Publications by authors named "Tricia Larsen"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A high docosahexaenoic acid diet alters lung inflammation and recovery following repetitive exposure to aqueous organic dust extracts.

J Nutr Biochem 2021 Jun 12;97:108797. Epub 2021 Jun 12.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California, Riverside, Riverside, California, USA; Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, USA. Electronic address:

Agricultural workers, especially those who work in swine confinement facilities, are at increased risk for developing pulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and chronic bronchitis due to exposures to fumes, vapors, and organic dust. Repetitive exposure to agricultural dust leads to unresolved inflammation, a common underlying mechanism that worsens lung disease. Besides occupational exposure to dusts, diet also significantly contributes to inflammation and disease progression. Since DHA (docosahexaenoic acid), a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid and its bioactive metabolites have key roles in inflammation resolution, we rationalized that individuals chronically exposed to organic dusts can benefit from dietary modifications. Here, we evaluated the role of DHA in modifying airway inflammation in a murine model of repetitive exposure to an aqueous extract of agricultural dust (three-week exposure to swine confinement dust extract, HDE) and after a one-week resolution/recovery period. We found that mice fed a high DHA diet had significantly increased bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) levels of DHA-derived resolvins and lower TNFα along with altered plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related lipid mediators. Following the one-week recovery we identified significantly reduced BALF cellularity and cytokine/chemokine release along with increased BALF amphiregulin and resolvins in DHA diet-fed versus control diet-fed mice challenged with HDE. We further report observations on the effects of repetitive HDE exposure on lung Ym1+ and Arg-1+ macrophages. Overall, our findings support a protective role for DHA and identify DHA-derived resolvins and endocannabinoids among the potential mediators of DHA in altering airway inflammation in chronic agricultural dust exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2021.108797DOI Listing
June 2021

Mitochondrial Transfer Improves Cardiomyocyte Bioenergetics and Viability in Male Rats Exposed to Pregestational Diabetes.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 27;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Sanford School of Medicine, University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA.

Offspring born to diabetic or obese mothers have a higher lifetime risk of heart disease. Previously, we found that rat offspring exposed to late-gestational diabetes mellitus (LGDM) and maternal high-fat (HF) diet develop mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired cardiomyocyte bioenergetics, and cardiac dysfunction at birth and again during aging. Here, we compared echocardiography, cardiomyocyte bioenergetics, oxidative damage, and mitochondria-mediated cell death among control, pregestational diabetes mellitus (PGDM)-exposed, HF-diet-exposed, and combination-exposed newborn offspring. We hypothesized that PGDM exposure, similar to LGDM, causes mitochondrial dysfunction to play a central, pathogenic role in neonatal cardiomyopathy. We found that PGDM-exposed offspring, similar to LGDM-exposed offspring, have cardiac dysfunction at birth, but their isolated cardiomyocytes have seemingly less bioenergetics impairment. This finding was due to confounding by impaired viability related to poorer ATP generation, more lipid peroxidation, and faster apoptosis under metabolic stress. To mechanistically isolate and test the role of mitochondria, we transferred mitochondria from normal rat myocardium to control and exposed neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. As expected, transfer provides a respiratory boost to cardiomyocytes from all groups. They also reduce apoptosis in PGDM-exposed males, but not in females. Findings highlight sex-specific differences in mitochondria-mediated mechanisms of developmentally programmed heart disease and underscore potential caveats of therapeutic mitochondrial transfer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22052382DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7956857PMC
February 2021

Uteroplacental Insufficiency with Hypoxia Upregulates Placental PPARγ-KMT5A Axis in the Rat.

Reprod Sci 2021 05 4;28(5):1476-1488. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, 295 Chipeta Way, UT, 84108, Salt Lake City, USA.

The placenta represents a critical node in fetal lipid acquisition, yet the mechanisms by which the placenta handles lipids under normal and pathologic conditions are incompletely understood. A key player in placental lipid handling is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). PPARγ influences global gene expression via its regulation of the epigenetic modifier lysine methyltransferase 5A (KMT5A), which places a methyl group on histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me) of target genes. Here we test the hypothesis that KMT5A is present in both the human and rat placentas and is affected by uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI) in the rat in association with increased placental lipid accumulation. We assessed levels and localization of KMT5A, as well as lipid droplet accumulation, in human placental tissue collected from maternal donors after delivery by planned cesarean section. Using a rat model of UPI, we also evaluated the effects of UPI on lipid accumulation, PPARγ, KMT5A, and H4K20me in the rat placenta. In this study, we show for the first time the presence and activity of KMT5A, in human and in rat placentas. We also demonstrate that in the rat placenta, UPI increases hypoxia, KMT5a expression, and activity in association with increased lipid accumulation in placenta supporting male fetuses. Placental PPARγ-KMT5A axis may be an important mediator of placental lipid handling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00434-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215892PMC
May 2021

Age and Sex Influence Mitochondria and Cardiac Health in Offspring Exposed to Maternal Glucolipotoxicity.

iScience 2020 Nov 28;23(11):101746. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine, Sioux Falls, SD 57105, USA.

Infants of diabetic mothers are at risk of cardiomyopathy at birth and myocardial infarction in adulthood, but prevention is hindered because mechanisms remain unknown. We previously showed that maternal glucolipotoxicity increases the risk of cardiomyopathy and mortality in newborn rats through fuel-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Here we demonstrate ongoing cardiometabolic consequences by cross-fostering and following echocardiography, cardiomyocyte bioenergetics, mitochondria-mediated turnover, and cell death following metabolic stress in aged adults. Like humans, cardiac function improves by weaning with no apparent differences in early adulthood but declines again in aged diabetes-exposed offspring. This is preceded by impaired oxidative phosphorylation, exaggerated age-related increase in mitochondrial number, and higher oxygen consumption. Prenatally exposed male cardiomyocytes have more mitolysosomes indicating high baseline turnover; when exposed to metabolic stress, mitophagy cannot increase and cardiomyocytes have faster mitochondrial membrane potential loss and mitochondria-mediated cell death. Details highlight age- and sex-specific roles of mitochondria in developmentally programmed adult heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666357PMC
November 2020

Maternal High Fat Diet and Diabetes Disrupts Transcriptomic Pathways That Regulate Cardiac Metabolism and Cell Fate in Newborn Rat Hearts.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 17;11:570846. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Environmental Influences on Health and Disease Group, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, United States.

Children born to diabetic or obese mothers have a higher risk of heart disease at birth and later in life. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing, we previously demonstrated that late-gestation diabetes, maternal high fat (HF) diet, and the combination causes distinct fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of rat cardiac tissue during fetal cardiogenesis. The objective of the present study was to investigate the overall transcriptional signature of newborn offspring exposed to maternal diabetes and maternal H diet. Microarray gene expression profiling of hearts from diabetes exposed, HF diet exposed, and combination exposed newborn rats was compared to controls. Functional annotation, pathway and network analysis of differentially expressed genes were performed in combination exposed and control newborn rat hearts. Further downstream metabolic assessments included measurement of total and phosphorylated AKT2 and GSK3β, as well as quantification of glycolytic capacity by extracellular flux analysis and glycogen staining. Transcriptional analysis identified significant fuel-mediated changes in offspring cardiac gene expression. Specifically, functional pathways analysis identified two key signaling cascades that were functionally prioritized in combination exposed offspring hearts: (1) downregulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activated PI3K/AKT pathway and (2) upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator alpha (PGC1α) mitochondrial biogenesis signaling. Functional metabolic and histochemical assays supported these transcriptome changes, corroborating diabetes- and diet-induced cardiac transcriptome remodeling and cardiac metabolism in offspring. This study provides the first data accounting for the compounding effects of maternal hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia on the developmental cardiac transcriptome, and elucidates nuanced and novel features of maternal diabetes and diet on regulation of heart health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.570846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7527411PMC
May 2021

A High Docosahexaenoic Acid Diet Alters the Lung Inflammatory Response to Acute Dust Exposure.

Nutrients 2020 Aug 4;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Division of Biomedical Sciences, School of Medicine, University of California Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.

Agricultural workers are at risk for the development of acute and chronic lung diseases due to their exposure to organic agricultural dusts. A diet intervention using the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been shown to be an effective therapeutic approach for alleviating a dust-induced inflammatory response. We thus hypothesized a high-DHA diet would alter the dust-induced inflammatory response through the increased production of specialized pro-resolving mediators (SPMs). Mice were pre-treated with a DHA-rich diet 4 weeks before being intranasally challenged with a single dose of an extract made from dust collected from a concentrated swine feeding operation (HDE). This omega-3-fatty-acid-rich diet led to reduced arachidonic acid levels in the blood, enhanced macrophage recruitment, and increased the production of the DHA-derived SPM Resolvin D1 (RvD1) in the lung following HDE exposure. An assessment of transcript-level changes in the immune response demonstrated significant differences in immune pathway activation and alterations of numerous macrophage-associated genes among HDE-challenged mice fed a high DHA diet. Our data indicate that consuming a DHA-rich diet leads to the enhanced production of SPMs during an acute inflammatory challenge to dust, supporting a role for dietary DHA supplementation as a potential therapeutic strategy for reducing dust-induced lung inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12082334DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7468878PMC
August 2020

Diabetic Pregnancy and Maternal High-Fat Diet Impair Mitochondrial Dynamism in the Developing Fetal Rat Heart by Sex-Specific Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Jun 25;20(12). Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Environmental Influences on Health and Disease Group, Sanford Research, 2301 E 60th Street North, Sioux Falls, SD 57104, USA.

Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at greater risk of heart disease at birth and throughout life, but prevention is hindered because underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Using a rat model, we showed that prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes and a high-fat diet caused diastolic and systolic dysfunction, myocardial lipid accumulation, decreased respiratory capacity, and oxidative stress in newborn offspring hearts. This study aimed to determine whether mitochondrial dynamism played a role. Using confocal live-cell imaging, we examined mitochondrial dynamics in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCM) from four prenatally exposed groups: controls, diabetes, high-fat diet, and combination exposed. Cardiac expression of dynamism-related genes and proteins were compared, and gender-specific differences were evaluated. Findings show that normal NRCM have highly dynamic mitochondria with a well-balanced number of fusion and fission events. Prenatal exposure to diabetes or a high-fat diet impaired dynamism resulting in shorter, wider mitochondria. Mechanisms of impaired dynamism were gender-specific and protein regulated. Females had higher expression of fusion proteins which may confer a cardioprotective effect. Prenatally exposed male hearts had post-translational modifications known to impair dynamism and influence mitophagy-mediated cell death. This study identifies mitochondrial fusion and fission proteins as targetable, pathogenic regulators of heart health in offspring exposed to excess circulating maternal fuels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6627740PMC
June 2019

Placental lipid processing in response to a maternal high-fat diet and diabetes in rats.

Pediatr Res 2018 03 3;83(3):712-722. Epub 2018 Jan 3.

Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA.

BackgroundDiabetes and obesity during pregnancy have an impact on the health of both mothers and developing babies. Prevention focuses on glycemic control, but increasing evidence implicates a role for lipids. Using a rat model, we showed that a maternal high-fat (HF) diet increased perinatal morbidity and mortality, but lipid processing across the maternal-placental-fetal triad remained unstudied. We hypothesized that HF diet would disrupt placental lipid processing to exaggerate fuel-mediated consequences of diabetic pregnancy.MethodsWe compared circulating lipid profiles, hormones, and inflammatory markers in dams and rat offspring from normal, diabetes-exposed, HF-diet-exposed, and combination-exposed pregnancies. Placentae were examined for lipid accumulation and expression of fuel transporters.ResultsMaternal HF diet exaggerated hyperlipidemia of pregnancy, with diabetes marked dyslipidemia developed in dams but not in offspring. Placentae demonstrated lipid accumulation and lower expression of fatty acid (FA) transporters. Diet-exposed offspring had a lower fraction of circulating essential FAs. Pregnancy loss was significantly higher in diet-exposed but not in diabetes-exposed pregnancies, which could not be explained by differences in hormone production. Although not confirmed, inflammation may play a role.ConclusionMaternal hyperlipidemia contributes to placental lipid droplet accumulation, perinatal mortality, and aberrant FA profiles that may influence the health of the developing offspring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/pr.2017.288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902636PMC
March 2018

Prenatal Exposure to a Maternal High-Fat Diet Affects Histone Modification of Cardiometabolic Genes in Newborn Rats.

Nutrients 2017 Apr 20;9(4). Epub 2017 Apr 20.

Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, Box 2203, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD 57007, USA.

Infants born to women with diabetes or obesity are exposed to excess circulating fuels during fetal heart development and are at higher risk of cardiac diseases. We have previously shown that late-gestation diabetes, especially in conjunction with a maternal high-fat (HF) diet, impairs cardiac functions in rat-offspring. This study investigated changes in genome-wide histone modifications in newborn hearts from rat-pups exposed to maternal diabetes and HF-diet. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation-sequencing revealed a differential peak distribution on gene promoters in exposed pups with respect to acetylation of lysines 9 and 14 and to trimethylation of lysines 4 and 27 in histone H3 (all, false discovery rate, FDR < 0.1). In the HF-diet exposed offspring, 54% of the annotated genes showed the gene-activating mark trimethylated lysine 4. Many of these genes (1) are associated with the "metabolic process" in general and particularly with "positive regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis" (FDR = 0.03); (2) overlap with 455 quantitative trait loci for blood pressure, body weight, serum cholesterol (all, FDR < 0.1); and (3) are linked to cardiac disease susceptibility/progression, based on disease ontology analyses and scientific literature. These results indicate that maternal HF-diet changes the cardiac histone signature in offspring suggesting a fuel-mediated epigenetic reprogramming of cardiac tissue in utero.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu9040407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409746PMC
April 2017

Consequences of a Maternal High-Fat Diet and Late Gestation Diabetes on the Developing Rat Lung.

PLoS One 2016 12;11(8):e0160818. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, United States of America.

Rationale: Infants born to diabetic or obese mothers are at risk of respiratory distress and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), conceivably through fuel-mediated pathogenic mechanisms. Prior research and preventative measures focus on controlling maternal hyperglycemia, but growing evidence suggests a role for additional circulating fuels including lipids. Little is known about the individual or additive effects of a maternal high-fat diet on fetal lung development.

Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, alone and alongside late-gestation diabetes, on lung alveologenesis and vasculogenesis, as well as to ascertain if consequences persist beyond the perinatal period.

Methods: A rat model was used to study lung development in offspring from control, diabetes-exposed, high-fat diet-exposed and combination-exposed pregnancies via morphometric, histologic (alveolarization and vasculogenesis) and physiologic (echocardiography, pulmonary function) analyses at birth and 3 weeks of age. Outcomes were interrogated for diet, diabetes and interaction effect using ANOVA with significance set at p≤0.05. Findings prompted additional mechanistic inquiry of key molecular pathways.

Results: Offspring exposed to maternal diabetes or high-fat diet, alone and in combination, had smaller lungs and larger hearts at birth. High-fat diet-exposed, but not diabetes-exposed offspring, had a higher perinatal death rate and echocardiographic evidence of PPHN at birth. Alveolar mean linear intercept, septal thickness, and airspace area (D2) were not significantly different between the groups; however, markers of lung maturity were. Both diabetes-exposed and diet-exposed offspring expressed more T1α protein, a marker of type I cells. Diet-exposed newborn pups expressed less surfactant protein B and had fewer pulmonary vessels enumerated. Mechanistic inquiry revealed alterations in AKT activation, higher endothelin-1 expression, and an impaired Txnip/VEGF pathway that are important for vessel growth and migration. After 3 weeks, mortality remained highest and static lung compliance and hysteresis were lowest in combination-exposed offspring.

Conclusion: This study emphasizes the effects of a maternal high-fat diet, especially alongside late-gestation diabetes, on pulmonary vasculogenesis, demonstrates adverse consequences beyond the perinatal period and directs attention to mechanistic pathways of interest. Findings provide a foundation for additional investigation of preventative and therapeutic strategies aimed at decreasing pulmonary morbidity in at-risk infants.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0160818PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4982689PMC
August 2017

Age Related Bioenergetics Profiles in Isolated Rat Cardiomyocytes Using Extracellular Flux Analyses.

PLoS One 2016 12;11(2):e0149002. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, SD, United States of America.

Mitochondrial dysfunction is increasingly recognized and studied as a mediator of heart disease. Extracellular flux analysis (XF) has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate cellular bioenergetics in the context of cardiac health and disease, however its use and interpretation requires improved understanding of the normal metabolic differences in cardiomyocytes (CM) at various stages of maturation. This study standardized XF analyses methods (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test and palmitate oxidation test) and established age related differences in bioenergetics profiles of healthy CMs at newborn (NB1), weaning (3WK), adult (10WK) and aged (12-18MO) time points. Findings show that immature CMs demonstrate a more robust and sustained glycolytic capacity and a relative inability to oxidize fatty acids when compared to older CMs. The study also highlights the need to recognize the contribution of CO2 from the Krebs cycle as well as lactate from anaerobic glycolysis to the proton production rate before interpreting glycolytic capacity in CMs. Overall, this study demonstrates that caution should be taken to assure that translatable developmental time points are used to investigate mitochondrial dysfunction as a cause of cardiac disease. Specifically, XF analysis of newborn CMs should be reserved to study fetal/neonatal disease and older CMs (≥10 weeks) should be used to investigate adult disease pathogenesis. Knowledge gained will aid in improved investigation of developmentally programmed heart disease and stress the importance of discerning maturational differences in bioenergetics when developing mitochondrial targeted preventative and therapeutic strategies for cardiac disease.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149002PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4752341PMC
July 2016

Maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancy through metabolic stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 2016 Mar 22;310(6):H681-92. Epub 2016 Jan 22.

Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Sanford School of Medicine-University of South Dakota, Sioux Falls, South Dakota; Children's Health Specialty Clinic, Sanford Children's Hospital, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Offspring of diabetic pregnancies are at risk of cardiovascular disease at birth and throughout life, purportedly through fuel-mediated influences on the developing heart. Preventative measures focus on glycemic control, but the contribution of additional offenders, including lipids, is not understood. Cellular bioenergetics can be influenced by both diabetes and hyperlipidemia and play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of adult cardiovascular disease. This study investigated whether a maternal high-fat diet, independently or additively with diabetes, could impair fuel metabolism, mitochondrial function, and cardiac physiology in the developing offspring's heart. Sprague-Dawley rats fed a control or high-fat diet were administered placebo or streptozotocin to induce diabetes during pregnancy and then delivered offspring from four groups: control, diabetes exposed, diet exposed, and combination exposed. Cardiac function, cellular bioenergetics (mitochondrial stress test, glycolytic stress test, and palmitate oxidation assay), lipid peroxidation, mitochondrial histology, and copy number were determined. Diabetes-exposed offspring had impaired glycolytic and respiratory capacity and a reduced proton leak. High-fat diet-exposed offspring had increased mitochondrial copy number, increased lipid peroxidation, and evidence of mitochondrial dysfunction. Combination-exposed pups were most severely affected and demonstrated cardiac lipid droplet accumulation and diastolic/systolic cardiac dysfunction that mimics that of adult diabetic cardiomyopathy. This study is the first to demonstrate that a maternal high-fat diet impairs cardiac function in offspring of diabetic pregnancies through metabolic stress and serves as a critical step in understanding the role of cellular bioenergetics in developmentally programmed cardiac disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpheart.00795.2015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4867345PMC
March 2016

Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is critical for nuclear envelope integrity.

J Biol Chem 2011 Nov 26;286(46):40296-306. Epub 2011 Sep 26.

Cardiovascular Health Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, Sioux Falls, South Dakota 57104, USA.

Myotonic dystrophy 1 (DM1) is a multisystemic disease caused by a triplet nucleotide repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). DMPK is a nuclear envelope (NE) protein that promotes myogenic gene expression in skeletal myoblasts. Muscular dystrophy research has revealed the NE to be a key determinant of nuclear structure, gene regulation, and muscle function. To investigate the role of DMPK in NE stability, we analyzed DMPK expression in epithelial and myoblast cells. We found that DMPK localizes to the NE and coimmunoprecipitates with Lamin-A/C. Overexpression of DMPK in HeLa cells or C2C12 myoblasts disrupts Lamin-A/C and Lamin-B1 localization and causes nuclear fragmentation. Depletion of DMPK also disrupts NE lamina, showing that DMPK is required for NE stability. Our data demonstrate for the first time that DMPK is a critical component of the NE. These novel findings suggest that reduced DMPK may contribute to NE instability, a common mechanism of skeletal muscle wasting in muscular dystrophies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M111.241455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3220565PMC
November 2011

Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase is expressed in embryonic myocytes and is required for myotube formation.

Dev Dyn 2008 Sep;237(9):2353-66

Cardiovascular Research Center, Sanford Research/USD, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, USA.

Myotonic dystrophy (DM1) is a multi-systemic disease caused by a triplet nucleotide repeat expansion in the 3' untranslated region of the gene coding for myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK). The primary pathophysiology of DM1 is thought to result from RNA transport and processing defects. The function of DMPK in development or any potential role in DM1 remains unknown. Here we report a novel role for DMPK in myogenesis. We have discovered a specific expression pattern of DMPK in mouse and chick embryonic development. DMPK is expressed in postmitotic cardiac and skeletal myocytes and developmental signaling centers. During cardiac myocyte maturation, DMPK migrates from perinuclear to cellular membrane localization. Manipulating DMPK levels in cultured cardiac and skeletal myocytes has revealed a key role for DMPK in myocyte differentiation. Overexpression of DMPK induces cell rounding and apoptosis in myocytes. In addition, DMPK is necessary for myogenin expression in differentiating C2C12 myoblasts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvdy.21653DOI Listing
September 2008

Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase monoclonal antibody generation from a coiled-coil template.

J Mol Recognit 2006 May-Jun;19(3):215-26

Deparment of Pediatrics, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center at Fitzsimons, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Myotonic dystrophy protein kinase (DMPK) was the initial representative of a ubiquitous protein kinase family that regulates cell size and shape. DMPK is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscle and transgenic over-expression induces cardiac hypertrophy. The characterization of DMPK has been limited by the paucity of immunological reagents with high affinity and well-defined specificity. Amino acid sequence data was used to predict the surface exposure of the coil-coiled domain of DMPK. These exposed amino acids were substituted into an extremely stable coiled-coil template to produce a peptide antigen. Sera from mice immunized with the peptide conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin were screened against recombinant DMPK using Western blots. Murine spleens expressing DMPK antibodies were used to produce hybridoma cell lines. Hybridoma supernatants were further screened against recombinant DMPK and four clonal hybridoma cell lines expressing DMPK antibodies were generated. These four monoclonal antibodies recognized recombinant DMPK in Western blots of COS-1 cell lysates expressing high levels of recombinant DMPK and immunoprecipitated recombinant DMPK from COS-1 cell lysates. The identity of the immunoprecipitated DMPK was confirmed by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and peptide mass fingerprinting. DMPK was the only protein detected in the immunoprecipitates, indicating the high specificity of the antibodies. Western blots immunostained with two of the monoclonal antibodies specifically recognized the two isoforms of endogenous DMPK, DMPK-1 and DMPK-2, that are expressed at low levels in the human heart. The recognition of low amounts of DMPK-1 and DMPK-2 indicates the high affinity of these antibodies. A human heart lysate was subjected to ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography to produce a fraction that was enriched in DMPK. One of the monoclonal antibodies immunoprecipitated endogenous DMPK from this fraction. This antibody was used for immuno-localization studies of an adenoviral DMPK construct, expressed in adult mouse cardiac myocytes. This construct was localized to the intercalated disc, the site of endogenous DMPK, indicating that this antibody is applicable to immuno-localization studies. This study demonstrates the utility of the described procedure for generation of specific monoclonal antibodies with high affinity for epitopes in coiled-coiled domains of mammalian proteins expressed at low levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmr.769DOI Listing
July 2006
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