration of regulatory binding and cellular-resolution expression data produced a spatiotemporally resolved metazoan transcription factor binding map. Using this map, we explore developmental regulatory circuits that encode combinatorial logic at the levels of co-binding and co-expression of transcription factors, characterizing the genomic coverage and clustering of regulatory binding, the binding preferences of, and biological processes regulated by, transcription factors, the global transcription factor co-associations and genomic subdomains that suggest shared patterns of regulation, and identifying key transcription factors and transcription factor co-associations for fate specification of individual lineages and cell types.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature13497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4530805PMC
August 2014

Identification of STAT5A and STAT5B target genes in human T cells.

PLoS One 2014 30;9(1):e86790. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Division of Immunology and Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) comprises a family of universal transcription factors that help cells sense and respond to environmental signals. STAT5 refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5A and STAT5B, with critical function: their complete deficiency is lethal in mice; in humans, STAT5B deficiency alone leads to endocrine and immunological problems, while STAT5A deficiency has not been reported. STAT5A and STAT5B show peptide sequence similarities greater than 90%, but subtle structural differences suggest possible non-redundant roles in gene regulation. However, these roles remain unclear in humans. We applied chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by DNA sequencing using human CD4(+) T cells to detect candidate genes regulated by STAT5A and/or STAT5B, and quantitative-PCR in STAT5A or STAT5B knock-down (KD) human CD4(+) T cells to validate the findings. Our data show STAT5A and STAT5B play redundant roles in cell proliferation and apoptosis via SGK1 interaction. Interestingly, we found a novel, unique role for STAT5A in binding to genes involved in neural development and function (NDRG1, DNAJC6, and SSH2), while STAT5B appears to play a distinct role in T cell development and function via DOCK8, SNX9, FOXP3 and IL2RA binding. Our results also suggest that one or more co-activators for STAT5A and/or STAT5B may play important roles in establishing different binding abilities and gene regulation behaviors. The new identification of these genes regulated by STAT5A and/or STAT5B has major implications for understanding the pathophysiology of cancer progression, neural disorders, and immune abnormalities.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0086790PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3907443PMC
December 2014

Dynamic trans-acting factor colocalization in human cells.

Cell 2013 Oct 24;155(3):713-24. Epub 2013 Oct 24.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Different trans-acting factors (TFs) collaborate and act in concert at distinct loci to perform accurate regulation of their target genes. To date, the cobinding of TF pairs has been investigated in a limited context both in terms of the number of factors within a cell type and across cell types and the extent of combinatorial colocalizations. Here, we use an approach to analyze TF colocalization within a cell type and across multiple cell lines at an unprecedented level. We extend this approach with large-scale mass spectrometry analysis of immunoprecipitations of 50 TFs. Our combined approach reveals large numbers of interesting TF-TF associations. We observe extensive change in TF colocalizations both within a cell type exposed to different conditions and across multiple cell types. We show distinct functional annotations and properties of different TF cobinding patterns and provide insights into the complex regulatory landscape of the cell.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.09.043DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4079469PMC
October 2013

Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans infection sensitivity by the LIN-7 cell junction protein.

Cell Microbiol 2012 Oct 21;14(10):1584-99. Epub 2012 Jun 21.

Genome Institute of Singapore, Singapore, Singapore.

In Caenorhabditis elegans, the LIN-2/7/10 protein complex regulates the activity of signalling proteins. We found that inhibiting lin-7 function, and also lin-2 and lin-10, resulted in enhanced C. elegans survival after infection by Burkholderia spp., implicating a novel role for these genes in modulating infection outcomes. Genetic experiments suggested that this infection phenotype is likely caused by modulation of the DAF-2 insulin/IGF-1 signalling pathway. Supporting these observations, yeast two-hybrid assays confirmed that the LIN-2 PDZ domain can physically bind to the DAF-2 C-terminus. Loss of lin-7 activity also altered DAF-16 nuclear localization kinetics, indicating an additional contribution by hsf-1. Unexpectedly, silencing lin-7 in the hypodermis, but not the intestine, was protective against infection, implicating the hypodermis as a key tissue in this phenomenon. Finally, consistent with lin-7 acting as a general host infection factor, lin-7 mutants also exhibited enhanced survival upon infection by two other Gram-negative pathogens, Pseudomonas and Salmonella spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01824.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3470699PMC
October 2012

Pleiotropic roles of a ribosomal protein in Dictyostelium discoideum.

PLoS One 2012 17;7(2):e30644. Epub 2012 Feb 17.

Department of Molecular Reproduction, Development and Genetics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

The cell cycle phase at starvation influences post-starvation differentiation and morphogenesis in Dictyostelium discoideum. We found that when expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a D. discoideum cDNA that encodes the ribosomal protein S4 (DdS4) rescues mutations in the cell cycle genes cdc24, cdc42 and bem1. The products of these genes affect morphogenesis in yeast via a coordinated moulding of the cytoskeleton during bud site selection. D. discoideum cells that over- or under-expressed DdS4 did not show detectable changes in protein synthesis but displayed similar developmental aberrations whose intensity was graded with the extent of over- or under-expression. This suggested that DdS4 might influence morphogenesis via a stoichiometric effect--specifically, by taking part in a multimeric complex similar to the one involving Cdc24p, Cdc42p and Bem1p in yeast. In support of the hypothesis, the S. cerevisiae proteins Cdc24p, Cdc42p and Bem1p as well as their D. discoideum cognates could be co-precipitated with antibodies to DdS4. Computational analysis and mutational studies explained these findings: a C-terminal domain of DdS4 is the functional equivalent of an SH3 domain in the yeast scaffold protein Bem1p that is central to constructing the bud site selection complex. Thus in addition to being part of the ribosome, DdS4 has a second function, also as part of a multi-protein complex. We speculate that the existence of the second role can act as a safeguard against perturbations to ribosome function caused by spontaneous variations in DdS4 levels.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0030644PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3281849PMC
June 2012

A conserved PHD finger protein and endogenous RNAi modulate insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

PLoS Genet 2011 Sep 29;7(9):e1002299. Epub 2011 Sep 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biophysics, Columbia University, New York, New York, United States of America.

Insulin signaling has a profound effect on longevity and the oxidative stress resistance of animals. Inhibition of insulin signaling results in the activation of DAF-16/FOXO and SKN-1/Nrf transcription factors and increased animal fitness. By studying the biological functions of the endogenous RNA interference factor RDE-4 and conserved PHD zinc finger protein ZFP-1 (AF10), which regulate overlapping sets of genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, we identified an important role for these factors in the negative modulation of transcription of the insulin/PI3 signaling-dependent kinase PDK-1. Consistently, increased expression of pdk-1 in zfp-1 and rde-4 mutants contributed to their reduced lifespan and sensitivity to oxidative stress and pathogens due to the reduction in the expression of DAF-16 and SKN-1 targets. We found that the function of ZFP-1 in modulating pdk-1 transcription was important for the extended lifespan of the age-1(hx546) reduction-of-function PI3 kinase mutant, since the lifespan of the age-1; zfp-1 double mutant strain was significantly shorter compared to age-1(hx546). We further demonstrate that overexpression of ZFP-1 caused an increased resistance to oxidative stress in a DAF-16-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that epigenetic regulation of key upstream signaling components in signal transduction pathways through chromatin and RNAi may have a large impact on the outcome of signaling and expression of numerous downstream genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3183084PMC
September 2011

It takes nerves to fight infections: insights on neuro-immune interactions from C. elegans.

Dis Model Mech 2010 Nov-Dec;3(11-12):721-31. Epub 2010 Sep 9.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 394305, USA.

The innate immune response is evoked as a consequence of interactions between invading foreign infectious agents and host immune cells. A successful innate immune response is pivotal in maintaining the delicate balance between health and disease; an insufficient response results in infection, whereas an excessive response results in prolonged inflammation and tissue damage. Alterations in the state and function of the nervous system influence the immune response. The nervous system regulates innate immune responses through the release of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and neurohormones. However, many questions related to the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved, the physiological role of the link between the immune and the nervous system, and the biological significance of neuro-immune interactions remain unresolved. The interactions between the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its pathogens provide insights into mechanisms of neuroendocrine regulation of immunity and address many outstanding issues related to neuro-immune interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dmm.003871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2965399PMC
February 2011

Systemic and cell intrinsic roles of Gqalpha signaling in the regulation of innate immunity, oxidative stress, and longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Aug 20;107(31):13788-93. Epub 2010 Jul 20.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Signal transduction pathways that regulate longevity, immunity, and stress resistance can profoundly affect organismal survival. We show that a signaling module formed by the G protein alpha subunit, Gqalpha, and one of its downstream signal transducer phospholipase C beta (PLCbeta) can differentially affect these processes. Loss of Gqalpha and PLCbeta functions result in increased sensitivity to pathogens and oxidative stress but confer life span extension. Gqalpha and PLCbeta modulate life span and immunity noncell autonomously by affecting the activity of insulin/IGF1 signaling (IIS). In addition, Gqalpha and PLCbeta function cell autonomously within the intestine to affect the activity of the p38 MAPK pathway, an important component of Caenorhabditis elegans immune and oxidative stress response. p38 MAPK activity in the intestine is regulated by diacylglycerol levels, a product of PLCbeta's hydrolytic activity. We provide genetic evidence that life span is largely determined by IIS, whereas p38 MAPK signaling is the primary regulator of oxidative stress in PLCbeta mutants. Pathogen sensitivity of Gqalpha and PLCbeta mutants is a summation of the beneficial effects of decreased IIS through reduced neuronal secretion and the detrimental effects of reduced activity of intestinal p38 MAPK. We propose a model whereby Gqalpha signaling differentially regulates pathogen sensitivity, oxidative stress, and longevity through cell autonomous and noncell autonomous effects on p38 MAPK and insulin/IGF1 signaling, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0914715107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2922217PMC
August 2010

Pseudomonas aeruginosa suppresses host immunity by activating the DAF-2 insulin-like signaling pathway in Caenorhabditis elegans.

PLoS Pathog 2008 Oct 17;4(10):e1000175. Epub 2008 Oct 17.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California, United States of America.

Some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to overcome host immune defenses by inhibiting host defense signaling pathways and suppressing the expression of host defense effectors. We present evidence that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is able to suppress the expression of a subset of immune defense genes in the animal host Caenorhabditis elegans by activating the DAF-2/DAF-16 insulin-like signaling pathway. The DAF-2/DAF-16 pathway is important for the regulation of many aspects of organismal physiology, including metabolism, stress response, longevity, and immune function. We show that intestinal expression of DAF-16 is required for resistance to P. aeruginosa and that the suppression of immune defense genes is dependent on the insulin-like receptor DAF-2 and the FOXO transcription factor DAF-16. By visualizing the subcellular localization of DAF-16::GFP fusion protein in live animals during infection, we show that P. aeruginosa-mediated downregulation of a subset of immune genes is associated with the ability to translocate DAF-16 from the nuclei of intestinal cells. Suppression of DAF-16 is mediated by an insulin-like peptide, INS-7, which functions upstream of DAF-2. Both the inhibition of DAF-16 and downregulation of DAF-16-regulated genes, such as thn-2, lys-7, and spp-1, require the P. aeruginosa two-component response regulator GacA and the quorum-sensing regulators LasR and RhlR and are not observed during infection with Salmonella typhimurium or Enterococcus faecalis. Our results reveal a new mechanism by which P. aeruginosa suppresses host immune defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1000175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2568960PMC
October 2008

Neuroendocrine signals modulate the innate immunity of Caenorhabditis elegans through insulin signaling.

Nat Immunol 2008 Dec 14;9(12):1415-24. Epub 2008 Oct 14.

Department of Genetics, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, and Program in Immunology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305, USA.

Communication between the immune and nervous systems, each of which is able to react rapidly to environmental stimuli, may confer a survival advantage. However, precisely how the nervous system influences the immune response and whether neural modulation of immune function is biologically important are not well understood. Here we report that neuronal exocytosis of neuropeptides from dense core vesicles suppressed the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans and their clearance of infection with the human bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This immunomodulatory function was mediated by INS-7, an insulin-like neuropeptide whose induction was associated with Pseudomonas virulence. INS-7 secreted from the nervous system functioned in a non-cell autonomous way to activate the insulin pathway and alter basal and inducible expression of immunity-related genes in intestinal cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.1672DOI Listing
December 2008

Correlates of developmental cell death in Dictyostelium discoideum.

Differentiation 2002 Aug;70(6):272-81

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, India.

We have studied the correlates of cell death during stalk cell differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum. Our main findings are four. (i) There is a gradual increase in the number of cells with exposed phosphatidyl serine residues, an indicator of membrane asymmetry loss and increased permeability. Only presumptive stalk cells show this change in membrane asymmetry. Cells also show an increase in cell membrane permeability under conditions of calcium-induced stalk cell differentiation in cell monolayers. (ii) There is a gradual fall in mitochondrial membrane potential during development, again restricted to the presumptive stalk cells. (iii) The fraction of cells showing caspase-3 activity increases as development proceeds and then declines in the terminally differentiated fruiting body. (iv) There is no internucleosomal cleavage of DNA, or DNA fragmentation, in D. discoideum nor is there any calcium- and magnesium-dependent endonucleolytic activity in nuclear extracts from various developmental stages. However, nuclear condensation and peripheralization does occur in stalk cells. Thus, cell death in D. discoideum shows some, but not all, features of apoptotic cell death as recognized in other multicellular systems. These findings argue against the emergence of a single mechanism of 'programmed cell death (PCD)' before multicellularity arose during evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1432-0436.2002.700605.xDOI Listing
August 2002
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