Publications by authors named "Trent Cayot"

6 Publications

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Acute Neuromuscular and Microvascular Responses to Concentric and Eccentric Exercises With Blood Flow Restriction.

J Strength Cond Res 2020 Oct;34(10):2725-2733

School of Exercise and Rehabilitation Sciences, The University of Toledo, Toledo, Ohio.

Lauver, JD, Cayot, TE, Rotarius, TR, and Scheuermann, BW. Acute neuromuscular and microvascular responses to concentric and eccentric exercises with blood flow restriction. J Strength Cond Res 34(10): 2725-2733, 2020-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the addition of blood flow restriction (BFR) during concentric and eccentric exercises on muscle excitation and microvascular oxygenation status. Subjects (N = 17) were randomly assigned to either a concentric (CON, CON + BFR) or eccentric (ECC, ECC + BFR) group, with one leg assigned to BFR and the other to non-BFR. Surface electromyography and near-infrared spectroscopy were used to measure muscle excitation and microvascular deoxygenation (deoxy-[Hb + Mb]) and [total hemoglobin concentration] during each condition, respectively. On separate days, subjects completed 4 sets (30, 15, 15, 15) of knee extension exercise at 30% maximal torque, and 1 minute of rest was provided between the sets. Greater excitation of the vastus medialis was observed during CON + BFR (54.4 ± 13.3% maximal voluntary isometric contraction [MVIC]) and ECC + BFR (53.0 ± 18.0% MVIC) compared with CON (42.0 ± 10.8% MVIC) and ECC (46.8 ± 9.6% MVIC). Change in deoxy-[Hb + Mb] was greater during CON + BFR (10.0 ± 10.4 μM) than during CON (4.1 ± 4.0 μM; p < 0.001). ECC + BFR (7.8 ± 6.7 μM) was significantly greater than ECC (3.5 ± 4.7 μM; p = 0.001). Total hemoglobin concentration was greater for ECC + BFR (7.9 ± 4.4 μM) compared with ECC (5.5 ± 3.5 μM). The addition of BFR to eccentric and concentric exercises resulted in a significant increase in metabolic stress and muscle excitation compared with non-BFR exercise. These findings suggest that although BFR may increase the hypertrophic stimulus during both modes of contraction, BFR during concentric contractions may result in a greater stimulus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000003372DOI Listing
October 2020

Changes in microvascular oxygenation and total hemoglobin concentration of the vastus lateralis during neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).

Physiother Theory Pract 2019 Aug 12:1-9. Epub 2019 Aug 12.

a Krannert School of Physical Therapy, University of Indianapolis , Indianapolis , IN , USA.

: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is predicated on eliciting muscle contractions and increasing muscle demand to promote increase in strength. Previous studies have shown differences in the magnitude of elicited force among various NMES waveforms but less is known about metabolic demand of muscle during NMES. : The purpose of this study was to compare elicited force and muscle metabolic demand during electrically elicited contractions using different NMES waveforms. : A single-session repeated measures design was used. Electrically elicited force (EEF), microvascular oxygenation (SmO2), total hemoglobin concentration ([THC]) of the vastus lateralis, and subject tolerance (VAS score) were measured using three NMES waveforms; burst modulated alternating current (Russian), biphasic pulsed current (VMS®), and burst modulated biphasic pulsed current (VMS-burst®). : A significant main effect for waveform was noted for EEF (F = 12.693, < .001), SmO2 (F = 8.340, = .001), and VAS (F = 4.213, = .025), but not [THC]. Compared to Russian current, VMS-burst and VMS resulted in significantly greater EEF ( = .001; = .009) and local metabolic demand (i.e. decreased SmO2) ( = .005; = .003), but not [THC]. VAS was significantly greater ( = .023) for VMS (4.2) compared to Russian (3.07) but not different between VMS-burst and Russian and VMS-burst and VMS. : Greater muscle force and local metabolic demand were observed with VMS-burst and VMS compared to Russian current. These data provide novel evidence to guide clinical decision making when selecting an NMES waveform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593985.2019.1652945DOI Listing
August 2019

The effect of eccentric exercise with blood flow restriction on neuromuscular activation, microvascular oxygenation, and the repeated bout effect.

Eur J Appl Physiol 2017 May 21;117(5):1005-1015. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Department of Exercise and Rehabilitative Sciences, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH, 43606, USA.

Purpose: To examine the effect of low-intensity eccentric contractions with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on microvascular oxygenation, neuromuscular activation, and the repeated bout effect (RBE).

Methods: Participants were randomly assigned to either low-intensity (LI), low-intensity with BFR (LI-BFR), or a control (CON) group. Participants in LI and LI-BFR performed a preconditioning bout of low-intensity eccentric exercise prior to about of maximal eccentric exercise. Participants reported 24, 48, 72, and 96 h later to assess muscle damage and function. Surface electromyography (sEMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) were used to measure neuromuscular activation and microvascular deoxygenation (deoxy-[Hb + Mb]) and [total hemoglobin] ([THC]) during the preconditioning bout, respectively.

Results: During set-2, LI-BFR resulted in greater activation of the VM-RMS (47.7 ± 11.5% MVIC) compared to LI (67.0 ± 20.0% MVIC), as well as during set-3 (p < 0.05). LI-BFR resulted in a greater change in deoxy-[Hb + Mb] compared to LI during set-2 (LI-BFR 13.1 ± 5.2 µM, LI 6.7 ± 7.9 µM), set-3 (LI-BFR 14.6 ± 6 µM, LI 6.9 ± 7.4 µM), and set-4 (p < 0.05). [THC] was higher during LI-BFR compared to LI (p < 0.05). All groups showed a decrease in MVIC torque immediately after maximal exercise (LI 74.2 ± 14.1%, LI-BFR 75 ± 5.1%, CON 53 ± 18.6%). At 24, 48, 72, and 96 h post maximal eccentric exercise, LI and LI-BFR force deficit was not different from baseline.

Conclusion: This study suggests that the neuromuscular and deoxygenation (i.e., metabolic stress) responses were considerably different between LI and LI-BFR groups; however, these differences did not lead to improvements in the RBE inferred by performing LI and LI-BFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00421-017-3589-xDOI Listing
May 2017

The acute effects of bodyweight suspension exercise on muscle activation and muscular fatigue.

Eur J Sport Sci 2017 Jul 13;17(6):681-689. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

a Department of Kinesiology , University of Toledo , Toledo , OH , USA.

This investigation examined effects of two exercise modes (barbell, BB; bodyweight suspension, BWS) on muscle activation, resistance load, and fatigue. During session one, nine resistance-trained males completed an elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1RM). During sessions two and three, subjects completed standing biceps curls to fatigue at 70% 1RM utilizing a randomized exercise mode. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recorded muscle activation of the biceps brachii, triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid, rectus abdominis, and erector spinae. BWS resistance load was measured using a force transducer. Standing maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the elbow flexors recorded at 90° were used to determine the isometric force decrement and rate of fatigue (ROF) during exercise. sEMG and resistance load data were divided into 25% contraction duration bins throughout the concentric phase. BWS resulted in a 67.7 ± 7.4% decline in resistance load throughout the concentric phase (p ≤ 0.05). As a result, BB elicited higher mean resistance loads (31.4 ± 4.0 kg) and biceps brachii sEMG (84.7 ± 27.8% maximal voluntary isometric contractions, MVIC) compared with BWS (20.4 ± 3.4 kg, 63.4 ± 21.6% MVIC). No difference in rectus abdominis or erector spinae sEMG was detected between exercise modes. Isometric force decrement was greater during BWS (-21.7 ± 7.0 kg) compared with BB (-14.9 ± 4.7 kg); however, BB (-3.0 ± 0.8 kg/set) resulted in a steeper decline in ROF compared with BWS (-1.7 ± 0.6 kg/set). The variable resistance loading and greater isometric force decrement observed suggest that select BWS exercises may resemble variable resistance exercise more than previously considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2017.1298670DOI Listing
July 2017

Influence of bench angle on upper extremity muscular activation during bench press exercise.

Eur J Sport Sci 2016 23;16(3):309-16. Epub 2015 Mar 23.

a Department of Kinesiology, Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Research Laboratory , University of Toledo , Toledo , OH , USA.

This study compared the muscular activation of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii during a free-weight barbell bench press performed at 0°, 30°, 45° and -15° bench angles. Fourteen healthy resistance trained males (age 21.4 ± 0.4 years) participated in this study. One set of six repetitions for each bench press conditions at 65% one repetition maximum were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was utilised to examine the muscular activation of the selected muscles during the eccentric and concentric phases. In addition, each phase was subdivided into 25% contraction durations, resulting in four separate time points for comparison between bench conditions. The sEMG of upper pectoralis displayed no difference during any of the bench conditions when examining the complete concentric contraction, however differences during 26-50% contraction duration were found for both the 30° [122.5 ± 10.1% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] and 45° (124 ± 9.1% MVIC) bench condition, resulting in greater sEMG compared to horizontal (98.2 ± 5.4% MVIC) and -15 (96.1 ± 5.5% MVIC). The sEMG of lower pectoralis was greater during -15° (100.4 ± 5.7% MVIC), 30° (86.6 ± 4.8% MVIC) and horizontal (100.1 ± 5.2% MVIC) bench conditions compared to the 45° (71.9 ± 4.5% MVIC) for the whole concentric contraction. The results of this study support the use of a horizontal bench to achieve muscular activation of both the upper and lower heads of the pectoralis. However, a bench incline angle of 30° or 45° resulted in greater muscular activation during certain time points, suggesting that it is important to consider how muscular activation is affected at various time points when selecting bench press exercises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2015.1022605DOI Listing
December 2016

Effects of blood flow restriction duration on muscle activation and microvascular oxygenation during low-volume isometric exercise.

Clin Physiol Funct Imaging 2016 Jul 7;36(4):298-305. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Department of Kinesiology, Cardiopulmonary & Metabolism Research Laboratory, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, USA.

The purpose of the investigation was to observe how varying occlusion durations affected neuromuscular activation and microvascular oxygenation during low-volume isometric knee extension exercise. Healthy, recreationally active males performed isometric knee extension at a variety of submaximal intensities under different blood flow restriction (BFR) occlusion durations. The occlusion pressure (130% SBP) was applied either 5 min prior to exercise (PO), immediately prior to exercise (IO) or not during exercise (CON). Surface electromyography (sEMG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to record the neuromuscular activation and microvascular oxygenation of the knee extensors during exercise. No difference in sEMG was observed in the vastus lateralis or vastus medialis during any exercise condition or any submaximal intensity. PO elicited greater microvascular deoxygenation (deoxy-[Hb + Mb]) compared to CON (P≤0·05) at all submaximal intensities and also compared to IO at 20% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). IO resulted in a greater deoxy-[Hb + Mb] response during low-intensity exercise (20% and 40% MVC) compared to CON (P≤0·05). These findings suggest that applying BFR 5 min before exercise can enhance the exercise-induced metabolic stress (i.e. deoxy-[Hb + Mb]), measured via NIRS, during low-intensity exercise (20% MVC) compared to applying BFR immediately prior to exercise. Furthermore, the increased metabolic stress observed during IO is attenuated during high-intensity (60% MVC, 80% MVC) exercise when compared to CON conditions. Knowledge of the changes in exercise-induced metabolic stress between the various occlusion durations may assist in developing efficient BFR exercise programmes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cpf.12228DOI Listing
July 2016